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politics and government of
The President of Mexico is elected for a six-year term by the people. The candidate who wins a plurality of votes is elected president.
Since no President can serve more than a single term in office, every presidential election in Mexico is a non-incumbent election.
The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) has 500 members, elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies. The 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats (Parallel voting), but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats (a party must win 42% of the votes for the PR-seats to achieve an overall majority). There are two exceptions on this rule: first, a party can only lose PR-seats due to this rule (and no plurality-seats); second, a party can never get more than 300 seats overall (even if it has more than 52% of the votes for the PR-seats).
The Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies (corresponding to the nation's 31 states and one Federal District) and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up.
At the local level, each of Mexico's 31 constituent states elects a governor to serve a six-year term; they also elect legislative deputies who sit in state congresses, and municipal presidents (presidentes municipales, or mayors). The Federal District (Mexico City) elects a Head of Government in lieu of a mayor, district assemblymen in lieu of state congressional deputies, and borough heads in lieu of municipal presidents.
Mexico has a multi-party system, with three dominant political parties, prior to 2000 Mexico had a Dominant-party system dominated by the Institutional Revolutionary Party, and a number of smaller ones. Alliances and coalitions are common; normally, they are local (state) affairs and involve one of the big three and any number of minor parties; on extraordinary occasions, two of the big three will ally themselves against the third (see, for example, 2003 Colima state election or 2004 Chihuahua state election).
Additionally Article 2 of the Mexican constitution provides for the self-government of indigenous communities according to their 'traditional customs' (Spanish: sistema de usos y costumbres). This has resulted in several indigenous communities of Mexico maintaining local systems, notably those of Cherán, and areas under Councils of Good Government control.
National Congress (June)
National Congress (July)
|President and vice president||None|
|National Congress||All seats||None||All seats||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||None||All positions||None|
National Congress (December)
National Congress (December)
|National Congress||1 December||None||1 December||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||None||1 December||None|
|Enrique Peña Nieto||Institutional Revolutionary Party||18,727,398||38.15|
|Andrés Manuel López Obrador||Party of the Democratic Revolution||15,535,117||31.64|
|Josefina Vázquez Mota||National Action Party||12,473,106||25.40|
|Gabriel Quadri de la Torre||New Alliance Party||1,129,108||2.36|
|Source: PREP (98.95% of polling stations reporting)|
|Source: PREP (98.79% of polling stations reporting)|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||15,679,729||33.1||11||17,119,854||37.3||46||57||+19|
|National Action Party||13,245,088||27.9||9||12,783,068||27.8||29||38||–14|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||9,353,879||19.7||6||13,288,983||28.9||17||23||–13|
|Ecologist Green Party of Mexico||2,881,923||6.1||2||867,056||1.9||2||4||+4|
|New Alliance Party (Mexico)||1,855,403||3.9||1||1,796,816||3.9||0||1||0|
|Source: Adam Carr|