An enclosure castle is a defended residence or stronghold, built mainly of stone, in which the principal or sole defence comprises the walls and towers. Within the walls one can find the buildings associated with a medieval military settlement: a warden's house, barracks, kitchens, stables, a chapel, and a keep. Examples include Kenilworth Castle, Clitheroe Castle, and Ludlow Castle. Many in England are under the protection of English Heritage, which has counted 126 examples. There are several in Ireland also, for example King John's Castle, Carlingford.
The first examples in England were constructed shortly after the Norman Conquest, as strongholds for the occupiers. Their form developed in the 12th century as the military experience gained by the crusaders was introduced into their home residences. The majority of extant examples were built in the 13th century, though a few were built in the 14th century. They occur throughout England though more are located near the vulnerable channel ports in Kent and Sussex, and by Edward I along the Welsh borders. 
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