Kamboja Kingdom

Kamboja
Kam-Desa
c. 700 BCE–c. 200 BCE
Kambojas and other Mahajanapadas in the Post-Vedic period.
Kambojas and other Mahajanapadas in the Post-Vedic period.
CapitalRajapura (Eastern branch)
Kapisi (Western branch)
Common languagesVedic Sanskrit (Eastern Branch)
Eastern Iranian (Western Branch)
Religion
Historical Vedic religion (early)
Hinduism (late)
Zoroastrianism
GovernmentRepublic (early)
Monarchy (later)
Maharaja 
Historical eraIron Age
• Established
c. 700 BCE
• Disestablished
c. 200 BCE
Today part ofIndia
Pakistan
Afghanistan
Tajikistan[1][2]
Vedic period India, with the Kamboja on the northwest border
Kamboja Kingdom alongside other locations of kingdoms and republics mentioned in the Indian epics or Bharata Khanda.

Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was a kingdom of Iron Age India that spanned parts of South and Central Asia, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature. [3][4][5] Eponymous with the kingdom name, the Kambojas were an Indo-Iranian people of the Kshatriya caste inhabiting in the Kamboja Mahajanapada region, forming one of the sixteen nations that made up ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE during the second urbanisation period.[6][7][8]

Earlier, during the late Vedic age, the Kambojas had emerged as an important part of the Indo Aryan Vedic people with a prominent place among the Kshatriya tribes of the Mahabharata.[9][10]

While historical boundaries of the Kambojas are varied, scholarly accounts altogether place the northern and western borders in present-day Tajikistan[1][11][12][13][14][15] and eastern Uzbekistan,[16][17][18][19][15] with eastern borders in present-day Jammu and Kashmir, and southern borders in present-day Iran[20] and southern Afghanistan.[20]

Etymology[]

The name Kamboja may derive from Kam and bhoj, or Kamma and boja, referring to the people of a country known as "Kum" or "Kam". The mountainous highlands where the Jaxartes and its confluents arise are called the highlands of the Komedes by Ptolemy. Ammianus Marcellinus also names these mountains as Komedas.[21][22][23]

The Kiu-mi-to in the writings of Xuanzang have also been identified with the Komudha-dvipa of the Puranic literature and the Iranian Kambojas.[24][25]

Scholars, such as Ernst Herzfeld, have suggested etymological links between some Indo-Aryan ethnonyms and some geonyms used by Iranian-speaking peoples of the Caucasus Mountains and Caspian basin.

In particular, Kamboja somewhat resembles the hydronym Kambujiya – the Iranian name for the Iori/Gabirri river (modern Georgia/Azerbaijan). Kambujiya is also the root of Cambysene (an archaic name for the Kakheti/Balakan regions of Georgia and Azerbaijan) and the Persian personal name Cambyses. (A similar link is suggested between the Kura River, which is near the Iori, and the name of the Kurus and Kaurava mentioned in vedic literature.)[26]

Geography[]

The historical boundaries detailing the confederation of the Kambojas is varied. All scholarly and literary accounts encompass a large area at a crossroads between South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia.

Scholarly accounts[]

D. C. Sircar supposed the Kambojas to have lived in various settlements in the wide area lying between Punjab, Iran, to the south of Balkh.[20]

The territory of the Parama-Kamboja, meanwhile, are thought to be farther north in the Trans-Pamirian territories comprising the Zeravshan valley, towards the Farghana region, in the Scythia of the classical writers.[20][15][27][28][1]

Other scholars have also located the Kambojas and the Parama-Kambojas in the areas spanning Balkh, Badakshan, the Pamirs and Kafiristan.[29] Similarly, the mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes in present day Tajikistan is also suggested as one location of the ancient Kambojas by other scholars.[30][1]

Separate scholarly pieces by Gankovski (1971) and Rashid (2002) mention the confederation of the Kambojas may have stretched from the valley of Rajouri to the regions of Kabul, Ghazni and Kandahar. The central region is estimated to be in Paropamisadae, a region north-east of present-day Kabul, between the Hindu Kush and the Kunar River, and included the Kapisa.[31][32][33]

Some scholars place the capital of the Kamboja kingdom at Rajapura (modern Rajauri). The Kamboja Mahajanapada of Buddhist traditions refers to this branch.[34]

Literary accounts[]

The Mahabharata locates the Kambojas on the near side of the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Daradas, and the Parama-Kambojas across the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Rishikas (or Tukharas) of the Fergana region.[35][36][17]

History[]

The earliest reference to the Kambojas is in the works of Pāṇini, around the 5th century BCE. Other pre-Common Era references appear in the Manusmriti (2nd century) and parts of the Mahabharata, both of which described the Kambojas as former kshatriyas (warrior caste).[37] Their territories were located beyond Gandhara in present day eastern Afghanistan, where Buddha statues were built during the reign of Ashoka[38] and the 3rd century BCE. The Edicts of Ashoka refers to the area under Kamboja control as being independent of the Mauryan empire in which it was situated.[37]

The two Kamboja settlements on either side of the Hindu Kush are also substantiated from Ptolemy's Geography, which refers to the Tambyzoi located north of the Hindu Kush on the river Oxus in Bactria, and the Ambautai people on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae.[17][39][40] Scholars have identified the Ptolemian Tambyzoi and Ambautai as well as Komedes with Sanskrit Kamboja.[41][42]

Kautiliya's Arthashastra and Ashoka's Edict No. XIII attest that the Kambojas followed a republican constitution. Pāṇini's Sutras tend to convey that the Kamboja of Pāṇini was a "Kshatriya monarchy", but "the special rule and the exceptional form of derivative" he gives to denote the ruler of the Kambojas implies that the king of Kamboja was a titular head (king consul) only.[43] One king of Kamboja was King Srindra Varmana Kamboj.[44]

The Aśvakas[]

The Kambojas were famous in ancient times for their excellent breed of horses and as remarkable horsemen located in the Uttarapatha or north-west.[45] They were constituted into military sanghas and corporations to manage their political and military affairs.[46] The Kamboja cavalry offered their military services to other nations as well. There are numerous references to Kamboja having been requisitioned as cavalry troopers in ancient wars by outside nations.[47][48]

It was on account of their supreme position in horse (Ashva) culture that the ancient Kambojas were also popularly known as Ashvakas, i.e. horsemen. Their clans in the Kunar and Swat valleys have been referred to as Assakenoi and Aspasioi in classical writings, and Ashvakayanas and Ashvayanas in Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi.

The Kambojas were famous for their horses and as cavalry-men (aśva-yuddha-Kuśalah), Aśvakas, 'horsemen', was the term popularly applied to them... The Aśvakas inhabited Eastern Afghanistan, and were included within the more general term Kambojas.

— K.P.Jayswal[46]

Elsewhere Kamboja is regularly mentioned as "the country of horses" (Asvanam ayatanam), and it was perhaps this well-established reputation that won for the horsebreeders of Bajaur and Swat the designation Aspasioi (from the Old Pali aspa) and assakenoi (from the Sanskrit asva "horse").

Conflict with Alexander[]

The Kambojas entered into conflict with Alexander the Great as he invaded Central Asia. The Macedonian conqueror made short shrift of the arrangements of Darius and after over-running the Achaemenid Empire he dashed into today's eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. There he encountered resistance from the Kamboja Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes.[50][51]

The Ashvayans (Aspasioi) were also good cattle breeders and agriculturists. This is clear from the large number of bullocks that Alexander captured from them – 230,000 according to Arrian[52] – some of which were of a size and shape superior to what the Macedonians had known, and which Alexander decided to send to Macedonia for agriculture.[53][54]

Mauryan period[]

The Kambojas find prominent mention as a unit in the 3rd-century BCE Edicts of Ashoka. Rock Edict XIII tells us that the Kambojas had enjoyed autonomy under the Mauryas.[55][56] The republics mentioned in Rock Edict V are the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Nabhakas and the Nabhapamkitas. They are designated as araja. vishaya in Rock Edict XIII, which means that they were kingless, i.e. republican polities. In other words, the Kambojas formed a self-governing political unit under the Maurya emperors.[57][58]

Ashoka sent missionaries to the Kambojas to convert them to Buddhism, and recorded this fact in his Rock Edict V.[59][60]

Migrations[]

During the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, clans of the Kambojas from Central Asia in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas and the Yavanas entered present-day India, spreading into Sindhu, Saurashtra, Malwa, Rajasthan, Punjab and Surasena, and set up independent principalities in western and south-western India. Later, a branch of the same people took Gauda and Varendra territories from the Palas and established the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal in Eastern India.[61][62][63]

There are references to the hordes of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, and Pahlavas in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana. In these verses one may see glimpses of the struggles of the Hindus with the invading hordes from the north-west.[55][64][65] The royal family of the Kamuias mentioned in the Mathura Lion Capital are believed to be linked to the royal house of Taxila in Gandhara.[66] In the medieval era, the Kambojas are known to have seized north-west Bengal (Gauda and Radha) from the Palas of Bengal and established their own Kamboja-Pala Dynasty. Indian texts like Markandeya Purana, Vishnu Dharmottari Agni Purana,[67]

Eastern Kambojas[]

A branch of Kambojas seems to have migrated eastwards towards Nepal and Tibet in the wake of Kushana (1st century) or else Huna (5th century) pressure and hence their notice in the chronicles of Tibet ("Kam-po-tsa, Kam-po-ce, Kam-po-ji") and Nepal (Kambojadesa).[68][69] The 5th-century Brahma Purana mentions the Kambojas around Pragjyotisha and Tamralipta.[70][71][72][73][volume needed]

The Kambojas of ancient India are known to have been living in north-west, but in this period (9th century AD), they are known to have been living in the north-east India also, and very probably, it was meant Tibet.[74]

The last Kambojas ruler of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty Dharmapala was defeated by the south Indian Emperor Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.[75][76]

Ethnicity and language[]

The ancient Kambojas were likely of Indo-Iranian origin.[77] They are sometimes specifically described as Indo-Aryans[15][78][55] and sometimes as having both Indian and Iranian affinities.[79][80][81] The Kambojas are also described as a royal clan of the Sakas.[82]

Rulers[]

Known Kamboja rulers are:

Kambojas' reference in the Manusmriti[]

The Manusmriti recognises the Kambojas as a Kashatriya tribe, but includes them in the list of other warrior tribes, generally located on the outlying regions of the Madhyadesa from northwest, north, north east and south, who in consequence of their ommitting to perform the sacred ceremonies and by not serving Brahmins, are describes to have gradually become Vrishalas.[83] Vrishala in the times of composition of Manusmriti denoted someone outside the influence of orthodox Brahmins who did not observe Brahminical rituals or requisition the services of Brahmins.[84][85]

In the Arthashastra the term Vrishala is used for some non-vedic heretics such as Sakya and Ajivikas.[86].The Manusmriti in its present form is dated between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[87] the times when Kambojas, after having come under the Indo-Iranian political and cultural sway that dominated the then northwest India, had gradually drifted away from the influence of Brahmanical orthodoxy, which was by then centered around the Ganga basin.

The Manusmriti predominantly discusses the code of conduct (dharma rules) for the Brahmins (priestly class) and the Kshatriyas (king, administration and warrior class).The text mentions Shudras, as well as Vaishyas, but this part is its shortest section. Sections 9.326 – 9.335 of the Manusmriti state eight rules for Vaishyas and two for Shudras.

In section 10.43 - 10.44 Manu gives a list of Kshatriya tribes, who in consequence of omissions in performance of sacred rites and failure to see Brahmins, have gradually become Vrishalas. These tribes are: Pundrakas, Odras, Dravidas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Chinas, Kiratas and Daradas.

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ a b c d Dr Buddha Prakash maintains that, based on the evidence of Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, Raghu defeated the Hunas on river Vamkshu (Raghu vamsha 4.68), and then he marched against the Kambojas (4.69-70). These Kambojas were of Iranian affinities who lived in Pamirs and Badakshan. Xuanzang calls this region Kiumito which is thought to be Komdei of Ptolemy and Kumadh or Kumedh of Muslim writers (See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; India and Central Asia, 1955, p 35, P. C. Bagch).
  2. ^ Numerous scholars have located the Kamboja realm on the southern side of the Hindu Kush ranges in the Kabul, Swat, and Kunar Valleys, and the Parama-Kambojas in the territories on the north side of the Hindu Kush in modern-day Pamir and Badakhshan region in Tajikistan. See: Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 11-13, Moti Chandra - India; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165/66, M. R. Singh
  3. ^ Vedic Index I, p. 138, Macdonnel, Dr Keith.
  4. ^ Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p. 107, Dr Ram Chandra Jain.
  5. ^ The Journal of Asian Studies; 1956, p. 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.).
  6. ^ Vikas Nain, "Second Urbanization in the Chronology of Indian History", International Journal of Academic Research and Development 3 (2) (March 2018), pp. 538–542 esp. 539.
  7. ^ Anguttara Nikaya: Vol I, p 213, Vol IV, pp 252, 256, 260 etc.
  8. ^ West, Barbara A. (19 May 2010). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7.
  9. ^ Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India, B C Law, 124, P. 230-31 "... in a list of ancient Vedic teachers given in the Vamsa Brahmana of the Samveda..we find one of the teachers in the line to be Kamboja Aupamanyava, that is, Kamboja, the son of Upamanyu....the fact stands out without any possible doubt that a sage from among the Kamboja people, had found a place in the list of the great ancient teachers by whom the Vedic lore was kept up and handed on, and there is no room for any hesitation in saying that the Kambojas in Vedic times formed an important section of the Vedic Indian people."
  10. ^ ibid. P. 241 "Among the ksatriya tribes in the great Epic the Kambojas occupy a prominent place...They were the allies of Duryodhana and by their bravery, and especially the prowess of their king, Sudaksina, they rendered great service to the Kuru side in the long drawn battle at Kuruksetra. Sudaksina was one of the few Maharathas or great heroes on the field..."
  11. ^ Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIII, 1937, No 3, p. 400; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 37, (India) Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asia; cf: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 176, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana; Mahabharata Myth and Reality, 1976, p 232, Swarajya Prakash Gupta, K. S. Ramachandran. Cf also: India and Central Asia, p 25 etc, P. C. Bagchi.
  12. ^ Numerous scholars have located the Kamboja realm on the southern side of the Hindu Kush ranges in the Kabul, Swat, and Kunar Valleys, and the Parama-Kambojas in the territories on the north side of the Hindu Kush in modern-day Pamir and Badakhshan region in Tajikistan. See: Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 11-13, Moti Chandra - India; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165/66, M. R. Singh
  13. ^ See: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, J. C. Vidyalankara
  14. ^ The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
  15. ^ a b c d Mishra 1987
  16. ^ Purana, Vol VI, No 1, January 1964, p 207 sqq; Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury - Inscriptions, Prakrit).
  17. ^ a b c Sethna, K. D. (2000) Problems of Ancient India, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-7742-026-7
  18. ^ See: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, J. C. Vidyalankara
  19. ^ The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
  20. ^ a b c d Sircar, D. C. (1971). Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. p. 100. ISBN 9788120806900.
  21. ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 403; Central Asiatic provinces of the Maurya Empire, p403, H.C. Seth
  22. ^ History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 152, Shashi Asthana; Mahabharata Myth and Reality, 1976, p 232, Swarajya Prakash Gupta, K. S. Ramachandran.
  23. ^ "The Town of Darwaz in Badakshan is still called Khum (Kum) or Kala-i-Khum. It stands for the valley of Basht. The name Khum or Kum conceals the relics of ancient Kamboja" (Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Buddha Prakash [Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal]).
  24. ^ India and the World, p 71, Buddha Prakash; also see: Central Asiatic Provinces of Maurya Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth; India and Central Asia, p 25, P. C. Bagchi
  25. ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal.
  26. ^ Histoire Auguste: Pt. 2. Vies des deux Valérines et des deux Galliens, 2000, p 90, Ammn Marcellin, Jean Pierre Callu, O. Desbordes (Les hydronymes de Transcaucasie, en question ici, auraient pu, dès lors, aussi dériver aussi de ces ethniques, lors de l'extension des tribus iraniennes vers le Nord de la Médie, et non pas de ces souverains achéménides — dont la présente légende répond mieux à l'ingéniosité «heurématique» des Grecs)
  27. ^ See: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, J. C. Vidyalankara
  28. ^ The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
  29. ^ Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, pp 93-96, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
  30. ^ Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIII, 1937, No 3, p. 400; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 37, (India) Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asia; cf: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 176, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana; Mahabharata Myth and Reality, 1976, p 232, Swarajya Prakash Gupta, K. S. Ramachandran. Cf also: India and Central Asia, p 25 etc, P. C. Bagchi.
  31. ^ The Peoples of Pakistan: An Ethnic History, 1971, pp 64-67, Yuri Vladimirovich Gankovski - Ethnology.
  32. ^ History of the Pathans, 2002, p 11, Haroon Rashid - Pushtuns.
  33. ^ Michael Witzel Persica-9, p 92, fn 81.
  34. ^ See: Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 5-6; cf: Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, p 168.
  35. ^ Numerous scholars have located the Kamboja realm on the southern side of the Hindu Kush ranges in the Kabul, Swat, and Kunar Valleys, and the Parama-Kambojas in the territories on the north side of the Hindu Kush in modern-day Pamir and Badakhshan region in Tajikistan. See: Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 11-13, Moti Chandra - India; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165/66, M. R. Singh
  36. ^ Purana, Vol VI, No 1, January 1964, p 207 sqq; Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury - Inscriptions, Prakrit).
  37. ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Barbara A. West, Infobase Publishing (2009), ISBN 9781438119137 p. 359
  38. ^ Encyclopaedia Indica, "The Kambojas: Land and its Identification", First Edition, 1998 New Delhi, page 528
  39. ^ Talbert 2000, p. 99
  40. ^ For Tambyzoi=Kamboja, see refs: Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Sylvain Lévi, Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye
  41. ^ For Ambautai=Kamboja, see Witzel 1999a
  42. ^ Patton and Bryant 2005, p. 257
  43. ^ Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, Parts I and II., 1955, p 52, Dr Kashi Prasad Jayaswal - Constitutional history; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja - Kamboja (Pakistan).
  44. ^ Studies in Skanda Purana, 1978, p 59, A. B. L. Awasthi.
  45. ^ The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103
  46. ^ a b Hindu Polity, 1978, pp 121, 140, K. P. Jayswal.
  47. ^ War in Ancient India, 1944, p 178, V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar - Military art and science.
  48. ^ The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; The Achaemenids in India, 1950, p 47, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya; Poona Orientalist: A Quarterly Journal Devoted to Oriental Studies, 1945, P i, (edi) Har Dutt Sharma; The Poona Orientalist, 1936, p 13, Sanskrit philology
  49. ^ "Par ailleurs le Kamboja est régulièrement mentionné comme la "patrie des chevaux" (Asvanam ayatanam), et cette reputation bien etablie gagné peut-etre aux eleveurs de chevaux du Bajaur et du Swat l'appellation d'Aspasioi (du v.-p. aspa) et d'assakenoi (du skt asva "cheval")". E. Lamotte, Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p. 110. (WP translation. Quotation should be taken from the published English translation: Lamotte 1988, p. 100)
  50. ^ Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10; also see: History of Porus, pp 12, 38, Buddha Parkash
  51. ^ Proceedings, 1965, p 39, by Punjabi University. Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies - History.
  52. ^ De Sélincourt, A., & Hamilton, J. (1971, 2003). Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Book IV, pp. 244
  53. ^ History of Punjab, 1997, Editors: Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi
  54. ^ Acharya 2001, p 91
  55. ^ a b c "Political History of Ancient India", H. C. Raychaudhuri, B. N. Mukerjee, University of Calcutta, 1996.
  56. ^ H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; Asoka and His Inscriptions, 3d Ed, 1968, p 149, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
  57. ^ Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc
  58. ^ Bimbisāra to Aśoka: With an Appendix on the Later Mauryas, 1977, p 123, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya.
  59. ^ The North-west India of the Second Century B.C., 1974, p 40, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan - India; Tribes in Ancient India, 1973, p 7
  60. ^ Yar-Shater 1983, p. 951
  61. ^ Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, M. R. Singh - India.
  62. ^ History of Ceylon, 1959, p 91, Ceylon University, University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, Hem Chandra Ray, K. M. De Silva.
  63. ^ Pande (R.) 1984, p. 93
  64. ^ Shrava 1981, p. 12
  65. ^ Rishi, 1982, p. 100
  66. ^ See: Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, p xxxvi; see also p 36, Sten Konow; Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute; Cf: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 142, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - Middle East.
  67. ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 127
  68. ^ Shastri and Choudhury 1982, p. 112
  69. ^ B. C. Sen, Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p. 342, fn 1
  70. ^ M. R. Singh, A Critical Study of the Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, p. 168
  71. ^ Ganguly 1994, p. 72, fn 168
  72. ^ H. C. Ray, The Dynastic History of Northern India, I, p. 309
  73. ^ A. D. Pusalkar, R. C. Majumdar et al., History and Culture of Indian People, Imperial Kanauj, p. 323,
  74. ^ R. R. Diwarkar (ed.), Bihar Through the Ages, 1958, p. 312
  75. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.281
  76. ^ The Cambridge Shorter History of India p.145
  77. ^ Dwivedi 1977: 287 "The Kambojas were probably the descendants of the Indo-Iranians popularly known later on as the Sassanians and Parthians who occupied parts of north-western India in the first and second centuries of the Christian era."
  78. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe. The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1962, p 264,
  79. ^ See: Vedic Index of names & subjects by Arthur Anthony Macdonnel, Arthur. B Keath, I.84, p 138.
  80. ^ See more Refs: Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain; The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.)
  81. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311
  82. ^ Walker and Tapp 2001
  83. ^ Census of India, 1901 - Volume 16, Part 1 - Page 215 "In the Institutes of Manu...after describing the three principal castes of Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya, Manu calls certain other castes as Vratyas, which are described as descendends of the individals of the three principal castes who have omitted to perform the prescribd ceremonies. Other castes described as Vrisalas are said to be Kshatriyas who reached that condition by omitting the sacred ceremoies and by not serving Brahmins.
  84. ^ D. R. Bhandarkar,, F.R.A.S.B.," (X.43) Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture. Sir William Meyer Lectures^ 1938-39 University of Madras 1940, Printed at the GS Press, Mount Road, Madras. P. 51-52. " ...Vrishala who were known upto the time of Manu who speaks of them as follows:
    śanakaistu kriyālopādimāḥ kṣatriyajātayaḥ | vṛṣalatvaṃ gatā loke brāhmaṇādarśanena ca || 43 ||
    "But in consequence of swerving from sacred rites and failure to see Brahmins, these Kshatriya tribes have gradually become Vrishalas".
    "What we understand from this verse is that Vrishalas are those who do not observe Brahiminical Ceremonies or do not requisition the service of Brahmins. In other words they are the people who are utterly uninfluenced by Brahminism..."
  85. ^ Readings in Early Indian Socio-Cultural History By A K Sinha,2000, ISBN 81-865-6666-81-7, Anamika Publishers & Dist., New Delhi 110 002. 97
    "Although vedic orthodoxy was first opposed under the influence of Jnanmarga of the Upnisads, yet it was not taken so seriously since Upnasidic way of thinking was nothing but a philosophical culmination of Vedic thought and Upnisads were considered as the last part of the Vedas. But when the criticism arose from the non vedic castes,it took a serious turn which sowed a seed of utmost bitterness between the folowers of vedic and non vedic schools. There are ample references which reveal that attempts have been made to re-establish vedic orthodoxy.Compositions of the Bhagwadgita, Shantiparva of the Mahabharata and the Manusmriti are outcomes of such attempts which, rejecting the totally negative approach advocated by the nivittimargins, have tried to maintain a balance the positive and negative approaches through Niskama or Asanga Karma. In the Shantiparva and the Manusmriti, the term Vrishala, therefore is used for those who do not follow their prescribed duties according to the Varnaashram Dharma."
  86. ^ A K Sinha ibid. P. 96.
  87. ^ For composition between 200 BCE and 200 CE see: Avari, p. 142. For dating of composition "between the second century BCE and third century CE" see: Flood (1996), p. 56. For dating of the Manu Smriti in "final form" to the 2nd century CE, see: Keay, p. 103. For dating as completed some time between 200 BCE and 100 CE see: Hopkins, p. 74. For probable origination during the 2nd or 3rd centuries AD, see: Kulke and Rothermund, p. 85. For the text as preserved dated to around the 1st century BCE. see: "Manu-smriti". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 October 2013.

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