Hiriq

Ḥiriq
ִ
IPA Hebrew: i
Yiddish: ɪ
Transliteration i
English approximation Hebrew: ski
Yiddish: skip
Ḥiriq Example
נִקּוּד
The word niqqud in Hebrew. The first vowel (the dot underneath the letter) is a ḥiriq itself.
Ḥiriq male Example
תִּינוֹק
The word "baby" in Hebrew with niqqud. Notice the additional Yudי‬⟩.
Other Niqqud
Shva · Hiriq · Tzere · Segol · Patach · Kamatz · Holam · Dagesh · Mappiq · Shuruk · Kubutz · Rafe · Sin/Shin Dot

Hiriq (Hebrew: חִירִיקḥiriq  IPA: [χiˈʁik]) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a single dot ⟨ ִ‬ ⟩ underneath the letter. In Modern Hebrew, it indicates the phoneme /i/ which is similar to the "ee" sound in the English word deep and is transliterated with "i". In Yiddish, it indicates the phoneme /ɪ/ which is the same as the "i" sound in the English word skip and is transliterated with "i".

Spelling[]

When writing with niqqud, the letter yudי‬⟩ is often written after the letter that carries the Hiriq sign. This is called ḥiriq male (Hebrew: חִירִיק מָלֵאIPA: [χiˈʁik maˈle]), meaning "full" (or "plene") hiriq. In writing without niqqud, the letter yud is added more often as a mater lectionis, than in writing with niqqud, The main exception is the i vowel in a syllable that ends with shva naḥ. For example the words סִדְרָה (series) and סִדְּרָה (she organized) are pronounced identically in modern Hebrew, but in spelling without niqqud סִדְרָה is written סדרה because there is a shva naḥ on the letter ד, and סִדְּרָה is written סידרה.

In Yiddish orthography the ḥiriq is placed under the yudיִ‬⟩.

Pronunciation[]

The following table contains the pronunciation and transliteration of the different Hiriqs in reconstructed historical forms and dialects using the International Phonetic Alphabet. The pronunciation in IPA is above and the transliteration is below.

The letter Bet (ב‬) used in this table is only for demonstration. Any letter can be used.

Symbol Name Pronunciation
Israeli Ashkenazi Sephardi Yemenite Tiberian Reconstructed
Mishnaic Biblical
בִ Hiriq [i] [i] [i] [i] [i, iː] ? ?
בִי Ḥiriq male
(Also called, Ḥiriq Yud)
[i] [iː] [iː] [iː] [iː] ? ?

Vowel length comparison[]

These vowels lengths are not manifested in Modern Hebrew. In addition, the short i is usually promoted to a long i in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation.

Vowel comparison table
Vowel Length IPA Transliteration English
approximation
Long Short Very Short
ִ י ִ n/a [i] i ski
Yiddish orthography style
Vowel IPA Transliteration English
approximation
No length distinction
[ɪ] i skip

Note: In Yiddish orthography only, the glyph, yud-ḥiriq (‬), pronounced /i/, can be optionally used, rather than typing yud then ḥiriq (יִ‬). In Hebrew spelling this would be pronounced /ji//i/ is written ḥiriq then yud (ִ י‬ ).

Computer encoding[]

Glyph Unicode Name
ִ U+05B4 HIRIQ

See also[]