France competed at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, Australia and Stockholm, Sweden (equestrian events). 137 competitors, 119 men and 18 women, took part in 95 events in 15 sports.
- Georges Dransart and Marcel Renaud — Canoeing, Men's C2 10,000m Canadian Pairs
- René Bianchi, Jean Graczyk, Jean-Claude Lecante, and Michel Vermeulin — Cycling, Men's 4000m Team Pursuit
- Arnaud Geyre — Cycling, Men's Individual Road Race
- Bernard Baudoux, Roger Closset, René Coicaud, Christian d'Oriola, Jacques Lataste, and Claude Netter — Fencing, Men's Foil Team
- René Libeer — Boxing, Men's Flyweight
- Gilbert Chapron — Boxing, Men's Middleweight
- Daniel Dagallier, Yves Dreyfus, Armand Mouyal, Claude Nigon, and René Queyroux — Fencing, Men's Épée Team
- Renée Garilhe — Fencing, Women's Foil Individual
- Yves Delacour, Guy Guillabert, René Guissart, and Gaston Mercier — Rowing, Men's Coxless Fours
- Jean Debuf — Weightlifting, Men's Middle Heavyweight
Men's 110m Hurdles
- Time trial
- Team pursuit
- Team time trial
- Individual time trial
Women's 10m Platform
18 fencers, 15 men and 3 women, represented France in 1956.
- Men's foil
- Men's team foil
- Men's épée
- Men's team épée
- Men's sabre
- Men's team sabre
- Women's foil
One male pentathlete represented France in 1956.
France had 13 male rowers participate in two out of seven rowing events in 1956.
- Men's coxless four
- Men's eight
Five shooters represented France in 1956.
- 25 m pistol
- 50 m pistol
- 50 m rifle, three positions
- 50 m rifle, prone