Köppen climate classification

An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map[1]

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884,[2][3] with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936.[4][5] Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.[6][7]

The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, and D, and the second letter for climates in E. For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type.[8]

As Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, his main climate groups are based on what types of vegetation grow in a given climate classification region. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a given region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within that region.[1]

The Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad).[9]:200–1


Köppen climate classification scheme symbols description table[1][8][10]
1st 2nd 3rd
A (Tropical) f (Rainforest)
m (Monsoon)
w (Savanna, Wet)
s (Savanna, Dry)
B (Arid) W (Desert)
S (Steppe)
h (Hot)
k (Cold)
C (Temperate) s (Dry summer)
w (Dry winter)
f (Without dry season)
a (Hot summer)
b (Warm summer)
c (Cold summer)
D (Continental) s (Dry summer)
w (Dry winter)
f (Without dry season)
a (Hot summer)
b (Warm summer)
c (Cold summer)
d (Very cold winter)
E (Polar) T (Tundra)
F (Eternal winter (ice cap))

The Köppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main climate groups: A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar).[11] The second letter indicates the seasonal precipitation type, while the third letter indicates the level of heat.[12] Summers are defined as the 6-month period that is warmer either from April–September and/or October–March while winter is the 6-month period that is cooler.[1][10]

Group A: Tropical (megathermal) climates

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher, with significant precipitation.[1][10]

Group B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates

This type of climate is defined by little precipitation.

Multiply the average annual temperature in Celsius by 20, then add

(a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the spring and summer months (April–September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October–March in the Southern), or
(b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer, or
(c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer.

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate).[1][10]

A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C (64.4 °F)) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), with k denoting that at least one month's averages below 0 °C (or −3 °C (27 °F)). The n is used to denote a climate characterized by frequent fog.[13][14][15]

Group C: Temperate (mesothermal) climates

This type of climate has the coldest month averaging between 0 °C (32 °F)[10] (or −3 °C (27 °F))[8] and 18 °C (64.4 °F) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).[10][8]

Group D: Continental (microthermal) climates

This type of climate has at least one month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).[10][8]

Group E: Polar and alpine (montane) climates

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature below 10 °C (50 °F).[1][10]

Group A: Tropical/megathermal climates[]

Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperatures (at sea level and low elevations); all 12 months of the year have average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher. They are subdivided as follows:

Af: Tropical rainforest climate[]

All 12 months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). These climates usually occur within 10° latitude of the equator. This climate has no natural seasons in terms of thermal and moisture changes.[9] When it is dominated most of the year by the doldrums low-pressure system due to the presence of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and when they are no cyclones then the climate is qualified as equatorial. When the trade winds are dominant most of the year, the climate is a tropical trade-wind rainforest climate.[16]


Some of the places with this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Costa Rica; see, for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases, the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia). Among these places some have a pure equatorial climate (Balikpapan, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Lae, Medan, Paramaribo, Pontianak and Singapore) with the dominant ITCZ aerological mechanism and no cyclones or a subequatorial climate with occasional cyclones (Davao, Ratnapura, Victoria).

(Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in daylight hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. Annual cyclic changes occur in the tropics, but not as predictably as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature, but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, etc.), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, etc.) are tuned to this 'seasonality'. Indeed, in tropical South America and Central America, the 'rainy season' (and the 'high water season') is called invierno or inverno, though it could occur in the Northern Hemisphere summer; likewise, the 'dry season' (and 'low water season') is called verano or verão, and can occur in the Northern Hemisphere winter).

Am: Tropical monsoon climate[]

This type of climate results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than ​125 the total annual precipitation.[9]:208


Aw/As: Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate[]

Aw climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and less than ​125 of the total annual precipitation.[9]:208–11


Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone from the low teens to the mid-20s latitudes, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Actually, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá on the ColombiaPanamá border to the Orinoco River delta, on the Atlantic Ocean (about 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive <300 mm total annual precipitation, practically all in two or three months).

This condition extends to the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles forming the circum-Caribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland (southward); at the latitude of the Amazon River—which flows eastward, just south of the equatorial line—the climate is Af. East from the Andes, between the dry, arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon are the Orinoco River's llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name.

Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days (during summer).[8][18] This is the case in parts of Hawaii, northwestern Dominican Republic, East Africa, and the Brazilian Northeastern Coast. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of rain shadow effects during the 'high-sun' part of the year.


Group B: Dry (desert and semi-arid) climates[]

These climates are characterized by actual precipitation less than a threshold value set equal to the potential evapotranspiration.[9]:212 The threshold value (in millimeters) is determined as:

Multiply the average annual temperature in °C by 20, then add (a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year (April through September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October through March in the Southern), or (b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or (c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.

According to the modified Köppen classification system used by modern climatologists, total precipitation in the warmest six months of the year is taken as reference instead of the total precipitation in the high-sun half of the year.[19]

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate).

A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), with k denoting that at least one month averages below 0 °C.

Desert areas situated along the west coasts of continents at tropical or near-tropical locations characterized by frequent fog and low clouds, despite the fact that these places rank among the driest on earth in terms of actual precipitation received are labelled BWn with the n denoting a climate characterized by frequent fog.[13][14][15] The BSn category can be found in foggy coastal steppes.[20]

BW: Arid desert climate[]

BS: Semi-arid (steppe) desert climate[]

Group C: Temperate/mesothermal climates[]

In the Koppen climate system, temperate climates are defined as having an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (26.6 °F), as noted previously) in their coldest month but below 18 °C (64.4 °F). The average temperature of −3 °C (26.6 °F) roughly coincides with the equatorward limit of frozen ground and snowcover lasting for a month or more.

The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern—w indicates dry winters (driest winter month average precipitation less than one-tenth wettest summer month average precipitation. s indicates at least three times as much rain in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer. f means significant precipitation in all seasons (neither above-mentioned set of conditions fulfilled).[1]

The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat—a indicates warmest month average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F) while b indicates warmest month averaging below 22 °C but with at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50.0 °F), and c indicates less than four months averaging above 10 °C (50.0 °F).[1][10][8]

Csa: Merranean hot summer climates[]

These climates usually occur on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 30° and 45°.[21] These climates are in the polar front region in winter, and thus have moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather. Summers are hot and dry, due to the domination of the subtropical high pressure systems, except in the immediate coastal areas, where summers are milder due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents that may bring fog but prevent rain.[9]:221–3


Csb: Merranean warm/cool summer climates[]

Dry-summer climates sometimes extend to additional areas (sometimes well north or south of) typical Merranean climates, however since their warmest month average temperatures do not reach 22 °C (71.6 °F) they are classified as Csb.[1] Some of these areas would border the Oceanic climate (Cfb), except their dry-summer patterns meet Köppen's Cs minimum thresholds.


Csc: Merranean cold summer climates[]

Cold summer Merranean climates (Csc) exist in high-elevation areas adjacent to coastal Csb climate areas, where the strong maritime influence prevents the average winter monthly temperature from dropping below 0 °C. This climate is rare and is predominantly found in climate fringes and isolated areas of the Cascades and Andes Mountains, as the dry-summer climate extends further poleward in the Americas than elsewhere.[9] Rare instances of this climate can be found in some coastal locations in the North Atlantic and at high altitudes in Hawaii.


Cfa: Humid subtropical climates[]

These climates usually occur on the eastern coasts and eastern sides of continents, usually in the high 20s and 30s latitudes. Unlike the dry summer Merranean climates, humid subtropical climates have a warm and wet flow from the tropics that creates warm and moist conditions in the summer months. As such, summer (not winter as is the case in Merranean climates) is often the wettest season.

The flow out of the subtropical highs and the summer monsoon creates a southerly flow from the tropics that brings warm and moist air to the lower east sides of continents. This flow is often what brings the frequent but short-lived summer thundershowers so typical of the more southerly subtropical climates like the far southern United States, southern China and Japan.[9]:223–6


Cfb: Oceanic climate[]

Cfb climates usually occur in the higher middle latitudes on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 40° and 60°; they are typically situated immediately poleward of the Merranean climates, although in Australia and extreme southern Africa this climate is found immediately poleward of temperate climates, and at a somewhat lower latitude. In western Europe, this climate occurs in coastal areas up to 63°N in Norway.

These climates are dominated all year round by the polar front, leading to changeable, often overcast weather. Summers are mild due to cool ocean currents, although hotter, stable weather patterns can set in for periods of time, typically longer at the lower latitude range in the northern hemisphere. Winters are milder than other climates in similar latitudes, but usually very cloudy however not always wet. Cfb climates are also encountered at high elevations in certain subtropical and tropical areas, where the climate would be that of a subtropical/tropical rain forest if not for the altitude. These climates are called "highlands".[9]:226–9


Cfb(2): Subtropical Highland climates with uniform rainfall[]

Subtropical Highland climates with uniform rainfall (Cfb) are a type of oceanic climate mainly found in highlands of Australia, such as in or around the Great Dividing Range in the states of New South Wales and Victoria, and also sparsely in other continents, such as in South America, among others. Unlike a typical Cwb climate, they tend to have rainfall spread evenly throughout the year. They have characteristics of both the Cfb and Cfa climates, but unlike these climates, they have a high diurnal temperature variation and low humidity, owing to their inland location and relatively high elevation.


Cfc: Subpolar oceanic climate[]

Subpolar oceanic climates (Cfc) occur poleward of or at higher elevations than the maritime temperate climates, and are mostly confined either to narrow coastal strips on the western poleward margins of the continents, or, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, to islands off such coasts. They occur in both hemispheres, most often at latitudes from 60° north and south to 70° north and south.[9]


Cwa: Dry-Winter Humid Subtropical[]

Cwa is monsoonal influenced, having the classic dry winter/wet summer pattern associated with tropical monsoonal climates.


Cwb: Dry winter Oceanic climate[]

Dry-winter subtropical highland climate (Cwb) is a type of climate mainly found in highlands inside the tropics of Central America, South America, Africa and Asia or areas in the subtropics. Winters are noticeable and dry, and summers can be very rainy. In the tropics, the rainy season is provoked by the tropical air masses and the dry winters by subtropical high pressure.


Cwc: Dry-winter Subpolar Oceanic climate[]

Found located mainly above Cwb climates, it is found mainly in isolated locations mostly in the Andes in Bolivia, Peru and Argentina, as well as in sparse mountain locations in South-East Asia. It is not common.

Group D: Continental/microthermal climates[]

The snowy city of Sapporo

These climates have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months, and a coldest month average below 0 °C (or −3 °C (27 °F), as noted previously). These usually occur in the interiors of continents and on their upper east coasts, normally north of 40°N. In the Southern Hemisphere, group D climates are extremely rare due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes and the almost complete absence of land at 40–60°S, existing only in some highland locations.

Dfa/Dwa/Dsa: Hot summer continental climates[]

Dfa climates usually occur in the high 30s and low 40s latitudes, with a qualifying average temperature in the warmest month of greater than 22 °C/72 °F. In Europe, these climates tend to be much drier than in North America. Dsa exists at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Merranean (Csa) climates.[9]:231–2


In eastern Asia, Dwa climates extend further south due to the influence of the Siberian high pressure system, which also causes winters there to be dry, and summers can be very wet because of monsoon circulation.


Dsa exists only at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Merranean (Csa) climates.


Dfb/Dwb/Dsb: Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climates[]

Dfb climates are immediately poleward of hot summer continental climates, generally in the high 40s and low 50s latitudes in North America and Asia, and also extending to higher latitudes in central and eastern Europe and Russia, between the maritime temperate and continental subarctic climates, where it extends up to 65 degrees latitude in places.[9]

Dfb examples

Dwb examples

Dsb arises from the same scenario as Dsa, but at even higher altitudes or latitudes, and chiefly in North America, since the Merranean climates extend further poleward than in Eurasia.


Dfc/Dsc/Dwc: Subarctic or boreal climates[]

Dfc, Dsc and Dwc climates occur poleward of the other group D climates, or at higher altitudes, generally between the 55° to 65° North latitudes, occasionally reaching up to the 70°N latitude.[9]:232–5


Dfd/Dsd/Dwd: Subarctic or boreal climates with severe winters[]

Places with this climate have severe winters, with the temperature in their coldest month lower than −38 °C. These climates occur only in eastern Siberia. The names of some of the places with this climate have become veritable synonyms for extreme, severe winter cold.


Group E: Polar climates[]

In the Köppen climate system, polar climates are defined as the warmest temperature of any month is below 10 °C (50 °F). Polar climates are further divided into two types, tundra climates and icecap climates:

ET: Tundra climate[]

Tundra climate (ET): Warmest month has an average temperature between 0 and 10 °C. These climates occur on the northern edges of the North American and Eurasian land masses (generally north of 70 °N although it may be found farther south depending on local conditions), and on nearby islands. ET climates are also found on some islands near the Antarctic Convergence, and at high elevations outside the polar regions, above the tree line.


These ET climates are a colder and more continental variants of tundra. They would have characteristics of the ice cap climate, but still manage to see monthly average temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F):


EF: Ice cap climate[]

Ice cap climate (EF): This climate is dominant in Antarctica and inner Greenland, but also occurs at extremely high altitudes on mountains, above even tundra. Monthly average temperatures never exceed 0 °C (32 °F).


Ecological significance[]

The Köppen climate classification is based on the empirical relationship between climate and vegetation. This classification provides an efficient way to describe climatic conditions defined by temperature and precipitation and their seasonality with a single metric. Because climatic conditions identified by the Köppen classification are ecologically relevant, it has been widely used to map geographic distribution of long term climate and associated ecosystem conditions.[22]

Over the recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using the classification to identify changes in climate and potential changes in vegetation over time.[12] The most important ecological significance of the Köppen climate classification is that it helps to predict the dominant vegetation type based on the climatic data and vice versa.[23]

In 2015, a Nanjing University paper published in Nature analyzing climate classifications found that between 1950 and 2010, approximately 5.7% of all land area worldwide had moved from wetter and colder classifications to drier and hotter classifications. The authors also found that the change "cannot be explained as natural variations but are driven by anthropogenic factors."[24]

Trewartha climate classification scheme[]

The Trewartha climate classification is a climate classification system published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966, and updated in 1980. It is a modified version of the 1899 Köppen system, created to answer some of the deficiencies of the Köppen system. The Trewartha system attempts to redefine the middle latitudes to be closer to vegetation zoning and genetic climate systems. It was considered a more true or "real world" reflection of the global climate.

For example, under the standard Köppen system, in the United States, western Washington and Oregon are classed into the same climate zone as southern California, even though the two regions have strikingly different weather and vegetation. Under the old Köppen system cool oceanic climates like that of London or Seattle were classed in the same zone as hot subtropical cities like Savannah, Georgia or Brisbane, Australia. In the United States, locations like Colorado and Kansas, which have long, severe winter climates where plants are completely dormant, were classed into the same climate zone as Louisiana or northern Florida which have mild winters and a green winter landscape.

Other Köppen climate maps[]

All maps use the ≥0 °C definition for temperate climates and the 18 °C annual mean temperature threshold to distinguish between hot and cold dry climates.[1]

See also[]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  2. ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1884). Translated by Volken, E.; Brönnimann, S. "Die Wärmezonen der Erde, nach der Dauer der heissen, gemässigten und kalten Zeit und nach der Wirkung der Wärme auf die organische Welt betrachtet" [The thermal zones of the earth according to the duration of hot, moderate and cold periods and to the impact of heat on the organic world)]. Meteorologische Zeitschrift (published 2011). 20 (3): 351–360. Bibcode:2011MetZe..20..351K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2011/105 – via http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/mz/2011/00000020/00000003/art00009.
  3. ^ Rubel, F.; Kottek, M (2011). "Comments on: 'The thermal zones of the Earth' by Wladimir Köppen (1884)". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 20 (3): 361–365. Bibcode:2011MetZe..20..361R. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2011/0258.
  4. ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1918). "Klassification der Klimate nach Temperatur, Niederschlag and Jahreslauf". Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen. 64. pp. 193–203, 243–248 – via http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/koeppen.htm.
  5. ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1936). "C". In Köppen, Wladimir; Geiger (publisher), Rudolf (eds.). Das geographische System der Klimate [The geographic system of climates] (PDF). Handbuch der Klimatologie. 1. Berlin: Borntraeger.
  6. ^ Geiger, Rudolf (1954). "Klassifikation der Klimate nach W. Köppen" [Classification of climates after W. Köppen]. Landolt-Börnstein – Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, alte Serie. Berlin: Springer. 3. pp. 603–607.
  7. ^ Geiger, Rudolf (1961). Überarbeitete Neuausgabe von Geiger, R.: Köppen-Geiger / Klima der Erde. (Wandkarte 1:16 Mill.) – Klett-Perthes, Gotha.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rubel, Franz (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
  11. ^ "Koppen climate classification | climatology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  12. ^ a b Chen, Hans; Chen, Deliang. "Köppen climate classification". hanschen.org. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  13. ^ a b Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; osses, P.; Farias, M.; Egaña, I. (2008). "The climate of the coast and fog zone in the Tarapacá Region, Atacama Desert, Chile". Atmospheric Research. 87 (3–4): 301–311. Bibcode:2008AtmRe..87..301C. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.11.011. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  14. ^ a b "CLASIFICACIÓN CLIMÁTICA DE KÖPPEN" (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  15. ^ a b Inzunza, Juan. "Capitulo 15. Climas de Chile" (PDF). Meteorología Descriptiva y Aplicaciones en Chile (in Spanish). p. 427. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  16. ^ "Climatologie" by Pierre Estienne and Alain Godard, Éditions Armand Colin (ISBN 2-200-31042-0) , "CHAPITRE XVI 1. Les climats équatoriaux et subéquatoriaux 2. Les climats tropicaux 3. Les climats d'alizé 4. Les climats de montagne LES CLIMATS DE LA ZONE INTERTROPICALE : LES VARIÉTÉS" pages 308–323.
  17. ^ Linacre, Edward; Bart Geerts (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-415-12519-2.
  18. ^ "JetStream Max: Addition Köppen-Geiger Climate Subdivisions". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  19. ^ Critchfield, H.J. (1983). "Criteria for classification of major climatic types in modified Köppen system" (4 ed.). University of Idaho. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  20. ^ "Atlas Agroclimático de Chile–Estado Actual y Tendencias del Clima (Tomo I: Regiones de Arica Y Parinacota, Tarapacá y Antofagasta" (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  21. ^ Melvin R. George. "Merranean Climate". UCRangelands. University of California. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
  22. ^ Chen, D.; Chen, H. W. (2013). "Using the Köppen classification to quantify climate variation and change: An example for 1901–2010" (PDF). Environmental eDevelopment. 6: 69–79. doi:10.1016/j.envdev.2013.03.007.
  23. ^ Critchfield, Howard J (1983). General Climatology (4th ed.). New Delhi: Prentice Hall. pp. 154–161. ISBN 978-81-203-0476-5.
  24. ^ Chan, D. and Wu, Q. (2015). "Significant anthropogenic-induced changes of climate classes since 1950". Scientific Reports. 5 (13487): 13487. Bibcode:2015NatSR...513487C. doi:10.1038/srep13487. PMC 4551970. PMID 26316255.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

External links[]

Climate records[]