Ilyushin Il-76

Il-76
IL-76MD - TankBiathlon2013 (modified).jpg
Russian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76MD
Role Strategic airlifter
National origin Soviet Union / Russia
Design group Ilyushin
Built by Tashkent Aviation Production Association
Aviastar
First flight 25 March 1971
Introduction June 1974[1]
Status In production, in service
Primary users Russian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force
Indian Air Force[2]
TransAVIAexport Airlines
Number built 960[3]
Variants Ilyushin Il-78
Beriev A-50
KJ-2000

The Ilyushin Il-76 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-76; NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union's Ilyushin design bureau. It was first planned as a commercial freighter in 1967, as a replacement for the Antonov An-12. It was designed to deliver heavy machinery to remote, poorly served areas. Military versions of the Il-76 have been widely used in Europe, Asia and Africa, including use as an aerial refueling tanker or command center.

The Il-76 has seen extensive service as a commercial freighter for ramp-delivered cargo, especially for outsized or heavy items unable to be otherwise carried. It has also been used as an emergency response transport for civilian evacuations as well as for humanitarian aid and disaster relief around the world. Because of its ability to operate from unpaved runways, it has been useful in undeveloped areas. Specialized models have also been produced for aerial firefighting and zero-G training.

Design and development[]

Origins[]

The aircraft was first conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tons (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 km (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union's Arctic regions. It was intended to replace the Antonov An-12. Another intended version was a double-decked 250-passenger airliner but that project was cancelled. The Il-76 first flew in March 1971 (1971-03).[4]

Il-76TD, one of the first variants, at Zurich Airport

Production of Il-76s was allocated to the Tashkent Aviation Production Association in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, then a republic of the Soviet Union. Some 860 of the basic transport variants were manufactured.[5] In the 1990s, modernized variants also equipped with Soloviev D-30 turbofan engines,[6] were developed (MF, TF), with a cargo compartment 20 m long by 3.4 m wide by 3.4 m tall; these larger variants were not produced in significant quantity due to the financial difficulties being experienced by the Russian Air Force, which was the primary operator of the type.[citation needed] The prototype of the Il-76MF, conducted its first flight on 1 August 1995.[citation needed]

Further development[]

From 2004 onwards, a number of aircraft in commercial service were modernized to the Il-76TD-90VD version; this involved the adoption of the newly developed PS-90 engine to comply with European noise limitations.[1] In 2005, the People's Republic of China placed an order for 34 new Il-76MDs and four Il-78 tankers.[citation needed] In June 2013, Russian military export agency Rosoboronexport announced an order by China for 12 Il-76MD aircraft.[7]

Landing gear of Ilushin Il-76

The Il-76 has also been modified into an airborne refuelling tanker, designated the Il-78, around 50 aircraft having been produced.[5] A variant of the Il-76 also serves as a firefighting waterbomber. Its airframe was used as a base for the Beriev A-50 'Mainstay' AEW&C (airborne early warning and control) aircraft; around 25 aircraft were made.[5] Another application for the type was found in Antarctic support flights and for conducting simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts (akin to the "Vomit Comet" used by NASA).[8] Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, much of this project's details remaining classified.[9]

Il-76MD-90A[]

It was announced in 2010 that the production of a modernized Il-76, the Il-76MD-90A (also known as project Il-476 during the design stage), would begin; a proposed new production line would be located in Aviastar's facility in Ulyanovsk, Russia, and be operated in cooperation with the Tashkent works.[5] At that point, the construction of two Il-76MD-90A prototypes had begun at the Ulyanovsk facility.[10] The 1st serial production Il-76MD-90A was rolled out at Aviastar's Ulyanovsk plant on 16 June 2014.[11] On 29 April 2015, it was reported that the Russian Air Force received the first Il-76MD-90A built at the Ulyanovsk plant "Aviastar-SP" from the 2012 contract for 39 aircraft.[12][13]

Operational history[]

First aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Air Force in June 1974.[1] Next it became the main Soviet strategic transport aircraft. From 1976 it was operated by Aeroflot.

Between 1979 and 1991, the Soviet Air Force Il-76s made 14,700 flights into Afghanistan, transporting 786,200 servicemen, and 315,800 tons of freight. The Il-76 carried 89% of Soviet troops and 74% of the freight that was airlifted. As Afghan rebels were unable to shoot down high-flying Il-76s, their tactics were to try and damage it on takeoff or landing. Il-76s were often hit by shoulder-launched Stinger and Strela heat-seeking missiles and large-calibre machine gun fire, but because the strong airframes were able to take substantial damage and still remain operational, the aircraft had a remarkably low attrition rate during this period of conflict. Building on that experience, the bulk of the Canadian Forces equipment into Afghanistan was flown in using civilian Il-76s.[14] In 2006, the Russian Air Force had about 200 Il-76s. Civilian users in Russia have 108.[5]

On August 3, 1995, a Il-76 piloted by a Russian crew was forced down by a Taliban fighter plane sparking the Airstan incident.

USAF and IAF airmen work inside the cockpit of an Indian Il-76.

In 2004, a Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Il-76 carried out a flight mission in Afghanistan, and later in 2011, PLAAF Il-76s were sent to Libya to evacuate Chinese citizens. The two missions were the reported first steps of PLAAF developing long-range transportation capacity.[15]

On 23 March 2007, a Transaviaexport Il-76 was shot down by an anti-aircraft missile while taking off from Mogadishu, Somalia. Everybody on board, seven crew and four passengers, was killed.[16]

Syrian Air Force Il-76s, operating as civil Syrianair aircraft, have been reportedly used to ship weapons, money and other cargo from Russia and Iran to Syria, according to a defected Syrian military pilot. Since the start of the war, in April 2011 (and up to July 2012), around 20 military flights have been conducted to and from Tehran, via Iraqi airspace. Further information exposes that since around 2012, Syrian Il-76s have regularly flown to Moscow's Vnukovo Airport to fetch shipments of Syrian banknotes that have been useful to Bashar al-Assad's government to survive Western sanctions.[17][18][19]

On 14 June 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force Il-76 was shot down by ground fire from pro-Russian separatists while on approach to landing at Luhansk, resulting in the deaths of 40 soldiers and nine crew members on board.[20][21][22][23]

On 30 January 2017, an IL-76 firebomber of the Russian EMERCOM agency was deployed to Chile to assist firefighters. This assignment took 39 days.[24]

Variants[]

Prototypes and developmental variants[]

Il-76TD-90 / Il-76MD-90
Engine upgrades to Perm PS-90s.
Il-76 firebomber
Firefighting aircraft to drop exploding capsules filled with fire retardant.
Il-76PSD
SAR version of Il-76MF
Il-96
Early development of convertible passenger/cargo aircraft, (project only, designation re-used later)
Il-150
proposed Beriev A-50 with Perm PS-90 engines.
Beriev A-60
Airborne laser weapon testbed. (Il-76 version 1A)

Special purpose / research variants[]

Ilyushin Il-76LL with PD-14 engine prototype under testing (2015)
Il-76TD glass nose
Ilyushin Il-76LL SKIP testbed (1999)
Il-76LL
with reinforced wing (at least 3 aircraft) to be used as test-bed aeroplane for engine prototypes flight testing in Gromov Flight Research Institute.
Izdeliye-176
prototype Il-76PP.
Izdeliye-576
Izdeliye-676
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Izdeliye-776
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Izdeliye-976 ("SKIP")[25] – (СКИП – Самолетный Контрольно-Измерительный Пункт, Airborne Check-Measure-and-Control Center)
Il-76/A-50 based Range Control and Missile tracking platform. Initially built to support Raduga Kh-55 cruise missile tests.
Izdeliye-1076
Special mission aircraft for unknown duties.
Izdeliye-1176
ELINT electronic intelligence aircraft, or Il-76-11

Military variants[]

Il-76MD-90A of the Russian Air Force
Il-76MD GSh-23 tail guns
Il-76MD cargo cabin
Il-76-Tu160 tailplane transporter
One-off temporary conversion to support Tu-160 emergency modification programme.
Il-76D
('D' for "Desantnyi", Десантный – "Paratrooper transport") has a gun turret in the tail for defensive purposes.
Il-76K/Il-76MDK/Il-76MDK-II
Zero-g cosmonaut trainer (dlya podgotovki kosmonavtov), for Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center.
Il-76LL
Engine testbed, (ooniversahl'naya letayuschchaya laboratoriya).
Il-76M
Military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy – modified).
Il-76MD
Improved military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy Dahl'ny – modified, long-range).
Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT
Mobile Hospital
Il-76M / Il-76MD
Built without military equipment but designated as Ms and MDs (Gordon – 'Falsies')
Il-76MD-90
An Il-76MD with quieter and more economical Aviadvigatel PS-90 high-bypass turbofan engines.
Il-76MF
Stretched military version with a 6.6 m longer fuselage, PS-90 engines, maximum takeoff weight of 210 tonnes and a lift capability of 60 tonnes. First flew in 1995, not built in series so far,[1] just built for Jordan.
Il-76PP
ECM aircraft, major problems with ECM equipment on the Izdeliye-176 only.
Il-76MD-M
Modernized Il-76MD for the Russian Air Force.[26][27][28]
Il-76MD-90A
An upgraded version with a new glass cockpit, upgraded avionics, new internal wing structure and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines. It was also known as Il-476 while in development.[29][30]
Il-76T/Il-76TD
Built as military aircraft but given civilian designations. (Gordon – 'Falsie')
Ilyushin Il-78 / Il-78M
Aerial refuelling tanker.
Il-78 MKI
A customized version of the Il-78 developed for the Indian Air Force.
Il-82
Airborne Command Post/communications relay aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76VKP-'version65S').
Il-84
Maritime Search and Rescue aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76PS-poiskovo-spasahtel'nyy), not produced.
Beriev A-50/Beriev A-50M/Beriev A-50I/Beriev A-50E
Airborne Early Warning & Control aircraft. Beriev given control over the program.
Beriev A-100
An AEW&C version of the Il-76MD-90A.

Civil variants[]

A commercial variant of the Ilyushin Il-76, loading cargo at Ali Air Base, Iraq.
An Il-76TD belonging to the IRGC, used as a firefighting aircraft.
Il-76MGA
Initial Commercial freighter. (two prototypes and 12 production) equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.[31]
Il-76MD to Il-76TD conversions
Complete removal of Military equipment, identified by crude cover over OBIGGS inlet in Starboard Sponson.
Il-76P / Il-76TP / Il-76TDP / Il-76MDP
Firefighting aircraft. The Il-76 waterbomber is a VAP-2 1.5 hour install/removal tanking kit conversion. The Il-76 can carry up to 13,000 U.S. gallons (49,000 liters) of water; 3.5 times the capacity of the C-130 Hercules. Since this kit can be installed on any Il-76, the designation Il-76TP, Il-76TDP are also used when those versions of the Il-76 are converted into waterbombers. The Il-76P was first unveiled in 1990.
Il-76T
('T' for Transport, Транспортный) unarmed civil cargo transport version. NATO code-name "Candid-A". It first flew on November 4, 1978.
Il-76TD
The civil equivalent of the Il-76MD, first flew in 1982, equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.[31]
Il-76TD-90VD
An Il-76TD with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines and a partial glass cockpit. It was developed specially for Volga-Dnepr cargo company, which operates four aircraft as of 2012.
Il-76TD-S
Civilian mobile Hospital, similar to Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT.
Il-76TF
Civil transport stretched version with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines. It is the civil version of the Il-76MF (none produced).

Foreign variants[]

The A-50E/I Mainstay of the Indian Air Force
Beriev A-50E/I
For the Indian Air Force. Hosts Israeli Phalcon radar for AEW&C and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines.[32]
Il-76MD tanker
Iraqi Air Force tanker conversions.
KJ-2000
Domestic Chinese airborne early warning and control conversion of Il-76, developed after A-50I was cancelled and currently in service with the armed forces of China.
CFTE engine testbed
The China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE) currently operates a flying testbed converted from a Russian-made Il-76MD jet transport aircraft to serve as a flying testbed for future engine development programmes. The first engine to be tested on the aircraft is the WS-10A "Taihang" turbofan, currently being developed as the powerplant for China's indigenous J-10 and J-11 fighter aircraft. Il-76MD #76456, acquired by the AVIC 1 from Russia in the 1990s, is currently based at CFTE's flight test facility at Yanliang, Shaanxi Province.
Baghdad-1
Iraqi development with a radar mounted in the cargo hold, used in the Iran–Iraq War.
Baghdad-2
Iraqi development (with French assistance) with fibreglass-reinforced plastic radome over the antenna of the Thomson-CSF Tiger G surveillance radar with a maximum detection range of 350 km (189 nmi, 217.5 mi). One was destroyed on the ground during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; two others were flown to Iran where they remained.[33] At least one went into service with the IRIAF. One aircraft crashed following a midair collision with a HESA Saeqeh fighter, during the annual, Iranian military parade in Teheran.[34] It can be distinguished from the Beriev A-50 by having the Il-76 navigator windows in the nose, which the A-50 does not.

Operators[]

Present and ex-Il-76 operators. (Red=Military only. Green=Civilian only. Blue=Both)
Indian air force pilots walk away from their Il-76 medium cargo jet after landing at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii.
Il-76 of the Indian Air Force lands in Leh, Ladakh.
IAF IL-76 MD K2902 at Leh
Air Almaty Il-76T

Military and civil operators in 38 countries have operated 850+ Il-76 in large numbers. While Russia is the largest military operator of the Il-76, followed by Ukraine and India, Belarus' TransAVIAexport Airlines is the largest civilian operator.

 Algeria
 Angola
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
 Bahrain
 Belarus
 Burkina Faso
 Cambodia
 China
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Republic of the Congo
 Cuba
 Equatorial Guinea
 Georgia
 Hungary
 India
 Iran
 Iraq
 Jordan
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Laos
 Latvia
 Libya
 Mali
 Moldova
 North Korea
 Russia
 Serbia
 Sierra Leone
 Soviet Union
 Sudan
 Syria
Ilyushin Il-76TD of Turkmenistan Airlines
 Turkmenistan
Loading BMD-1 in Ukrainian Air Force IL-76
 Ukraine
 United Nations
 United States
 United Arab Emirates
 Uzbekistan
 Yemen

Accidents[]

As of April 2018 a total of 80 Il-76 series aircraft have been written off in crashes and other incidents,[51] including the following:

Aircraft on display[]

Specifications (Il-76TD-90)[]

Ilyushin Il-76.svg

Data from Ilyushin,[72] Aviadvigatel,[73] Volga-Dnepr Airlines.[74]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

See also[]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

Notes[]

  1. ^ 92,000 kg (Il-76MD/TD), 104,000 kg (Il-76MF/TF)
  2. ^ for other models: 170,000 kg (Il-76M/T), 190,000 kg Il-76MD/TD), 210,000 kg (Il-76MF/TF)
  3. ^ 633.3 kg/m² (Il-76MD/TD)
  4. ^ 0.282 (Il-76M/T), 0.252 (Il-76MD/TD), 0.228 (Il-76MF/TF)

References[]

  1. ^ a b c d Butowski, Piotr. Iliuszyn Ił-76 powraca. Lotnictwo nr. 9/2004, p. 28-32 (in Polish)
  2. ^ "Ilyushin beriev IL-76 Candid (Gajraj)". Indian-military.org. Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  3. ^ [ Ilyushin Il-76: Russia's Versatile Jet Freighter]
  4. ^ "Ilyushin". Flightglobal. Flight International. 4 December 1996. Archived from the original on 2013-02-09.
  5. ^ a b c d e Butowski, Piotr. Rosyjski kontrakt na Ił-76 i Ił-78 dla Chin. Lotnictwo nr. 1/2007, pp. 54–55 (in Polish)
  6. ^ "Commercial aircraft of the world–Ilyushin Il-76". Flight International. 4283 (140): 66. 4–10 September 1991.
  7. ^ "IL-76MD aircraft will be provided to China". Retrieved 2013-06-17.[unreliable source?]
  8. ^ "File:Марка России 2006г №1073-Самолет ИЛ-76ТД и научно-экспедиционное судно "Академик Федоров"; панорама станции.jpg". Stamps of Russia. Publishing and Trading Centre "Marka". 2006-01-26. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  9. ^ A-60 brief description
  10. ^ "Поставки транспортников Ил-476 заказчикам начнутся в 2012 году - ВПК.name". Vpk.name. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  11. ^ http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/il-476-russia-begins-production-of-modernized-jet-transports-07569/
  12. ^ Первый серийный самолет Ил-76МД-90А передан Минобороны России [The first production aircraft Il-76MD-90A passed the Russian Defense Ministry]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. 
  13. ^ a b "Russian Defense Ministry Signs Multi-billion-dollar Plane Contract". RIA Novosti. 4 October 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07.
  14. ^ Canadian Parliament Website Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ "IL-76s' mission in PLAAF, China". Retrieved 2011-09-06.
  16. ^ Hassan, Mohamed Olad (24 March 2007). "Cargo Plane Shot Down in Somalia". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-06-28.
  17. ^ Wilson, Nigel (24 March 2013). "I flew secret missions carrying cash and weapons into Syria for Assad, pilot reveals". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  18. ^ https://www.propublica.org/article/flight-records-list-russia-sending-tons-of-cash-to-syria
  19. ^ http://www.contact.az/docs/2013/Politics/032600032347en.htm#.Ud5Cym15uJI Archived 2013-04-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ "Ukrainian military plane with at least 49 aboard shot down". ion.cnn.com. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  21. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Military plane shot down in Luhansk". BBC Online. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  22. ^ "49 killed when Ukraine military plane downed: defence spokesman". xin.msn.com
  23. ^ http://rt.com/news/165880-ukraine-lugansk-jet-paratroopers/
  24. ^ Gabbert, Author Bill. "Russian IL-76 completes its assignment in Chile". Fire Aviation. Retrieved 2017-06-12.
  25. ^ "The Ilyushin Il-76". Vectorsite.net. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  26. ^ "ОАО "Ил" приступило к работам по модернизации... | ОАО "Ил"". ilyushin.org. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
  27. ^ http://www.armstrade.org/includes/periodics/news/2018/0313/104545769/detail.shtml
  28. ^ http://www.airrecognition.com/index.php/archive-world-worldwide-news-air-force-aviation-aerospace-air-military-defence-industry/global-defense-security-news/global-news-2018/march/4157-russian-air-force-receives-first-upgraded-ilyushin-il-76md-m.html
  29. ^ IL-476: Russia's New Medium-Heavy Transport Jet
  30. ^ "First serial-production Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A strategic airlifter made its maiden flight". January 5, 2015.
  31. ^ a b http://www.airvectors.net/avil76.html
  32. ^ Aviation and Aerospace
  33. ^ AEW&C and Hawkeyes – The Complete History of Airborne Early Warning
  34. ^ IRIAF IL-76MD "Simorgh" (Phoenix) AWACS Crash (Sep 22, 2009) on YouTube
  35. ^ a b Hradecky, Simon (December 2, 2012). "Crash: Aero Services IL76 at Brazzaville on Nov 30th 2012, clipped trees then impacted buildings short of runway". Aviation Herald.
  36. ^ [1] Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ Retrieved 2 December 2015. FlightStats. Global Aviation Services 509 Flight Status
  38. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/il-76-production.htm
  39. ^ http://theaviationist.com/2014/11/07/y-20-at-zhuhai/
  40. ^ "India Seeks To Bolster Transport With ten C-17s". Defense News. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2010-11-06.[dead link]
  41. ^ "Indian Air Force :: Aircraft Fleet Strength". Bharat-rakshak.com. 2009-10-19. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  42. ^ Jordan International Air Cargo Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ "Lease Archived 2009-09-24 at the Wayback Machine.". AirAlmaty.kz
  44. ^ Jet Line
  45. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  46. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  47. ^ "Fleet in Flight Radar". Retrieved 2017-09-24.
  48. ^ a b Trgovao oružjem sa bivšim agentima KGB at Blic Online, 17-12-2009, retrieved 19-11-2013 (in Serbian)
  49. ^ "Ilyushin 76 Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.", Aerolift Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ "JUBA Cargo". Archived from the original on 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2006-12-30.
  51. ^ "Ilyushin Il-76 hull losses". Aviation Safety Network. 9 August 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  52. ^ Accident description for CCCP-86714 at the Aviation Safety Network
  53. ^ Accident description for CCCP-86732 at the Aviation Safety Network
  54. ^ Accident description for RA-76513 at the Aviation Safety Network
  55. ^ Accident description for RA-78804 at the Aviation Safety Network
  56. ^ "IL-76 hits mountain". Flight International. 4 December 1996. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05.
  57. ^ Astill, James (10 May 2003). "At 10,000 feet the door flipped open and scores of passengers were sucked out". The Guardian. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 2013-06-28.
  58. ^ "Safety Review", Flight International, 20–26 January 2004 page 39
  59. ^ Accident description for RA-76827 at the Aviation Safety Network
  60. ^ Accident description for RA-76825 at the Aviation Safety Network
  61. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Aerolift IL76 at Entebbe on Mar 9th 2009, impacted Lake Victoria after takeoff". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  62. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  63. ^ "Iranian Military Planes Crashes in Annual Parade". Defensenews. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  64. ^ https://www.rferl.org/a/Cargo_Plane_Crashes_In_Eastern_Russia_11_Dead/1866269.html
  65. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Sun Way IL76 at Karachi on Nov 28th 2010, engine fire". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  66. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Silk Way IL76 near Bagram on Jul 6th 2011, impacted mountain". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  67. ^ "Cargo plane crash in Afghanistan". BBC News. 6 July 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-06-25.
  68. ^ "2012 Ilyushin 76T Accident". Accident description. aviation-safety.net. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  69. ^ "Plane crashes houses in Congo killing 30". heraldsun.com.au. Australian Associated Press (AAP). 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  70. ^ http://sputniknews.com/russia/20160704/1042383767/russia-irkutsk-plane-crash-bodies-found.html
  71. ^ "Algeria plane crash sees '105 killed' after coming down near airport". The Sun. 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  72. ^ "IL-76TD-90." Archived 2009-11-03 at the Wayback Machine. Ilyushin.
  73. ^ "PS-90A-76 Aircraft Engine." Aviadvigate.
  74. ^ "IL-76TD-90VD" (PDF). Volga-Dnepr Airlines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-24.
  75. ^ Elodie Roux: Turbofan and Turbojet Engines: Database Handbook, Blagnac France, 2007, ISBN 9782952938013, p. 155

External links[]