Indigenous peoples by geographic regions

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native people. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".[1]

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear, and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

Definition[]

Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing on those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.[2]

This historical continuity may consist of the continuation, for an extended period reaching into the present of one or more of the following factors:

Africa[]

African Great Lakes[]

Hadza people, who are indigenous to the African Great Lakes
A Maasai traditional dance.

Central Africa[]

Baka pygmy dancers in the East Province of Cameroon.
Batwa Pygmy with traditional bow and arrow

Horn of Africa[]

Somali women in traditional headresses
Tigrayan women in traditional attire
Wolayta chief
Berta people playing trumpets during a wedding ceremony

Maghreb[]

Sanhaja Berber traditional dancers

Nile Valley[]

Egyptian women in traditional dress

Southwestern Africa[]

San people, who are indigenous to Southern Africa.

Southeastern Africa[]

West Africa[]

Tuareg man from Algeria.

Eurasia[]

Asia[]

Southwest Asia (Middle East)[]

Marsh Arabs/Ma'dan poling a mashoof in the Mesopotamian Marshes
Druze residents of Mount Carmel
Jewish man praying during Tisha B'Av at the Western Wall
Yazidi festival at Lalish
Baloch of Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

Caucasus[]

Traditional Adyghe clothing.

Eurasian Steppe[]

South Asia[]

An old Munda man, Dinajpur
Assamese youth in traditional dress
Kodava men in traditional attire, India
An Indigenous Assamese woman of Assam
Veddha chief Uruwarige Wannila Aththo, leader of the indigenous people Sri Lanka

Meenas

Southeast Asia[]

Mainland Southeast Asia (Indochina)[]
A Wa woman carrying her child
Akha girl in Laos
Yi/Nuosu women
A Tai Dam lady in Laomeng village, Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, China.
Maritime Southeast Asia (Indonesia)[]
A Murut man (a member of one of the Dayak ethnicities) in Monsopiad Cultural Village, Kg. Kuai Kandazon, Penampang, Sabah, Borneo Island
Ati woman, the Philippines, 2007[16] The Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.[17]

East Asia[]

North China[]
South China[]
Miao (Hmong) girls in China
Bunun dancer
Taiwan[]
Japan[]

Siberia[]

Representation of a Chukchi family by Louis Choris (1816)
Buryat shaman of Olkhon, Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia.
Nenets child

Europe[]

Eastern Europe[]

Gagauz old and young people.
Mordvin women of Penza Oblast dressed in traditional costumes.

Northern and western Europe[]

Oceania[]

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

Australia[]

Aboriginal farmers in Victoria, Australia, 1858

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

Indigenous Australians by native cultural regions

North[]

Arnhem[]


Desert[]

Torres Strait[]

Rainforest[]

Tasmania[]


Melanesia[]

Fijians.

Melanesia generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji. The region is mostly inhabited by the Melanesian peoples.

Micronesia[]

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific. The region is mostly inhabited by the Micronesian peoples.

Polynesia[]

Samoan family

Polynesia includes New Zealand and the islands of the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The region is mostly inhabited by the Polynesian peoples.

Polynesian outliers

The Americas[]

The Americas is the supercontinent comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

North America[]

North America includes all of the continent and islands east of the Bering Strait and north of the Isthmus of Panama; it includes Greenland, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central American and Caribbean countries. However a distinction can be made between a broader North America and a narrower Northern America and Middle America due to ethnic and cultural characteristics.


Arctic[]

Two Inuit women in traditional amauti (packing parkas)

Subarctic[]

Pacific Northwest Coast[]

Northwest Plateau-Great Basin-California[]

Northwest Plateau[]
Great Basin[]
California[]

Great Plains[]

Eastern Woodlands[]

Northeastern Woodlands[]
Southeastern Woodlands[]

Southwest[]

Mesoamerica[]

Tzeltal dancers waiting to perform, San Cristobal.
Mam people.
Mayan family from Yucatán
Amuzgos in traditional dress.
Mazatec girls performing a dance in Huautla de Jimenez.
Huichol woman and child.

Circum-Caribbean[]

A Kuna woman in traditional dress.

Caribbean[]

Portrait of the Kali'na exhibited at the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris in 1892

The Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

South America[]

Emberá women
Bororo-Boe man from Mato Grosso at Brazil's Indigenous Games, 2007
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Peru

South America generally includes all of the continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.


Circum-Caribbean (Chibcha)[]

Amazon[]

Guianas[]

Eastern Highlands (Brazilian Highlands)[]

Chaco[]

Andes[]

Southern Cone[]

Araucania[]
Patagonia[]
Fire Land (Tierra del Fuego)[]

Circumpolar[]

Circumpolar peoples is an umbrella term for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic. List of peoples by ethnolinguistic grouping:

See also[]

See all pages that start with indigenous people or indigenous

Notes[]

  1. ^ Sanders, Douglas (1999). "Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition". International Journal of Cultural Property. 8 (1): 4–13. doi:10.1017/S0940739199770591.
  2. ^ Jose R. Martinez Cobo
  3. ^ Definition of indigenous peoples
  4. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organization | UNPO, Assyrians the Indigenous People of Iraq [1]
  5. ^ Sawahla & Dloomy (2007, pp. 425–433)
  6. ^ Tubb, 1998. pg-13-14.
  7. ^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200 – 1000 BC). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
  8. ^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
  9. ^ Josephus. War of the Jews 9:2.
  10. ^ http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/abstracts.html
  11. ^ Haber, Marc; Gauguier, Dominique; Youhanna, Sonia; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Botigué, Laura R; Platt, Daniel E; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Wells, R. Spencer; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Comas, David; Zalloua, Pierre A (2013). "Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture". PLOS Genetics. 9 (2): e1003316. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003316. PMC 3585000. PMID 23468648.
  12. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09103.html
  13. ^ http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2010/06/tracing-roots-jewishness
  14. ^ The UN Refugee Agency | UNHCR, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples [2]
  15. ^ Department of Evolutionary Biology at University of Tartu Estonian Biocentre | Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation, Molecular Anthropology Group [3]
  16. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Philippines: Overview, 2007", UNHCR | Refworld.
  17. ^ Hanihara, T (1992). "Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the proto-sundadont dental pattern: The basic populations in East Asia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 88 (2): 183–96. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330880206. PMID 1605316.
  18. ^ Johansson, Peter (2016-02-05). "Indigenous self-determination in the Nordic countries: the Sami, and the Inuit of Greenland". In Short, Damien; Lennox, Corinne. Handbook of Indigenous Peoples' Rights. London: Routledge. pp. 424–442. ISBN 9781136313868.
  19. ^ Osherenko, Gail (April 1, 2001). "Indigenous rights in Russia: Is title to land essential for cultural survival?". Georgetown International Environmental Law Review. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.
  20. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/crofters-fight-for-rights-of-indigenous-people-811791.html
  21. ^ Rouse (1992)

References[]

Kipuri, Naomi (2007), "Kenya", in Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.), The Indigenous World 2007, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217), Marianne Wiben Jensen (Horn of Africa and East Africa regional ed.), Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers, pp. 468–476, ISBN 978-87-91563-23-2, OCLC 30981676, archived from the original (PDF online ion) on 2008-10-22 templatestyles stripmarker in |series= at position 60 (help)
Minority Rights Group International (1997), World Directory of Minorities, London, UK: Minority Rights Group International, ISBN 978-1-873194-36-2
Rouse, Irving (1992), The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who greeted Columbus, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-05181-0, OCLC 24469325
Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3108-5.