The Iraqi Civil War was an armed conflict which began in January 2014 and ended in December 2017. In 2014, the Iraqi insurgency escalated into a civil war with the conquest of Fallujah, Mosul, Tikrit and in the major areas of northern Iraq by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS or IS). This resulted in the forced resignation of Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, as well as airstrikes by the United States, Iran, Syria, and at least a dozen other countries, the participation of Iranian troops and military and logistical aid provided to Iraq by Russia. On 9 December 2017, Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi announced victory over ISIL, though others warned that they expected ISIL to fight on via an insurgency, and by other means. ISIS switched to guerrilla 'hit and run' tactics in an effort to undermine the Iraqi government's effort to eradicate them.
Both the Iraqi Armed Forces, Kurdish Peshmerga and various Turkmen Muslim, Assyrian Christian, Yezidi, Shabaki, and Armenian Christian forces are facing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Although some 35,000 Kurdish Peshmerga are incorporated into the Iraqi Armed Forces, most Peshmerga forces are operating under the command of the President of Iraqi Kurdistan in the Kurdish autonomous region of Iraq. Assyrian forces include: Syriac Military Council, Nineveh Plain Forces, Nineveh Plain Protection Units, Qaraqosh Protection Committee, and Dwekh Nawsha.
In the course of their Anbar campaign, ISIL militants seized at least 70% of the Anbar Province by June 2014, including the cities of Fallujah, Al Qaim, and half of the provincial capital of Ramadi. ISIL forces also infiltrated Abu Ghraib in Baghdad Governorate.
In early June 2014, following further large-scale offensives in Iraq, ISIL seized control of Mosul, the second most populous city in Iraq, the nearby town of Tal Afar and most of the surrounding Nineveh province. ISIL also captured parts of Kirkuk and Diyala provinces and Tikrit, the administrative center of the Salahuddin Governorate, with the ultimate goal of capturing Baghdad, the Iraqi capital. IS was believed to have only 2,000–3,000 fighters up until the Mosul campaign, but during that campaign, it became evident that this number was a gross underestimate. There were also reports that the number of Sunni groups in Iraq that were opposed to the predominantly Shia government had joined ISIS, thus bolstering the group numbers. However, the Kurds—who are mostly Sunnis—in the northeast of Iraq, were unwilling to be drawn into the conflict, and there were clashes in the area between ISIL and the Kurdish Peshmerga.
ISIL executed 1,700 Iraq soldiers who had surrendered in the fighting and released many images of mass executions via its Twitter feed and various websites.
In late June, ISIS militants captured two key crossings in Anbar, a day after seizing the border crossing at Al-Qaim. According to analysts, capturing these crossings could aid ISIL in transporting weapons and equipment to different battlefields. Two days later, the Syrian Air Force bombed ISIL positions in Iraq. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki stated: "There was no coordination involved, but we welcome this action. We welcome any Syrian strike against Isis because this group targets both Iraq and Syria."
At this point, The Jerusalem Post reported that the Obama administration had requested US$500 million from the US Congress to use in the training and arming of "moderate" Syrian rebels fighting against the Syrian government, in order to counter the growing threat posed by ISIS in Syria and Iraq.
On 29 June, ISIL announced the establishment of a new caliphate. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed its caliph, and group formally changed its name to the Islamic State. Four days later, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the self-proclaimed caliph of the new Islamic State, said that Muslims should unite to capture Rome in order to "own the world." He called on Muslims all over the world to unite behind him as their leader.
On 24 July, ISIL blew up the Mosque and tomb of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah) in Mosul, with no reported casualties. Residents in the area said that ISIS had erased a piece of Iraqi heritage. Jonah's tomb was also an important holy site in the Jewish heritage as well. A few days later, ISIL also blew up the Nabi Shiyt (Prophet Seth) shrine in Mosul. Sami al-Massoudi, deputy head of the Shia endowment agency which oversees holy sites, confirmed the destruction and added that ISIS had taken artifacts from the shrine to an unknown location.
In an August offensive, ISIL captured Sinjar and a number of other towns in the north of the country. Almost 200,000 civilians, mostly Yazidis, managed to flee from the fighting in Sinjar city, about 50,000 of them fled into the Sinjar Mountains, where they were trapped without food, water or medical care, facing starvation and dehydration. They had been threatened with death if they refused conversion to the Islam. A UN representative said that "a humanitarian tragedy is unfolding in Sinjar." By the end of the month, ISIL massacred 5,000 Yazidi men, with killings running in the hundreds in different villages. In addition, during this latest offensive, the Islamic State advanced to within 30 km of the Iraqi Kurdish capital of Erbil in northern Iraq.
Prompted by the siege and killings of the Yazidis, on 7 August, President Obama authorized targeted airstrikes in Iraq against ISIL, along with airdrops of aid. The UK offered the US assistance with surveillance and refuelling, and planned humanitarian airdrops to Iraqi refugees. The US asserted that the systematic destruction of the Yazidi people by the Islamic State was genocide. The Arab League also accused the Islamic State of committing crimes against humanity.
On 13 August, US airstrikes and Kurdish forces broke the ISIL siege of Mount Sinjar. Also, five days later, Kurdish Peshmerga ground troops, with the help of Iraqi Special Forces and the US air campaign, overran ISIL militants and reclaimed the Mosul Dam.
On 31 August, the United States, France, United Kingdom and Australia began humanitarian aid drops like food, water and medical supplies, to help prevent a potential massacre against the Shi'a Turkmen minority in Amirli. The US also carried out air strikes on ISIS positions around and near Amirli. Iraqi officials stated that they had reached Amirli and broken the siege and that the military was fighting to clear the areas around the town. This is known to be the first major turning point against the ISIL in Iraq.
In September, the United States sent an additional 250 US troops to protect American personnel, while the first engagement of the British military against ISIS targets took place when a British Panavia Tornado jet dropped a Paveway IV bomb on "a heavy weapon position" operated by ISIS in northwest Iraq at the end of the month. In addition, Australia offered 200 special forces to the Kurds and 600 Australian troops landed in the UAE. The following month, Australia authorized its special forces troops to go to Iraq as part of the anti-ISIS coalition that day, as well as authorizing airstrikes.
In mid-October ISIL forces captured the city of Hīt after the 300-strong Iraqi Army garrison abandoned and set afire its local base and supplies. As a result, an estimated 180,000 civilians (including refugees of the previous Anbar offensive) attempted to flee the area. Later that month, Operation Ashura is launched by Iraqi forces and Iranian-backed Shia militas, scoring a major victory and retaking the strategic town of Jurf al-Sakhar near Baghdad, and securing the way for millions of Shia pilgrims who were going to Karbala and Najaf On the Day of Ashura. Kurdish forces, meanwhile, recaptured Zumar.
On 21 October, ISIL seized terrain north of the Sinjar Mountains, thus cutting the area's escape route to Kurdish areas. The Yazidi militias then withdrew from there into the mountains, where the number of Yazidi civilian refugees was estimated at 2,000–7,000. The mountains had once again been partially surrounded by ISIL.
In mid-November, Iraqi forces retook control of most part of the strategic city Baiji from the Islamic State and broke the siege of the nearby oil refinery. However, by the following month, ISIL recaptured Baiji and reestablished the siege of the refinery.
On 17 December, Peshmerga forces, backed by 50 US-led coalition airstrikes on ISIL positions, launched an offensive to liberate Sinjar and to break the partial ISIL siege of the Sinjar Mountains. In less than two days, the siege was broken. After ISIL forces retreated, Kurdish fighters were initially faced with the clearing out mines around the area, but quickly opened a land corridor to those mountains, enabling Yazidis to be evacuated. The operation left 100 ISIL fighters dead.
Later on 21 December, Syrian Kurdish YPG fighters south of the mountain range reached Peshmerga lines, thus linking their two fronts. The next day, the YPG broke through ISIL lines, thus opening a corridor from Syria to the town of Sinjar. By the evening, the Peshmerga took control of much of Sinjar.
In late January, Iraqi forces recaptured the entire province of Diyala from the Islamic State. Also, beginning of the Mosul Offensive in which Peshmerga forces captured large amount of territory surrounding Mosul.
On 2 March, Second Battle of Tikrit began and after more than a month of hard fighting, government troops and pro-Iranian Shiite militias overcame ISIL fighters and took Tikrit. This success was off-set in late May, by ISIL's capture of the provincial capital of Ramadi in Anbar province.
On 17 July, a suicide bomber detonated a car bomb in a crowded marketplace in the city of Khan Bani Saad during Eid al-Fitr celebrations, killing 120–130 people and injuring 130 more. Twenty more people were reported missing since the bombing.
On 13 August, a suicide bomber detonated a truck bomb in a crowded marketplace in Sadr City, Baghdad, killing at least 75 people and injuring 212 more. On 27 August, a suicide bomber assassinated General Abdel Rahman Abu Ragheef, deputy commander of operations in the province of Anbar, and Brigadier Safeen Abdel Majeed, a divisional commander.
ISIL forces lost Sinjar on November 13 to Kurdish forces.
On December 16–17, ISIL forces mounted a major offensive north-east of Mosul against Kurdish position but were repelled. Starting December 22, the Iraqi Army began a campaign to recapture Ramadi. On December 28, Iraq declared Ramadi liberated from ISIL forces and under the control of the Iraqi government.
Iraqi forces regained control of Hīt and Ar-Rutbah in offensive operations in 2016 and then Fallujah as well in the Third Battle of Fallujah ending in June 2016.
On 16 October 2016, the Battle of Mosul began.
In May, a member from the Canadian Special Forces Joint Task Force 2 disrupted a Daesh attack on Iraqi security forces. The target was successfully hit at 3,540 metres from a high-rise, setting the world's longest recorded sniper kill.
In April, the Iraqi Army, with the help of the Popular Mobilization Forces, launched the Western Nineveh offensive to capture territory west of Mosul. The PMU were able to reach the Iraq–Syria border, meeting up with territory controlled by the Syrian Democratic Forces.
On 10 July, Iraqi Army forces captured Mosul. Following the victory in Mosul, the Iraqi Army launched operations to sweep what remained of ISIL-controlled territory in the country. The Tal Afar offensive was launched on 20 August and completed by 31 August with a major Iraqi Army victory. The Hawija offensive started in late September and was complete by 5 October.
On 25 September, Iraqi Kurdistan held an unofficial independence referendum. Turnout was reported to be 72.83% with 92.73% voting in favor of independence from Iraq. In response to the referendum, the Iraqi Army launched a short offensive on 15 October against Iraqi Kurdistan to recapture the disputed city of Kirkuk with the help of the Talabani family and some PUK members. Following the capture of Kirkuk and Sinjar, Masoud Barzani announced his intentions to step down as President of Iraqi Kurdistan, effective 1 November, after being in power for 12 years. His gamble of pushing through with the unofficial referendum ended with the disputed territories being recaptured by Iraq and with the Kurdish statebuilding project being left abandoned.
Iraq captured ISIL's last two strongholds of Al-Qa'im and Rawah on 17 November. After the Iraqi army had captured the last ISIL-held areas in the al-Jazira desert bordering Syria, on 9 December the prime minister announced the end of the war. A victory parade was held "in Baghdad's heavily fortified Green Zone" on the following day, and Prime Minister al-Abadi declared that 10 December would become a new annual holiday for Iraq. However, other government officials and sources, such as the Australian Government, British Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson, and Reuters, warned that they expected ISIL to fight on by other means, such as guerilla warfare and terrorism. Despite the victory announcements, ISIS retained its natural hideouts in Wadi Hauran.
Although the civil war was declared over, ISIL continued a lower-scale insurgency.
Months of relative calm in Baghdad ended with over 27 people killed by suicide bombers over a period of 3 days in mid-January 2018. Although there were no immediate claims of responsibility, it was reported that such attacks had usually been the work of the jihadist group Islamic State (IS) in the past, and that elements of the group were still active north of the city despite the government's claim of victory in December 2017. On Wednesday January 17, two days after the two suicide bombings on January 15, IS "claimed responsibility for the twin suicide bombings in Baghdad this week", though the New York Times suggested that the delay, and a number of errors in the claim, may show that the group's "media apparatus has been disrupted".
The Times meanwhile reported on 16 January that the Iraqi Army had launched an operation to oust ISIL from the Bosifian islands, a stronghold being used as a militant hideout. The hideout, located in Saladin governorate, was discovered in December and is one of the 10 patches where the group is still active. About 100 militants were killed by Iraqi forces in the past one week. An operation was launched on 7 February to hunt down the remnants of ISIL in Saladin Governorate, as well as members of Ansar al-Sunna and the "White Flags", a new insurgent group reportedly consisting of former ISIL members and Kurdish mafia groups.
Fighters of a self-defense
group in northeastern Iraq in June 2018. ISIL still has a presence in remote areas of the country, often attacking small villages and forcing the locals to fight or flee.
Despite these efforts, ISIL continued to hold out in the western desert and wage an insurgency campaign against government forces in northern Iraq by mid-2018, most notably in Diyala and Kirkuk Governorates. As the military could not protect the isolated hinterland of these regions, ISIL forces would repeatedly attack remote villages, defeating their self-defense groups, kidnap people for ransom and forcing local civilians to flee. Sometimes, ISIL fighters would even openly flaunt their presence, placing their flag at well visible points and driving around with motorcycles, cars, and technicals. The group also targeted followers of Yarsanism (called Kaka'i in Iraq) around Kirkuk, whom the militants consider unbelievers. In course of one notable attack, ISIL fighters raided a house in a village to the south of Shirqat on 11 March 2018, killing a tribal sheikh who led a Sunni militia against the group as well as three others. In July 2018, the Iraqi Army, Popular Mobilization Forces and Peshmerga launched Operation "Vengeance for the Martyrs" to destroy ISIL remnants in Diyala and Kirkuk Governorates, supported by the Iraqi Air Force and US-led coalition.
By April 2018, hundreds of ISIS fighters were still located in the Anbar desert.
Following ISIL's defeat, regardless that the group has continued an insurgency. However they have been greatly weakened and violence in Iraq has been sharply reduced in 2018. Only 95 people lost their lives during the month of May, the lowest figure in 10 years.
Nearly 19,000 civilians have been killed in Iraq in ISIL-linked violence between January 2014 and October 2015. ISIL executed up to 1,700 Shia Iraqi Air Force cadets from Camp Speicher near Tikrit on 12 June 2014. The genocide of Yazidis by ISIL has led to the expulsion, flight and effective exile of the Yazidi people from their ancestral lands in northern Iraq.
According to Newsweek, Amnesty International claimed that "Iraqi government forces and paramilitary militias have tortured, arbitrarily detained, forcibly disappeared and executed thousands of civilians who have fled the rule of the Islamic State militant group". The report, titled Punished for Daesh's crimes', alleges that thousands of Sunni men and boys have been forcibly disappeared by Iraqi government forces and militias.
- ^ a b c "How effective is Isis compared with the Iraqi army and Kurdish peshmerga?". The Guardian. 12 June 2014.
- ^ "Syria pounds ISIS bases in coordination with Iraq". Daily Star. 15 June 2014.
- ^ Vager Saadullah (14 October 2015). "Politics Keep Syrian Kurdish Troops From Fighting in Their Homeland. Never mind Islamic State—one faction rejects another's fighters". Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- ^ a b "YNK: PKK and YPG are fighting in Şengal and Rabia against ISIS". 6 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- ^ Adam Vidler. "Australia to take up military role in Iraq conflict". Retrieved 2014-08-31.
- ^ a b "Seven Countries to sell weapons to Kurds". BasNews. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- ^ "Enhedslisten støtter dansk våbenfly til kurdere i Irak" (in Danish). DR. DR. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- ^ "Albania sending weapons to Kurdish forces in Iraq". NOW News. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ^ Klix.ba. "BiH ce Iraku donirati više od 15 miliona metaka za borbu protiv IDIL-a". klix.ba (In Bosnian). Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- ^ "Hrvatska u borbi protiv islamista: Na zahtjev SAD-a šaljemo oružje za iracku vojsku". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- ^ "Iraq crisis: Britain ready to arm Kurds as EU meets – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ "Estonia donates small-arms ammo to Iraqi Kurds". 2 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- ^ "Hungary to send ammunitions to Iraq". Politics.hu. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- ^ "BBC News - Iraqi PM welcomes Syria air strike on border crossing". Bbc.com. 2014-06-26. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- ^ "Iraqi PM Nouri Maliki: Russian jets will turn tide". BBC. 26 June 2014.
- ^ "IS disciplines some emirs to avoid losing base - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor.
- ^ Suadad al-Salhy (14 December 2017). "Kurdish militant group re-emerges in northern Iraq under new name". Arab News. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- ^ "Iraqi security forces repel White Flags terrorists in Tuz Khurmatu". The Baghdad Post. 25 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- ^ "The Rise and Fall of the Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham (Levant) ISIS" (PDF). Retrieved 11 June 2017.
The continued and even escalating sectarian tensions and acts like the demolition of demonstration camps led to an all-out revolt against the government institutions on the eve of the New Year 2014 in the western province Ramadi. ISIS seized this golden opportunity and gained control over a swath of territories in Anbar province, especially its two large cities, Ramadi and Fallujah.
- ^ Ackerman, Elliot (17 June 2014). "Watching ISIS Flourish Where We Once Fought". The New Yorker.
- ^ a b "Iraq declares final victory over Islamic State". Reuters. 9 December 2017.
- ^ England, Andrew (9 December 2017). "Iraq announces defeat of Isis". Manama, Bahrain: Financial Times. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- ^ a b "With Iraqi-Kurdish Talks Stalled, Phone Diplomacy Averts New Clashes". New York Times.
- ^ "Troops force so-called Islamic State from their final stronghold in Iraq". ITV News.
- ^ "Iraqi security forces arrest Shiite militia leader". The Daily Star. 2 January 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- ^ "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". New York Times. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- ^ Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "An Account of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi & Islamic State Succession Lines".
- ^ Matt Bradley and Ghassan Adnan in Baghdad, and Felicia Schwartz in Washington (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". Wall Street Journal.
- ^ "The Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria: A Primer". The Soufan Group. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- ^ "Half of I.S. chiefs are wiped out in air raids". 2 February 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- ^ "Islamic State leader in Iraq's Anbar killed, Pentagon says". BBC News.
- ^ Collins, Chris (19 August 2007). "U.S. says Iranians train Iraqi insurgents". McClatchy Newspapers.
- ^ "A Dark Side to Iraq 'Awakening' Groups". International Herald Tribune. www.military.com. 4 January 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- ^ Miller, T. Christia n (4 July 2007). "Private contractors outnumber U.S. troops in Iraq". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Roberts, Michelle (24 February 2007). "Contractor deaths add up in Iraq". Deseret Morning News.
- ^ "Obama Looks at Adding Bases and Troops in Iraq, to Fight ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- ^ "Operation IMPACT". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Islamic State drone kills two Kurdish fighters, wounds two French..."
- ^ Mustafa Habib. "Are Shiite Militias Growing More Powerful Than Iraqi Army?". Niqash. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ Beehner, Lionel (9 June 2005). "IRAQ: Militia Groups". Council on Foreign Relations.
- ^  اردوغان ارسل جيشه الى العراق تجنبا لانقلاب ثانٍ.. لا حاجة للتركمان بتركيا
- ^ "التركمان يشاركون في معركة تحرير تكريت بلواء من 4 آلاف مقاتل". Almada. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- ^ Los Angeles Times (9 October 2014). "Are Iraq's renowned peshmerga fighters any match for Islamic State?". latimes.com. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ "Outgunned and untested for years, Kurdish peshmerga struggle". Reuters UK. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ "Islamic State 'has 50,000 fighters in Syria'". Al Jazeera. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- ^ "ISIS has 100,000 fighters, growing fast – Iraqi govt adviser". RT. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- ^ "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". El-balad.com. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- ^ Colin Freeman (18 May 2013). "Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri: the King of Clubs is back, and he may yet prove to be Saddam Hussein's trump card". The Telegraph.
- ^ Daniel Cassman. "Islamic Army in Iraq | Mapping Militant Organizations". Stanford.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
- ^ Heras, Nicholas A. "The Tribal Component of Iraq's Sunni Rebellion: The General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- ^ "How Syria's civil war is spilling over - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- ^ usatoday.com (October 9, 2012). "Al-Qaeda making comeback in Iraq, officials say". Qassim Abdul-Zahra, Associated Press.
- ^ "Over 26,000 Iraqi soldiers killed in 4 year war with ISIS". 13 December 2017.
- ^ "L'intégration des milices, un défi pour l'État irakien". Le Monde (in French). 27 December 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- ^ "Kurdistan: 1760 Peshmerga soldiers killed in anti-IS war since 2014". 4 June 2017.
- ^ "L'homme le plus recherché de Turquie : VICE News rencontre le leader du PKK, Cemil Bayik". Vice News (in French). 26 January 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- ^ "Ali Alfoneh on Twitter".
- ^ "OPERATION INHERENT RESOLVE (OIR) U.S. CASUALTY STATUS" (PDF). defense.gov. 9 September 2015.
- ^ "L/Cpl Scott Hetherington: UK soldier died 'in shooting accident'".
- ^ "Canadian soldier killed by friendly fire in Iraq - The Star".
- ^ "French soldier killed in Iraq-Syria military zone, Élysée Palace says - France 24". 23 September 2017.
- ^ "German Anti-ISIS Coalition Chief Found Dead in Iraq Hotel".
- ^ "Iraq Government Casualty Figures via AFP (Google Docs)". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- ^ "U.S. airstrikes against Islamic State grow more lethal in Iraq".
- ^ Beruit, Agence France-Presse in (20 January 2016). "Russian airstrikes in Syria have 'killed more than 1,000 civilians'". the Guardian.
- ^ "UN Casualty Figures for Iraq for the Month of August 2017".
- ^ "Documented civilian deaths from violence". Iraq Body Count database. Iraq Body Count. 2012-07-24. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- ^ "Displacement in Iraq Exceeds 3.3 Million: IOM".
- ^  2,780,406 displaced and 2,844,618 returnees. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- ^ a b "Who Else, Besides Americans, Are Flying Fighter Jets in Iraq?". Slate Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ "Iran 'sent soldiers to fight in Iraq'". Al Jazeera America. 23 August 2014. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- ^ a b Mostafa, Nehal (9 December 2017). "Iraq announces end of war against IS, liberation of borders with Syria: Abadi". Iraqi News. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- ^ a b Malcolm Turnbull (Prime Minister); Julie Bishop (Minister for Foreign Affairs); Marise Payne (Minister for Defence) (10 December 2017). "Liberation Of Iraq From ISIS". Department of Defence - Australian Government. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
The Australian Government congratulates the people of Iraq after Prime Minister Haider Al-Abadi today announced that all areas of Iraq have been liberated from ISIS control. ... While today's announcement by the Iraqi government is an historic moment, Iraq's liberation does not mean the fight against terrorism and ISIS in Iraq is over. ISIS fighters who escaped capture will seek to conduct an insurgency to continue their legacy of death and destruction.
- ^ a b "Theresa May hails 'historic moment' as Islamic State is driven out of Iraq". Derbyshire Times. 10 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson praised Iraqi achievements but said Islamic State remained a threat. "The fight though isn't over, as the group continue to pose a threat from across the Syrian border. "They can plan and inspire terrorist attacks, which rally their branches worldwide and continue to inspire others at home and abroad to do us harm.
- ^ a b Reuters; Ahmed Aboulenein (10 December 2017). "Iraq holds victory parade after defeating Islamic State". Daily Mail. Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
BAGHDAD, Dec 10 (Reuters) - An Iraqi military parade in Baghdad's heavily fortified Green Zone celebrated final victory over Islamic State on Sunday, with Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi looking on as troops marched in formation, their bodies spelling "victory day" in Arabic. ... The forces fighting Islamic State in Iraq and Syria now expect a new phase of guerrilla warfare.
- ^ Aboulenein, Ahmed (24 July 2018). "Islamic State makes comeback in Iraq with switch to guerrilla tactics". Reuters.
- ^ "The War in Iraq Isn't Done. Commanders Explain Why and What's Next". Defense One. 22 March 2018.
- ^ "ISIL sleeper cells in Iraq are a warning sign the extremist group is already reforming". The National. 28 March 2018.
- ^ "How effective is Isis compared with the Iraqi army and Kurdish peshmerga?". The Guardian. 12 June 2014. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014.
- ^ "6 essential facts about Iraq's Kurds". Vox. 12 August 2014. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017.
- ^ "Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga: Divided from Within". Ekurd Daily. 12 August 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- ^ "Syriacs establish military council in Syria". Hürriyet Daily News. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- ^ "Inside the Christian Militias Defending the Nineveh Plains". Warisboring. 7 March 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- ^ John Burger for Aletia. December 4, 2014 Christians in Iraq Forming Militia to Defend, and Possibly Retake, Ancestral Lands
- ^ "Christian Security Forces Growing Stronger In Iraq". NPR. 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- ^ Henderson, Peter (30 October 2014). "Iraq's Christian paramilitaries split in IS fight". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- ^ "John Kerry holds talks in Iraq as more cities fall to ISIS militants". CNN. 23 June 2014.
- ^ "Al Qaeda-linked militants capture Fallujah during violent outbreak". Fox News Channel. 4 January 2014.
- ^ "Iraq's Fallujah falls to Qaeda militants as 65 killed". 7 News. 5 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.
- ^ "Militants kill 21 Iraqi leaders, capture 2 border crossings". NY Daily News. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- ^ "Islamic State overruns Camp Speicher, routs Iraqi forces". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- ^ "Iraq Update #42: Al-Qaeda in Iraq Patrols Fallujah; Aims for Ramadi, Mosul, Baghdad". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- ^ Al-Salhy, Suadad; Arango, Tim (10 June 2014). "Sunni Militants Drive Iraqi Army Out of Mosul". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017.
- ^ Al-Sanjary, Ziad; Rasheed, Ahmed (15 June 2014). "Advancing Iraq rebels seize northwest town in heavy battle". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- ^ "Rebels seize control of Iraq's Nineveh". Al Jazeera English. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- ^ "Jihadists seize areas in Iraq's Kirkuk province: police". The Daily Star. 2014-06-10. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- ^ "Iraq city of Tikrit falls to ISIS fighters". Aljazeera.com. 12 June 2014. Archived from the original on 13 June 2014.
- ^ Curry, Colleen (13 June 2014). "A Simple and Useful Guide to Understanding the Conflict in Iraq". ABC News. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- ^ Neriah, Jacques (11 June 2014). "Is the Fall of Mosul in Iraq to the Jihadists a "Game Changer"?". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- ^ Sherlock, Ruth; Malouf, Carol (20 June 2014). "Islamic Army of Iraq founder: Isis and Sunni Islamists will march on Baghdad". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- ^ Collard, Rebecca (20 June 2014). "Kurdish fighters mull whether to defend Iraq". TIME. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- ^ Windrem, Robert (20 June 2014). "As Sunnis, Shiites Battle, Are Iraq's Kurds Preparing to Declare Independence?". NBC News. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- ^ Norland, Rod; Rubin, Alissa A. "Massacre Claim Shakes Iraq Archived 2016-07-26 at the Wayback Machine." The New York Times. 15 June 2014.
- ^ "Sunni militants 'seize Iraq's western border crossings'". BBC News. 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 22 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- ^ Chulov, Martin; Hawramy, Fazel (27 June 2014). "Isis: Maliki hails Syrian air raids in Iraq as leaving both states 'winners'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- ^ "Obama seeks $500 million from Congress to train 'moderate' Syrian rebels to fight ISIS Archived 2016-02-13 at the Wayback Machine." The Jerusalem Post. 28 June 2014.
- ^ Withnall, Adam (29 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: Isis changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East". The Independent. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- ^ Rousselle, Christine (2 July 2014). "Leader of Islamic State Claims Rome Will Be Conquered Next". Townhall.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- ^ McElory, Damien. "Rome will be conquered next, says leader of 'Islamic State'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- ^ "ISIS leader calls for global Muslim obedience". Middle East Star. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- ^ "Iraq jihadists blow up 'Jonah's tomb' in Mosul". The Telegraph. Agence France-Presse. 25 July 2014. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- ^ "Isis militants blow up Jonah's tomb". The Guardian. Associated Press. 24 July 2014. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- ^ Malas, Nour (25 July 2014). "Jihadists in Iraq Erase Cultural Heritage". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- ^ "Da'esh destroys the Tomb of Jonah in Iraq". Ynet. 26 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-09. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- ^ "ISIS destroys Prophet Sheth shrine in Mosul". Al Arabiya. 26 July 2014. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014.
- ^ Sunni Extremists in Iraq Seize 3 Towns From Kurds and Threaten Major Dam Archived 2014-10-15 at the Wayback Machine.. New York Times, 3 August 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- ^ a b c "UN Security Council condemns attacks by Iraqi jihadists". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- ^ ‘Iraqi Yazidi lawmaker: 'Hundreds of my people are being slaughtered'’ Archived 2015-12-08 at the Wayback Machine.. CNN, 6 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- ^ Salih, Mohammed; van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (5 August 2014). "Iraqi Yazidis: 'If we move they will kill us'". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- ^ Hopkins, Steve (14 October 2014). "Full horror of the Yazidis who didn't escape Mount Sinjar: UN confirms 5,000 men were executed and 7,000 women are now kept as sex slaves". The Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- ^ "مصادر كردية: "الدولة الإسلامية" على بعد 30 كيلومترا من إربيل". ynewsiq.com. 9 August 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- ^ Spencer, Richard (10 August 2014). "American air strikes help Kurdish forces reclaim towns from Islamic State". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- ^ "Obama Authorized Targeted Airstrikes in Iraq Against Islamic Militants, Along with Airdrops". Associated Press. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- ^ "UK planes to drop emergency aid to Iraqi refugees". BBC News. 8 August 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- ^ Noack, Rick (8 August 2014). "When Obama talks about Iraq, his use of the word 'genocide' is vital". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- ^ "Arab League denounces ISIS attacks as "crimes against humanity"". Al Arabiya. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- ^ "Mid Day News – 11/08/2014 – التطورات في العراق". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- ^ "Militants' Siege on Mountain in Iraq Is Over, Pentagon Says". Archived from the original on 2017-02-24.
- ^ Roussinos, Aris (16 August 2014). "'Everywhere Around Is the Islamic State': On the Road in Iraq with YPG Fighters". Vice News. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- ^ Shelton, Tracey (29 August 2014). "'If it wasn't for the Kurdish fighters, we would have died up there'". Global Post. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- ^ "Mosul Dam's Takeover by ISIS Raises Risk of Flooding". The Wall Street Journal. 17 August 2014. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014.(subscription required) (Accessible via Google.)
- ^ "US air strikes hit Islamic State near Mosul dam". Sydney Morning Herald. 17 August 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- ^ "Troops in Iraq Rout Sunni Militants From a Key Dam". The New York Times. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- ^ "Iraqi forces 'reach besieged Amerli'". BBC News. 31 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- ^ "Obama to send approximately 350 additional military personnel to Iraq". Fox News Channel. 3 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- ^ RAF Tornadoes strike first Islamic State targets Archived 2016-02-13 at the Wayback Machine. – Flightglobal.com, 30 September 2014
- ^ "Moment Britain bombed ISIS in pictures as RAF Tornados launch second wave in Iraq – Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Archived from the original on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ "Australian Troops In UAE Await Australia Decision To Fight ISIS; Julie Bishop Explains Delay". International Business Times. Archived from the original on November 30, 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ "Australia to send 600 troops to UAE to help fight IS". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ "Islamic State crisis: Australia to send 600 troops to UAE". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ 
- ^ "Australia deploys special forces, joins air strikes in Iraq". Yahoo News UK. 3 October 2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ Kwek, Glenda (3 October 2014). "Australia deploys special forces, joins air strikes in Iraq". Yahoo News. AFP. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ "Islamic State militants overrun the strategic city of Heet and claim half Syrian border town of Kobane". NewsComAu. Archived from the original on 31 January 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR – Iraq's displacement crisis deepens as civilians flee latest ISIS offensive". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- ^ Akinyemi, Aaron (October 25, 2014). "Iraqi Forces Recapture Key Towns from Isis Following 22 US Air Strikes". International Business Times. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- ^ "Iraq Sinjar battle (21 Oct 2014)". Agathocle de Syracuse. 21 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- ^ a b c d "Islamic State counterattacks refinery as fight for Iraq swings back and forth". McClatchy DC. 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- ^ "Iraqi Forces Advance in Jihadist-Held Baiji". Naharnet. 7 November 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016.
- ^ "Iraq troops 'push Islamic State from oil town of Baiji'". BBC News. 2014-11-14. Archived from the original on 2014-11-17. Retrieved 2014-11-18.
- ^ "Iraqi security forces enter Baiji refinery". Al Arabiya. 2014-11-18. Archived from the original on 2014-11-21. Retrieved 2014-11-18.
- ^ Avaneesh Pandey (22 December 2014). "ISIS In Iraq: Kurds Recapture Mount Sinjar As Islamic State Group Retakes Baiji Oil Refinery". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ IANS (22 December 2014). "Iraqi army retake military airbase outside Tal Afar". Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ "Iraq". Rudaw. Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ a b c "An Early Success for the Kurds in Sinjar". The New Yorker. 19 December 2014. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- ^ "ISIL land mines frustrate effort to get aid to freed Mount Sinjar Yazidis". Aljazeera America. 19 December 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- ^ "Iraq forces 'liberate' Diyala province from IS". Yahoo News. 26 January 2015. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ Loveday Morris (22 January 2015). "Kurds say they have ejected Islamic State militants from large area in northern Iraq". Washington Post.
- ^ "Iraq 'seizes districts from IS' in Tikrit advance". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ Abdelhak Mamoun. "130 ISIS elements killed, sleeper cells found in Tikrit". Iraqi News. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- ^ "ISIL seizes control of Iraq's Ramadi". Al Jazeera. 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- ^ Mustafa Salim (18 July 2015). "At least 130 are dead in Iraq after a massive bomb attack". Washington Post.
- ^ "Iraq violence: Car bomb kills scores in mainly Shia town". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2015-07-17.
- ^ "Islamic State claims huge truck bomb attack in Baghdad's Sadr City". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- ^ "Iraq conflict: Bomb kills two generals near Ramadi". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
- ^ Michael R. Gordon; Rukmini Callimachi (13 November 2015). "Kurdish Fighters Retake Iraqi City of Sinjar From ISIS". New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ Missy Ryan (17 December 2015). "Islamic State offensive in northern Iraq, although repelled, shows group's resilience". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015.
- ^ Calamur, Krishnadev. "Ramadi Is 'Fully Liberated'". Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- ^ "Iraq declares Ramadi liberated from Islamic State". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2015-12-28.
- ^ "Iraqi forces oust ISIL from key Anbar town". Al Jazeera.
- ^ "ISIS pulls out of town in Iraq's Anbar: general". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- ^ "Fallujah fully liberated from IS group, Iraqi commander says". Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- ^ Haddad, Tareq (16 October 2016). "'US military has started shelling Mosul' says Peshmerga commander". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- ^ "Canadian elite special forces sniper makes record-breaking kill shot in Iraq". Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- ^ "Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces launch operation southwest of Mosul - FDD's Long War Journal". FDD's Long War Journal.
- ^ "Mosul now freed from ISIS: What's next for the city left in ruins?". CNN. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- ^ "Iraq launches offensive to retake Tal Afar from ISIL". Al Jazeera. 20 August 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- ^ "Tal Afar 'liberated' from ISIS". CNN. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- ^ "Iraq forces retake town of Hawija from IS". BBC News. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- ^ a b "Baghdad: Iraqi forces in full control of Kirkuk". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- ^ Martin Chulov. "Iraqi forces drive Kurdish fighters out of town of Sinjar". Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- ^ "Iraqi Kurdish leader Massoud Barzani to step down". BBC. 29 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
- ^ "Iraqi forces retake border crossing with Syria from Islamic State, Shi'ite militias say". Reuters. 2017-11-03. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
- ^ "Iraq recaptures final IS-held town". BBC News. 17 November 2017.
- ^ "Iraq declares war with IS is over". BBC News. 2017-12-09. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
- ^ Ahmed Aboulenein (10 December 2017). "Iraq holds victory parade after defeating Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
An Iraqi military parade in Baghdad's heavily fortified Green Zone celebrated final victory over Islamic State on Sunday
- ^ The New Arab (2014-12-05). "Mission Accomplished: Abadi declares 'end of war against IS' in I". Alaraby.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
- ^ Euan McKirdy; Hamdi Alkhshali (15 January 2018). "27 dead, dozens injured, in Baghdad double suicide bombing". CNN. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
Monday marked the second deadly attack to hit the city in just three days. ... the city has experienced a period of relative calm for months.
- ^ "27 killed, 64 wounded in Baghdad bomb blast". RTÉ. 15 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
There was no immediate claim of responsibility, but most such attacks in Iraq are the work of the so-called Islamic State militant group. ... Elements of the group are still active north of Baghdad.
- ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; Coker, Margaret (2018). "ISIS Claims Responsibility for Baghdad Bombings". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
- ^ Smith, Hannah Lucinda (January 16, 2018). "Iraqi army attacks Isis island stronghold". Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- ^ "Iraqi forces launch operation to hunt down rebels in Salahudin province". February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- ^ Westcott, Tom (January 31, 2018). "No surrender: 'White Flags' group rises as new threat in northern Iraq". Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- ^ a b Dilshad Anwar (13 June 2018). "Iraqis Flee Homes Amid New IS Insurgency". Voice of America. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- ^ Syrian-Iraqi border is completely ISIS free for first time in years – map
- ^ Iraqi troops destroy IS arms depot, three missile launchers in western Iraq
- ^ 400 IS militants planning to resume terrorist activities from Anbar — source
- ^ Dilshad Anwar (26 June 2018). "IS Attacks Drive Members of Iraqi Kakai Minority From Their Villages". Voice of America. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- ^ "Islamic State attacks kill 10 in northern Iraq - police". March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
- ^ Agence France-Presse (4 July 2018). "Iraq launches major anti-IS operation after killings". al-Monitor. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- ^ "Iraqi Forces Kill 'ISIS Slaughterer' in Anbar Desert | Asharq AL-awsat". Aawsat.com. 2018-04-02. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
- ^ http://www.cdobs.com/archive/featured/violence-in-iraq-at-lowest-level-in-10-years/
- ^ "Nearly 19,000 civilians killed in Iraq in 21-month period, report says". CNN. 19 January 2016. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016.
- ^ Ellis, Ralph (6 April 2015). "New mass graves found in Tikrit". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015.
- ^ Arraf, Jane (7 August 2014). "Islamic State persecution of Yazidi minority amounts to genocide, UN says". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- ^ "Iraqi Civilians Fleeing ISIS in Mosul Face Torture and Death in Revenge Attacks: Amnesty". Newsweek. 18 October 2016. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016.
- ^ "Mosul offensive: Iraqi-backed troops accused of torturing civilians ahead of operation to rid city of Isis". The Independent. 18 October 2016. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016.