Human outpost

Human outposts[1][2][3][4] are artificially-created, controlled human habitats located in environments inhospitable for humans, such as on the ocean floor, in space or on another planet.

The logistics and difficulties inherent in such ventures have been heavily explored in science fiction.

In fiction[]

Human outposts in other worlds are a common motif in science fiction, whether established and occupied solely by humans or in cooperation – or competition – with alien species. The setting may be another planet, Earth-like or otherwise; or a spaceship large enough to house a city.

Reality: Scientific advances[]

Under sea[]

NASA trains astronauts in an underwater habitat, to simulate living and working in the International Space Station. They conduct scientific research on the human body and coral reefs, and build undersea structures to simulate space station assembly spacewalk tasks. The program is also being used to study how isolation affects human behaviour, to prepare for the first human outposts on the Moon and Mars.[5][6]

Outer space[]

The Salyut 1 space station in low Earth orbit was the first human outpost in space. The only current human outposts in space are the International Space Station and China's Tiangong-2.

NanoRacks, after finalizing its contract with NASA, and after winning NextSTEPs Phase II award, is now developing its concept Independence-1 (previously known as Ixion), the first 'outpost' in NanoRacks' Space Outpost Program, which would turn spent rocket tanks into a habitable living area, often known as a wet workshop.

Planning and design for Lunar[2][7] and Martian outposts is underway.[4]

See also[]


  1. ^ 'Trash Can' Nuclear Reactors Could Power Human Outpost On Moon Or Mars; Oct. 4, 2009; ScienceDaily
  2. ^ a b David, Leonard (4 March 2004). "NASA goes lunar: Robot craft, human outpost plans". USA Today.
  3. ^ Ice, mineral-rich soil could support human outpost on Mars; by Sharon Gaudin; 27 June 2008; IDG News Service
  4. ^ a b Resource Utilization Concepts for MoonMars; ByIris Fleischer, Olivia Haider, Morten W. Hansen, Robert Peckyno, Daniel Rosenberg and Robert E. Guinness; 30 September 2003; IAC Bremen, 2003 (29 Sept – 03 Oct 2003) and MoonMars Workshop (26-28 Sept 2003, Bremen). Accessed on 18 January 2010
  5. ^ Astronaut Leads Aquanauts On Aquarius Undersea Mission; June 17, 2003; ScienceDaily. Also see [1]
  6. ^ In Undersea Habitat, Aquanauts Learn About Teamwork And Task Performance For The Moon And Mars; May 9, 2006; ScienceDaily
  7. ^ Small Robots Can Prepare Lunar Surface For NASA Outpost; Mar. 2, 2009; ScienceDaily

Further reading[]