Gerundive

In Latin grammar, a gerundive (/əˈrʌndɪv/) is a verb form that functions as a verbal adjective.

In Classical Latin, the gerundive is distinct in form and function from the gerund and the present active participle. In Late Latin, the differences were largely lost, resulting in a form derived from the gerund or gerundive but functioning more like a participle. The adjectival gerundive form survives in the formation of progressive aspect forms in Italian, Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese. In French the adjectival gerundive and participle forms merged completely, and the term gérondif is used for adverbial use of -ant forms.[1]

There is no true equivalent to the gerundive in English; the closest translation is a passive to-infinitive non-finite clause such as books to be read. That reflects the most common use of the Latin gerundive, to combine a transitive verb (such as read) and its object (such as books), usually with a sense of obligation. Another translation is the recent development of the must- prefix as in a must-read book.[2]

Latin[]

Form[]

The Latin gerundive is a form of the verb. It is composed of

For example

laud- -a- -nd- -us, -a, -um First conjugation laudandus, -a, -um 'concerned with the act of praising' homo laudandus est— 'the man is to be praised'
mon- -e- -nd- -us, -a, -um Second conjugation monendus, -a, -um 'concerned with the act of warning' mulier monenda est — 'the woman is to be warned'
leg- -e- -nd- -us, -a, -um Third conjugation legendus, -a, -um 'concerned with the act of reading' volumen legendum est — 'the volume is to be read'
capi- -e- -nd- -us, -a, -um Third conjugation capiendus, -a, -um 'concerned with the act of taking' castra capienda sunt — 'the camp is to be taken'
audi- -e- -nd- -us, -a, -um Fourth conjugation audiendus, -a, -um 'concerned with the act of hearing' voces audiendae sunt — 'the voices are to be heard'

Related gerund forms are composed in a similar way with nominal inflexional endings.

Meaning and use[]

In principle, the gerundive could express a wide range of meaning relationships: 'capable of, 'prone to', 'ripe for' (killing, dying, rising, rolling etc). Some gerundives have much the same meaning as present participles: secundus 'following'; oriendus 'arising, descended from'; volvendus 'rolling'. Originally it could express active or passive meaning, and therefore could be used with verbs in intransitive as well as transitive use. However, the great majority of gerundive forms were used with passive meaning of transitive verbs.

In principle, the gerundive could be used as either a predicative or attributive adjective. However, attributive use was rare, largely confined to verbs expressing approval or disapproval. The predicative use invited a secondary meaning of obligation (a meaning not shared with the gerund). Thus

ATTRIBUTIVE agnus caedundus 'a lamb ready for slaughtering'
PREDICATIVE agnus est caedundus 'The lamb is for slaughter', 'The lamb is to be slaughtered', 'The lamb must be slaughtered'

This sense of obligation with passive meaning is by far the most common use of the gerundive.[3] Thus it has been equated with a future passive participle.

A neuter form without a noun may function as an impersonal expression, for example: addendum 'something to be added'; referendum 'something to be referred back'. These are not gerund forms; the -um form of the gerund is used only after prepositions. The plural forms without nouns such as agenda 'things to be done' are also adjectival gerundives; the gerund has no plural form.

For details of the formation and usage of the Latin gerundive, see Latin conjugation § Gerundive and Latin syntax § The gerundive.

Gerundive expressions widely quoted or adopted in English[]

Later developments[]

In Late Latin, the distinction between gerundive and future participle was sometimes lost. Thus, gerundive moriendi is found for morituri 'about to die'. Conversely, future particles recepturus and scripturus are found for recipientus and scriptures. More regularly, the gerundive came to be used as a future passive participle. Eventually the gerundive in the nominative case came to substitute for the present participle.[4]

English[]

The term is occasionally used in descriptions of English grammar, to denote the present participle used adjectivally or adverbially e.g. 'take a running jump'. That form, ending in -ing, is identical to that of the English gerund, but it is generally called a gerund when it is used as a noun, not as an adjective or adverb e.g. 'the running of the deer'.[5]

Old Irish[]

In Old Irish, a form known in the literature as the verbal of necessity is used as the predicate of the copula in the function of the Latin gerundive, e.g. inna hí atá adamraigthi "the things that are to be admired".[6][7]

Pali[]

The term gerundive may be used in grammars and dictionaries of Pali, for example the Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary of 1921-25.[8] It is referred to by some other writers as the participle of necessity, the potential participle or the future passive participle. It is used with the same meaning as the Latin gerundive.

Tigrinya[]

In the east African Semitic language Tigrinya, gerundive is used to denote a particular finite verb form, not a verbal adjective or adverb. Generally, it denotes completed action that is still relevant. A verb in the gerundive can be used alone or serially with another gerundive verb. In the latter case, it may sometimes be translated with an adverbial clause: bitri hidju kheydu (literally, "a-stick he-took-hold-of he-began-walking") means "while holding a stick, he is walking", i.e. "he is carrying a stick". See Tigrinya verbs.

References[]

  1. ^ Posner, Rebecca. 1996, The Romance Languages. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-28139-3 p. 175.
  2. ^ Referendums and the Gerundive, Mark Forsyth.
  3. ^ Palmer, L.R. , 1954, The Latin Language, London. Faber and Faber. pp 320-322.
  4. ^ Palmer 1954. p 17
  5. ^ The KISS Approach to Grammar in the Curriculum
  6. ^ Rudolf Thurneysen (1946, reprinted 1980), A Grammar of Old Irish (translated by D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, p. 443.
  7. ^ Whitley Stokes and John Strachan (eds.) (1901, reprinted 1987), Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, vol. I, p. 217, Ml. 64c3.
  8. ^ Pali Text Society Pali-English Dictionary, ed by T W Rhys Davids and William Stede, 1921-25

External links[]

The following pages provide definitions or glosses of the term gerundive: