Gujarati phonology

Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat. Much of its phonology is derived from Sanskrit.

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e ə o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open (æ) ɑ

Consonants[]

Consonants
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Postal.
/Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
aspirated () ʈʰ tʃʰ
murmured ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ
voiced (z) ɦ
Approximant ʋ l ɭ̆[6] j
Flap ɾ

Phonotactical constraints include:

Gemination can serve as intensification. In some adjectives and adverbs, a singular consonant before the agreement vowel can be doubled for intensification.[14] #VCũ → #VCCũ.

big [moʈũ] [moʈʈũ] big
straight [sidʱũ] [siddʱũ] straight
considerably [kʰɑsũ] [kʰɑssũ] considerably

Stress[]

The matter of stress is not quite clear:

ə-deletion[]

Schwa-deletion, along with a-reduction and [ʋ]-insertion, is a phonological process at work in the combination of morphemes. It is a common feature among Indo-Aryan languages, referring to the deletion of a stem's final syllable's /ə/ before a suffix starting with a vowel.[15]

This does not apply for monosyllabic stems and consonant clusters. So, better put, #VCəC + V# → #VCCV#. It also doesn't apply when the addition is an o plural marker (see Gujarati grammar#Nouns) or e as an ergative case marker (see Gujarati grammar#Postpositions).[18]}} It sometimes doesn't apply for e as a locative marker.

Stem Suffix Suffixed stem C/V Del Notes
verb root [keɭəʋ] educate [iʃ] 1st person singular, future [keɭʋiʃ] will educate CVCəC + VC → CVCCVC Yes Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (verbal declension).
[səmədʒ] understand [jɑ] masculine plural, perfective [səmdʒjɑ] understood CVCəC + CV → CVCCCV Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a semi-vowel (verbal declension).
[utəɾ] descend [to] masculine singular, imperfective [utəɾto] descending VCəC + CV → VCəCCV No Suffix starting with a consonant.
[təɾ] swim, float [ɛ] 2nd person singular, present [təɾɛ] swimming, floating CəC + V → CəCV Monosyllabic.
[ʋəɾɳəʋ] describe [i] feminine, perfective [ʋəɾɳəʋi] described CVCCəC + VC → CVCCəCVC Consonant cluster.
[ɑɭoʈ] wallow, roll [iʃũ] 1st person plural, future [ɑɭoʈiʃũ] will wallow, roll VCoC + VCV → VCoCVCV Non-ə.
noun [ɑɭəs] laziness [ũ] adjectival marker [ɑɭsũ] lazy VCəC + V → VCCV Yes Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (adjectival marking).
[ʋəkʰət] time [e] locative marker [ʋəkte] at (the) time CVCəC + V → CVCCV Sometimes yes — e as a locative marker.
[diʋəs] day [diʋəse] on (the) day CVCəC + V → CVCəCV No Sometimes no — e as a locative marker.
[ɾəmət] game [o] plural marker [ɾəməto] games CVCəC + V → CVCəCV Plural o number marker suffix.
adjective [ɡəɾəm] hot [i] noun marker [ɡəɾmi] heat CVCəC + V → CVCCV Yes Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (noun marking).

ɑ-reduction[]

A stem's final syllable's /ɑ/ will reduce to /ə/ before a suffix starting with /ɑ/. #ɑC(C) + ɑ# → #eC(C)ɑ#. This can be seen in the derivation of nouns from adjective stems, and in the formation of passive and causative forms of verb stems.[19]

Stem Suffix Suffixed Stem Reduced
cut [kɑp] [ɑ] [kəpɑ] be cut Passive Yes
[ɑʋ] [kəpɑʋ] cause to cut Causative
cause
to cut
[kəpɑʋ] [ɑ] [kəpɑʋɑ] cause to be cut Causative Passive No[a]
[ɖɑʋ] [kəpɑʋɖɑʋ] cause to cause to cut Double Causative
use [ʋɑpəɾ] [ɑ] [ʋəpɾɑ][b] be used Passive Yes
long [lɑmb] [ɑi] [ləmbɑi] length Noun
  1. ^ It does not happen a second time.
  2. ^ It can take place after an ə-deletion. #ɑCəC + ɑ# → #əCCɑ#.

[ʋ]-insertion[]

Between a stem ending in a vowel and its suffix starting with a vowel, a [ʋ] is inserted.[20] #V + V# → #VʋV#. This can be seen in the formation of passive and causative forms of verb stems.

Stem Suffix Suffixed stem
see [dʒo] [ɑ] [dʒoʋɑ] be seen
sing [ɡɑ] [ɑɽ] [ɡəʋɑɽ] cause to sing

The second example shows an ɑ-reduction as well.

ə-insertion[]

ə finds itself inserted between the emphatic particle /dʒ/ and consonant-terminating words it postpositions.[21]

one [ek] [ekədʒ] one
that [e] [edʒ] that

Murmur[]

/ɦ/ serves as a source for murmur, of which there are three rules:[22]

Rule Formal[a] Casual English
1 Word-initial ɦV → V̤[b] [ɦəʋe] [ə̤ʋe] now
[ɦɑɽkũ] [ɑ̤ɽkũ] bone
2 əɦVnon-high
non-high, more open
[səɦelũ] [sɛ̤lũ] easy
[bəɦoɭũ] [bɔ̤ɭũ] large
[dəɦɑɽo] [da̤ɽo][c] day
3 ə/aɦVhighə̤/ɑ̤ (glide) [ɾəɦi] [ɾə̤j] stayed
[bəɦu] [bə̤ʋ] very
  1. ^ Gujarati spelling reflects this mode. The script has no direct notation for murmur.
  2. ^ Rule 1 creates allomorphs for nouns. For example, /ɦəd/ ('limit') by itself can be ə̤d, but can only be ɦəd in beɦəd ('limitless').
  3. ^ More open.

The table below compares declensions of the verbs [kəɾʋũ] ('to do') and [kɛ̤ʋũ] ('to say'). The former follows the regular pattern of the stable root /kəɾ/ serving as a point for characteristic suffixations. The latter, on the other hand, is deviant and irregular in this respect.

Infinitive Perfective Imperative 1sg. Future
[kəɾʋũ] [kəɾjũ] [kəɾo] [kəɾiʃ]
[kɛ̤ʋũ] [kəɦjũ] [kɔ̤] [kə̤jʃ]

The [kɛ̤ʋũ] situation can be explained through murmur. If to a formal or historical root of /kəɦe/ these rules are considered then predicted, explained, and made regular is the irregularity that is [kɛ̤ʋũ] (romanized as kahevũ).

Thus below are the declensions of [kɛ̤ʋũ] /ɦ/-possessing, murmur-eliciting root /kəɦe/, this time with the application of the murmur rules on the root shown, also to which a preceding rule must be taken into account:

0. A final root vowel gets deleted before a suffix starting with a non-consonant.
Rule Infinitive Perfective Imperative 1sg. Future
[kəɦe-ʋũ] [kəɦe-jũ] [kəɦe-o] [kəɦe-iʃ]
0 [kəɦ-jũ] [kəɦ-o] [kəɦ-iʃ]
2 [kɛ̤-ʋũ] [kɔ̤]
3 [kə̤-jʃ]
[kɛ̤ʋũ] [kəɦjũ] [kɔ̤] [kə̤jʃ]

However, in the end not all instances of /ɦ/ become murmured and not all murmur comes from instances of /ɦ/.

One other predictable source for murmur is voiced aspirated stops. A clear vowel followed by a voiced aspirated stop can vary with a pair gaining murmur and losing aspiration: #VCʱ ←→ #V̤C.

References[]

  1. ^ Mistry (2003), p. 115.
  2. ^ a b c d e Mistry (2003), p. 116.
  3. ^ a b Cardona & Suthar (2003), p. 662.
  4. ^ Mistry (2003), pp. 115–116.
  5. ^ Mistry (1996), pp. 391–393.
  6. ^ a b Masica (1991), p. 97.
  7. ^ a b c d Mistry (1997), p. 659.
  8. ^ Cardona & Suthar (2003), p. 665.
  9. ^ a b c d Cardona (2003), p. 665.
  10. ^ Mistry (2001), p. 275.
  11. ^ Mistry (1997), p. 658.
  12. ^ a b c Cardona & Suthar (2003), p. 666.
  13. ^ Mistry (2001), p. 274.
  14. ^ Mistry (1997), p. 670.
  15. ^ a b Mistry (1997), p. 660.
  16. ^ Campbell (1991), p. ?.
  17. ^ UCLA Language Materials Project: Gujarati. Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2007-04-29
  18. ^ Mistry (1997), pp. 661–662.
  19. ^ Mistry (1997), p. 662.
  20. ^ Mistry (1997), p. 663.
  21. ^ Cardona & Suthar (2003), p. 667.
  22. ^ Mistry (1997), pp. 666–668.

Bibliography[]