Diane Arbus

Diane Arbus
Photograph of Arbus by Allan Arbus
(a film test), c. 1949[1]:137
Diane Nemerov

(1923-03-14)March 14, 1923
DiedJuly 26, 1971(1971-07-26) (aged 48)
New York City, U.S.
Resting placeLocation of ashes unknown
Known forPhotography
Notable work
Child with Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C. 1962 (1962)
Identical Twins, Roselle, New Jersey, 1967 (1967)
Allan Arbus
(m. 1941; div. 1969)

Diane Arbus (/dˈæn ˈɑːrbəs/; March 14, 1923 – July 26, 1971)[2] was an American photographer.[3][4] Although Arbus's most famous subjects were outsiders such as transgender people, strippers, carnival performers, nudists, dwarves, and other marginalized people, she was equally drawn to subjects as ordinary as children, mothers, couples, old people, and middle-class families. She photographed her subjects in familiar settings: their homes, on the street, in the workplace, in the park.[5] In his 2003 New York Times Magazine article, "Arbus Reconsidered," Arthur Lubow states, "She was fascinated by people who were visibly creating their own identities—cross-dressers, nudists, sideshow performers, tattooed men, the nouveau riche, the movie-star fans—and by those who were trapped in a uniform that no longer provided any security or comfort."[4][6][7][8][9] Michael Kimmelman writes in his review of the exhibition Diane Arbus Revelations, "Her memorable work, which she did, on the whole, not for hire but for herself, was all about heart—a ferocious, audacious heart. It transformed the art of photography (Arbus is everywhere, for better and worse, in the work of artists today who make photographs), and it lent a fresh dignity to the forgotten and neglected people in whom she invested so much of herself."[10]

In her lifetime she achieved some recognition and renown[11] with the publication, beginning in 1960, of photographs in such magazines as Esquire, Harper’s Bazaar, the London Sunday Times Magazine, and Artforum.[12] In 1963 the Guggenheim Foundation awarded Arbus a fellowship for her proposal entitled, "American Rites, Manners and Customs". She was awarded a renewal of her fellowship in 1966.[13] John Szarkowski, the director of photography at the Museum of Modern Art from 1962 to 1991, championed her work and included it in his groundbreaking 1967 exhibit New Documents along with the work of Lee Friedlander and Garry Winogrand.[3] Her photographs were also included in a number of other major group shows.[13]:86

In 1972, a year after she died by suicide, Arbus became the first photographer to be included in the Venice Biennale[14][13]:51-52 where her photographs were "the overwhelming sensation of the American Pavilion. If one's natural tendency is to be skeptical about a legend, it must be said that all suspicion vanishes in the presence of the Arbus work, which is extremely powerful and very strange."[15]

A retrospective organized by John Szarkowski at the Museum of Modern Art had the highest attendance of any exhibition in MOMA's history to date.[16] Millions viewed traveling exhibitions of her work in 1972–1979.[17] The book accompanying the exhibition, Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph, ed by Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel and first published in 1972 has never been out of print.[18][19]

Personal life[]

Arbus was born Diane Nemerov to David Nemerov and Gertrude Russek Nemerov,[8][11] a Jewish couple who lived in New York City and owned Russek's, a famous Fifth Avenue department store.[11][20] Because of her family's wealth, Arbus was insulated from the effects of the Great Depression while growing up in the 1930s.[11] Her father became a painter after retiring from Russek's; her younger sister would become a sculptor and designer; and her older brother, Howard Nemerov, a professor of English at Washington University in St. Louis, would later become United States Poet Laureate and the father of the Americanist art historian Alexander Nemerov.[8]

Arbus's parents were not deeply involved in parenting their children. She and her siblings were raised by maids and governesses while her mother suffered from depression and her father was busy with work. She separated herself from her family and her lavish childhood.[21]

Arbus attended the Ethical Culture Fieldston School, a prep school.[22] In 1941, at the age of 18, she married her childhood sweetheart, Allan Arbus,[8] whom she had dated since age 14.[23] Their first daughter, Doon, who would become a writer, was born in 1945; their second daughter, Amy, who would become a photographer, was born in 1954.[8] Arbus and her husband worked together from 1946 to 1956. Allan was very supportive of her, even after she quit commercial photography and began developing an independent relationship to photography.[24]

Arbus and her husband separated in 1959. They maintained a close friendship after their separation and the family met regularly for Sunday breakfasts and the couple continued to share a darkroom.[1]:144 Although Arbus made her own prints, under Allan's supervision his studio assistants processed her negatives.[1]:139[4] The couple divorced in 1969 when he moved to California to pursue acting.[25] Prior to his move to California, Allan set up her darkroom.[1]:198 and they thereafter continued a long correspondence.[1]:224

In late 1959 Arbus began a relationship with the art director and painter Marvin Israel[1]:144[26] that would last until the time of her death. All the while, he remained married to Margaret Ponce Israel, an accomplished mixed-media artist.[27] Marvin Israel both spurred Arbus' creatively and championed her work. He was the one to encourage her to create her first portfolio.[28] Among other photographers and artists she befriended during her career, Arbus was close to photographer Richard Avedon; he was approximately the same age, his family had also run a Fifth Avenue department store, and many of his photographs were also characterized by detailed frontal poses.[17][29][26]

Photographic career[]

Arbus received her first camera, a Graflex, from Allan shortly after they married.[4] Shortly thereafter, she enrolled in classes with photographer Berenice Abbott. The Arbuses' interests in photography led them, in 1941, to visit the gallery of Alfred Stieglitz, and learn about the photographers Mathew Brady, Timothy O'Sullivan, Paul Strand, Bill Brandt, and Eugène Atget.[1]:129[30] In the early 1940s, Diane's father employed them to take photographs for the department store's advertisements.[4] Allan was a photographer for the U.S. Army Signal Corps in World War Two.[30]

In 1946, after the war, the Arbuses began a commercial photography business called "Diane & Allan Arbus," with Diane as art director and Allan as the photographer.[4] She would come up with the concepts for their shoots and then take care of the models. She grew dissatisfied with this role, a role even her husband thought was "demeaning."[24] They contributed to Glamour, Seventeen, Vogue, and other magazines even though "they both hated the fashion world."[17][31] Despite over 200 pages of their fashion orial in Glamour, and over 80 pages in Vogue, the Arbuses' fashion photography has been described as of "middling quality."[32] Edward Steichen's noted 1955 photography exhibition, The Family of Man, did include a photograph by the Arbuses of a father and son reading a newspaper.[8]

She studied briefly with Alexey Brodovich in 1954.[33] However, it was her studies with Lisette Model, which began in 1956, that encouraged Arbus to focus exclusively on her own work.[4] That year Arbus quit the commercial photography business and began numbering her negatives.[34] (Her last known negative was labeled #7459.)[24][4] Based on Model's advice, Arbus avoided loading film in the camera as an exercise in truly seeing.[35] Arbus also crs Model with making it clear to her that, "the more specific you are, the more general it'll be.[4]

By 1956 she was working with a 35mm Nikon, wandering the streets of New York City and meeting her subjects largely, though not always, by chance. A few years later, in 1958 she began making lists of who and what she was interested in photographing.[36] She began photographing on assignment for magazines such as Esquire, Harper's Bazaar, and The Sunday Times Magazine in 1959.[8]

Around 1962, Arbus switched from a 35mm Nikon camera which produced the grainy rectangular images characteristic of her post-studio work[13]:55 to a twin-lens reflex Rolleiflex camera which produced more detailed square images. She explained this transition saying "In the beginning of photographing I used to make very grainy things. I’d be fascinated by what the grain did because it would make a kind of tapestry of all these little dots...But when I’d been working for a while with all these dots, I suddenly wanted terribly to get through there. I wanted to see the real differences between things...I began to get terribly hyped on clarity."[37]:8-9 In 1964, Arbus began using a 2-1/4 Mamiyaflex camera with flash in addition to the Rolleiflex.[29][1]:59

Arbus's style is said to be "direct and unadorned, a frontal portrait centered in a square format. Her pioneering use of flash in daylight isolated the subjects from the background, which contributed to the photos' surreal quality."[38][8][29][39] Her methods included establishing a strong personal relationship with her subjects and re-photographing some of them over many years.[8][17]

In spite of being widely published and achieving some artistic recognition, Arbus struggled to support herself through her work.[22][40] "During her lifetime, there was no market for collecting photographs as works of art, and her prints usually sold for $100 or less."[3] It is evident from her correspondence that lack of money was a persistent concern.[1]

In 1963, Arbus was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for a project on "American rites, manners, and customs"; the fellowship was renewed in 1966.[14][41]

Throughout the 1960s, Arbus supported herself largely by taking magazine assignments and commissions.[42] For example, in 1968 she shot documentary photographs of poor sharecroppers in rural South Carolina (for Esquire magazine). In 1969 a rich and prominent actor and theater owner, Konrad Matthaei, and his wife, Gay, commissioned Arbus to photograph a family Christmas gathering.[43] During her career, Arbus photographed Mae West, Ozzie Nelson and Harriet Nelson, Bennet Cerf, atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair, Norman Mailer, Jane Mansfield, Eugene McCarthy, billionaire H. L. Hunt, Gloria Vanderbilt's baby, Anderson Cooper, Coretta Scott King, and Marguerite Oswald (Lee Harvey Oswald's mother).[43][1][22] In general, her magazine assignments decreased as her fame as an artist increased.[8][44] Szarkowski hired Arbus in 1970 to research an exhibition on photojournalism called "From the Picture Press"; it included many photographs by Weegee whose work Arbus admired.[11][30][45] She also taught photography at the Parsons School of Design and the Cooper Union in New York City, and the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, Rhode Island.[11][46]

Late in her career, The Metropolitan Museum of Art indicated to her that they would buy three of her photographs for $75 each, but citing a lack of funds, purchased only two. As she wrote to Allan Arbus, “So I guess being poor is no disgrace.”[1]:200[13]:63

Beginning in 1969 Arbus undertook a series of photographs of people at New Jersey residences for the developmentally and intellectually disabled, posthumously named Untitled.[47][22][48] Arbus returned to several facilities repeatedly for Halloween parties, for picnics, and dances.[49] In a letter to Allan Arbus dated November 28, 1969, she described these photographs as "lyric and tender and pretty."[1]:203

Artforum published six photographs, including a cover image, from Arbus's portfolio, A box of ten photographs, in May of 1971.[1]:219[50] After his encounter with Arbus and the portfolio, Philip Leider, then or in chief of Artforum and a photography skeptic, admitted, “With Diane Arbus, one could find oneself interested in photography or not, but one could no longer . . . deny its status as art.”[51] She was the first photographer to be featured in Artforum and "Leider’s admission of Arbus into this critical bastion of late modernism was instrumental in shifting the perception of photography and ushering its acceptance into the realm of 'serious' art."[13]:51

The first major exhibition of her photographs occurred at the Museum of Modern Art in the influential[52] New Documents (1967) alongside the work of Garry Winogrand and Lee Friedlander, curated by John Szarkowski.[53][54] New Documents, which drew almost 250,000 visitors[55] demonstrated Arbus’s interest in what Szarkowski referred to as society’s “frailties”[33] and presented what he described as "a new generation of documentary photographers...whose aim has been not to reform life but to know it,"[53] described elsewhere as "photography that emphasized the pathos and conflicts of modern life presented without orializing or sentimentalizing but with a critical, observant eye."[56] The show was polarizing, receiving both praise and criticism, with some identifying Arbus as a disinterested voyeur and others praising her for her evident empathy with her subjects.[33]


Arbus experienced "depressive episodes" during her life similar to those experienced by her mother, and the episodes may have been made worse by symptoms of hepatitis.[8] Arbus wrote in 1968, "I go up and down a lot," and her ex-husband noted that she had "violent changes of mood." On July 26, 1971, while living at Westbeth Artists Community in New York City, Arbus took her own life by ingesting barbiturates and slashing her wrists with a razor.[4] She wrote the words "Last Supper" in her diary and placed her appointment book on the stairs leading up to the bathroom. Marvin Israel found her body in the bathtub two days later; she was 48 years old.[4][8] Photographer Joel Meyerowitz told the journalist, Arthur Lubow, "If she was doing the kind of work she was doing and photography wasn’t enough to keep her alive, what hope did we have?”[24]

No record exists as to the location of her ashes.


"[Arbus's] work has had such an influence on other photographers that it is already hard to remember how original it was," wrote the art critic Robert Hughes in a November 1972 issue of Time magazine.[57] She has been called "a seminal figure in modern-day photography and an influence on three generations of photographers"[3] and is widely considered to be among the most influential artists of the last century.[58][11][59]

Since Arbus died without a will, the responsibility for Arbus's work fell to her daughter, Doon.[4] She forbade examination of Arbus's correspondence and often denied permission for exhibition or reproduction of Arbus's photographs without prior vetting, to the ire of many critics and scholars.[4] The ors of an academic journal published a two-page complaint in 1993 about the estate's control over Arbus's images and its attempt to censor characterizations of subjects and the photographer’s motives in article about Arbus. A 2005 article called the estate's allowing the British press to reproduce only fifteen photographs an attempt to "control criticism and debate."[60] On the other hand it is common institutional practice in the U.S. to include a only of handful of images for media use in an exhibition press kit.[61][62][63][64] The estate was also criticized in 2008 for minimizing Arbus's early commercial work, although those photographs were taken by Allan Arbus and cred to the Diane and Allan Arbus Studio.[4][32] More recently, a review in The Guardian of An Emergency in Slow Motion: The Inner Life of Diane Arbus by William Todd Schultz references "...the famously controlling Arbus estate who, as Schultz put it recently, 'seem to have this idea, which I disagree with, that any attempt to interpret the art diminishes the art.'"[65]

The work of Diane Arbus has been the subject of more than twenty-five major solo exhibitions, eight authorized publications, and countless critical articles.

In 1972, Arbus was the first photographer to be included in the Venice Biennale; her photographs were described as "the overwhelming sensation of the American Pavilion" and "an extraordinary achievement."[13]:51-52[14][66]

The Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective curated by John Szarkowski of Arbus's work in late 1972 that subsequently traveled around the United States and Canada through 1975;[67] it was estimated that over seven million people saw the exhibition.[17] A different retrospective curated by Marvin Israel and Doon Arbus traveled around the world between 1973 and 1979.[67]

Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel ed and designed a 1972 book Diane Arbus: an Aperture Monograph, published by Aperture and accompanying the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition.[6] It contained eighty of Arbus's photographs, as well as texts from classes that she gave in 1971, some of her writings, and interviews,[6][68]

In 2001–2004 Diane Arbus: an Aperture Monograph was selected as one of the most important photobooks in history.[68][69][70][71]

Neil Selkirk, a former student, began printing for the 1972 MOMA retrospective and Aperture Monograph.[1]:214, 269 He remains the only person who is authorized to make posthumous prints of Arbus's work.[72]

A half-hour documentary film about Arbus's life and work known as Masters of Photography: Diane Arbus or Going Where I've Never Been: The Photography of Diane Arbus was produced in 1972 and released on video in 1989.[73][74]

Patricia Bosworth wrote an unauthorized biography of Arbus published in 1984. Bosworth reportedly "received no help from Arbus's daughters, or from their father, or from two of her closest and most prescient friends, Avedon and ... Marvin Israel".[17] The book was also criticized for insufficiently considering Arbus's own words, for speculating about missing information, and for focusing on "sex, depression and famous people," instead of Arbus's art.[22]

Between 2003 and 2006, Arbus and her work were the subject of another major traveling exhibition, Diane Arbus Revelations, which was organized by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Accompanied by a book of the same name, the exhibition included artifacts such as correspondence, books, and cameras as well as 180 photographs by Arbus.[22][20][46] By "making substantial public excerpts from Arbus's letters, diaries and notebooks" the exhibition and book "undertook to claim the center-ground on the basic facts relating to the artist's life and death."[75] Because Arbus's estate approved the exhibition and book, the chronology in the book is "effectively the first authorized biography of the photographer."[1]:121–225[8]

In 2006, the fictional film Fur: an Imaginary Portrait of Diane Arbus was released, starring Nicole Kidman as Arbus; it used Patricia Bosworth's unauthorized biography Diane Arbus: A Biography as a source of inspiration. Critics generally took issue with the film's "fairytale" portrayal of Arbus.[76][77]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art purchased twenty of Arbus's photographs (valued at millions of dollars) and received Arbus's archives, which included hundreds of early and unique photographs and negatives and contact prints of 7500 rolls of film, as a gift from her estate in 2007.[78]

In 2018, The New York Times published a belated obituary of Arbus[3] as part of the Overlooked history project.[79][80]

Frequently cited quotations[]

"A photograph is a secret about a secret. The more it tells you, the less you know."[3][1]:219[28]

"My favorite thing is to go where I've never been."[37]:1[6][8][57]

"Our whole guise is like giving a sign to the world to think of us in a certain way, but there's a point between what you want people to know about you and what you can't help people knowing about you. And that has to do with what I've always called the gap between intention and effect."[22][29][81][38][37]:1-2

"Freaks was a thing I photographed a lot....There's a quality of legend about freaks. Like a person in a fairy tale who stops you and demands that you answer a riddle. Most people go through life dreading they'll have a traumatic experience. Freaks were born with their trauma. They've already passed their test in life. They're aristocrats."[20][29][10][82][37]:2

"I do feel I have some slight corner on something about the quality of things. I mean it's very subtle and a little embarrassing to me, but I believe there are things which nobody would see unless I photographed them."[29][39][83][84][37]:15

"It's always seemed to me that photography tends to deal with facts whereas film tends to deal with fiction. The best example I know is when you go to the movies and you see two people in bed, you're willing to put aside the fact that you perfectly well know that there was a director and a cameraman and assorted lighting people all in that same room and the two people in bed weren't really alone. But when you look at a photograph, you can never put that aside."[43][37]:6

"Everybody has that thing where they need to look one way but they come out looking another way and that's what people observe. You see someone on the street and essentially what you notice about them is the flaw."[43][37]:1

"They are the proof that something was there and no longer is. Like a stain. And the stillness of them is boggling. You can turn away but when you come back they'll still be there looking at you."[1]:226[13]:51

"I never have taken a picture I've intended. They're always better or worse."[37]:15

"For me the subject of the picture is always more important than the picture. And more complicated. I do have a feeling for the print but I don't have a holy feeling for it. I really think what it is, is what it's about. I mean it has to be of something. And what it's of is always more remarkable than what it is."[37]:15

"Nothing is ever the same as they said it was. It's what I've never seen before that I recognize."[50][1]:219

"I work from awkwardness. By that I mean I don't like to arrange things. If I stand in front of something, instead of arranging it, I arrange myself."[37]:12[85]

Critical reception[]

Some of Arbus's subjects and their relatives have commented on their experience being photographed by Diane Arbus:


Notable photographs[]

Eddie Carmel, Jewish Giant, taken at Home with His Parents in the Bronx, New York, 1970

Arbus's most well-known photographs include:

In addition, Arbus's A box of ten photographs was a portfolio of selected 1963–1970 photographs in a clear Plexiglas box/frame that was designed by Marvin Israel and was to have been issued in a limited ion of 50.[26][114] However, Arbus completed only eight boxes[13]:137 and sold only four (two to Richard Avedon, one to Jasper Johns, and one to Bea Feitler).[1]:220[8][58] After Arbus's death, under the auspices of the Estate of Diane Arbus, Neil Selkirk began printing to complete Arbus's intended ion of 50.[13]:78 In 2017, one of these posthumous ions sold for $792,500 in 2017.[115]

Notable solo exhibitions[]


Arbus's work is held in the following permanent collections:


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Diane Arbus: Revelations. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 0-375-50620-9.
  2. ^ "Diane Arbus, her vision, lide, and death". The New York Times, 13 May 1984. Accessed 10 May 2017
  3. ^ a b c d e f Estrin, James (8 March 2018). "Diane Arbus, 1923-1971". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lubow, Arthur (14 September 2003). "Arbus Reconsidered". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  5. ^ Somers-Davis, Lynne M. (2006). Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography. New York: Routledge. pp. 51–56. ISBN 978-1135205430.
  6. ^ a b c d Arbus, Diane. Diane Arbus. Millerton, New York: Aperture, 1972. ISBN 0-912334-40-1.
  7. ^ Bosworth, Patricia. Diane Arbus: a Biography. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005. Page 250. ISBN 0-393-32661-6.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o DeCarlo, Tessa (May 2004). "A Fresh Look at Diane Arbus". Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
  9. ^ Gaines, Steven. The Sky's the Limit: Passion and Property in Manhattan. New York: Little, Brown, 2005. Page 143. ISBN 0-316-60851-3.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Kimmelman, Michael (11 March 2005). "The Profound Vision of Diane Arbus: Flaws in Beauty, Beauty in Flaws". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Crookston, Peter (30 September 2005). "Extra Ordinary". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  12. ^ Arbus, Diane (1984). Diane Arbus: Magazine Work. New York: Aperture. ISBN 978-0-89381-233-1.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jacob, John P. (2018). A box of ten photographs. New York: Aperture. ISBN 978-1597114394.
  14. ^ a b c John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. "Fellows. Diane Arbus". Archived 2010-11-25 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 4, 2010.
  15. ^ Kramer, Hilton (17 June 1972). "Arbus Photos, at Venice, Show Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  16. ^ Baker, Kenneth (19 October 2003). "Diane Arbus in a new light". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Muir, Robin. "Woman's Studies". The Independent (London), October 18, 1997. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
  18. ^ a b c d Bissell, Gerhard. "Arbus, Diane", in Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon (World Biographical Dictionary of Artists), 2006, and "Diane Arbus" (condensed English version).
  19. ^ Jobey, Liz (1 July 2016). "Diane Arbus: the magic mirror". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e Schjeldahl, Peter. "Looking Back: Diane Arbus at the Met", The New Yorker, March 21, 2005. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
  21. ^ "Diane Arbus Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works". The Art Story. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rubinfien, Leo. "Where Diane Arbus Went". Art in America, volume 93, number 9, pages 65–71, 73, 75, 77, October 2005.
  23. ^ Bosworth, Patricia (May 13, 1984). "Diane Arbus". The New York Times Magazine: 42–59.
  24. ^ a b c d Mar, Alex (March 11, 2017). "The Cost of Diane Arbus's Life on the Edge". The Cut.
  25. ^ Hinckley, David. "M.A.S.H. actor Allan Arbus dead at 95". New York Daily News. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  26. ^ a b c Gefter, Philip. "In Portraits by Others, a Look That Caught Avedon's Eye". The New York Times, August 27, 2006. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
  27. ^ McGill, Douglas C. (24 April 1987). "Margaret Israel, 57, An Artist". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  28. ^ a b c Ault, Alicia (24 April 2018). "A Window into the World of Diane Arbus: Photographs from the portfolio, "A box of 10," reveal photographer's secrets". Smithsonian. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Sass, Louis A. "'Hyped on Clarity': Diane Arbus and the Postmodern Condition". Raritan, volume 25, number 1, pp. 1–37, Summer 2005.
  30. ^ a b c Ronnen, Meir. "The Velazquez of New York". Archived 2010-03-27 at the Wayback Machine The Jerusalem Post, October 10, 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  31. ^ Tarzan, Deloris. "Arbus – Her Brutal Lens Disclosed Aspects Previously Unseen in Her Subjects". The Seattle Times, September 21, 1986.
  32. ^ a b O'Neill, Alistair. "A Young Woman, N.Y.C." Photography & Culture, volume 1, number 1, pp. 7–20, July 2008.
  33. ^ a b c Badger, Gerry (2003). "Arbus [née Nemerov], Diane". Arbus [née Nemerov], Diane. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T003644.
  34. ^ Pogrebin, Robin (July 10, 2016). "Diane Arbus: The Early Years". The New York Times.
  35. ^ Wood, Gaby (October 8, 2016). "Incest, suicide – and the real reason we should remember Diane Arbus". The Telegraph. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  36. ^ Krasinski, Jennifer. "The Met Breuer's Diane Arbus Exhibition Is a Tour de Force". thevillagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Arbus, Diane (1972). Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph. New York: Aperture. ISBN 978-0912334400.
  38. ^ a b Fox, Catherine. "Snapshot/Diane Arbus: True Portrait Lies Outside Film." The Atlanta Journal Constitution Dec 03 2006 ProQuest. 2 Mar. 2017
  39. ^ a b c Lacayo, Richard. "Photography: Diane Arbus: Visionary Voyeurism". Time magazine, November 3, 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  40. ^ Prose, Francine (November 2003). "Revisiting the Icons: The intimate photography of Diane Arbus". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  41. ^ "Guggenheim Fund Grants $1,380,000". The New York Times, April 29, 1963.
  42. ^ "Portraits on Assignment (Press Release)". Robert Miller Gallery, Inc. 1984.
  43. ^ a b c d e f Kimmelman, Michael (9 January 2004). "Diane Arbus, a Hunter Wielding a Lens". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  44. ^ "The Other Side of Diane Arbus". Society, volume 28, number 2, pages 75–79, January/February 1991.
  45. ^ Szarkowski, John. From the Picture Press. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973.
  46. ^ a b c Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Diane Arbus Revelations: More About This Exhibition". March 8, 2005 – May 30, 2005. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  47. ^ a b Lubow, Arthur (15 November 2018). "Arbus, Untitled and Uneartlhy". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  48. ^ a b c Pagel, David. "Diane Arbus: Pictures from the Institutions". Los Angeles Times, May 15, 1992. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  49. ^ >Lehrer, Adam (6 November 2018). "Diane Arbus 'Untitled' Works Inaugurate David Zwirner's Status as Co-Reps of Artist's Estate". Forbes. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  50. ^ a b >Arbus, Diane (May 1971). "Five Photographs by Diane Arbus". Artforum. 9 (9). Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  51. ^ Leider, Philip (16 October 2004). Photography. Sotheby's. p. 150.
  52. ^ Gefter, Philip (9 July 2007). "John Szarkowski, Curator of Photography, Dies at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  53. ^ a b "No. 21" (PDF). Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  54. ^ O'Hagan, Sean (20 July 2010). "Was John Szarkowski the most influential person in 20th-century photography?". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  55. ^ Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago (March 1973). "News Release".
  56. ^ Warren, Lynne (2006). Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography, 3-Volume Set. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-393-4. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  57. ^ a b c Hughes, Robert. "Art: to Hades with Lens". Time, November 13, 1972. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  58. ^ a b Bunnell, Peter C. (January–February 1973). "Diane Arbus". The Print Collector's Newsletter. 3 (6): 128–130. JSTOR 44129496.
  59. ^ "100 Most influential photographers of all time". aphotoor.com. aPhotoEditor. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  60. ^ "Diane Arbus's Carnival of Cruelty".[permanent dead link] Evening Standard (London), October 14, 2005. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  61. ^ The Practical Art World, Staff. "The Practical Art World". www.thepracticalartworld.com. The Practical Art World. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  62. ^ Guggenheim, Staff. "Press Kits". www.guggenheim.org. Guggenheim. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  63. ^ Smithsonian American Art Museum, Staff. "Exhibition Press Kits". www.americanart.si.edu. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  64. ^ Yale University Art Gallery, Staff. "Yale University Art Gallery". www.artgallery.yale.edu. Yale University Art Gallery. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  65. ^ O'Hagan, Sean (26 July 2011). "Diane Arbus: humanist or voyeur?". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  66. ^ a b Kramer, Hilton. "Arbus Photos, at Venice, Show Power". The New York Times, June 17, 1972.
  67. ^ a b c d e Cheim Read. "Diane Arbus". www.cheimread.com. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  68. ^ a b Parr, Martin, and Gerry Badger. The Photobook: a History. Volume I. London & New York: Phaidon, 2004. ISBN 0-7148-4285-0.
  69. ^ Caslin, Jean, and D. Clarke Evans. Building a Photographic Library. San Antonio: Texas Photographic Society, 2001. ISBN 1-931427-00-3.
  70. ^ Roth, Andrew, or. The Book of 101 Books: Seminal Photographic Books of the 20th Century. New York: PPP Editions in association with Roth Horowitz LLC, 2001. ISBN 0-9670774-4-3.
  71. ^ Roth, Andrew, or. The Open Book: a History of the Photographic Book from 1878 to the Present. Göteborg, Sweden: Hasselblad Center, 2004.
  72. ^ Staff, The Met. "Diane Arbus, Legendary New York Photographer, Celebrated in Retrospective at Metropolitan Museum". www.metmuseum.org. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  73. ^ Going Where I've Never Been: The Photography of Diane Arbus (1972) on IMDb
  74. ^ Traditional Fine Arts Organization. "American Photography. DVD/VHS Videos". Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  75. ^ a b Charrier, Philip (12 September 2012). "On Diane Arbus: Establishing a Revisionist Framework of Analysis". History of Photography. 36 (4): 422–438. doi:10.1080/03087298.2012.703401.
  76. ^ Dargis, Manohla. "A Visual Chronicler of Humanity's Underbelly, Draped in a Pelt of Perversity". The New York Times, November 10, 2006. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
  77. ^ a b Zacharek, Stephanie. "Fur: an Imaginary Portrait of Diane Arbus" (review). Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine Salon.com, November 10, 2006. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  78. ^ Vogel, Carol. "A Big Gift for the Met: the Arbus Archives". The New York Times, December 18, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
  79. ^ Padnani, Amisha (2018-03-08). "How an Obits Project on Overlooked Women Was Born". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  80. ^ Padnani, Amisha (2018-03-08). "Remarkable Women We Overlooked in Our Obituaries". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  81. ^ a b Goldman, Judith. "Diane Arbus: The Gap Between Intention and Effect". Art Journal, volume 34, issue 1, pages 30–35, Fall 1974.
  82. ^ a b Greer, Germaine. "Wrestling with Diane Arbus". The Guardian, October 8, 2005. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  83. ^ a b c Armstrong, Carol. "Biology, Destiny, Photography: Difference According to Diane Arbus". October, volume 66, pages 28–54, Autumn 1993.
  84. ^ Feeney, Mark. "She Opened Our Eyes. Photographer Diane Arbus Presented a New Way of Seeing." Boston Globe, November 2, 2003. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
  85. ^ Als, Hilton (26 September 2011). "Arbus Speaks". The New Yorker. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  86. ^ Kozloff, Max. "Photography". The Nation, volume 204, pages 571–573, May 1, 1967.
  87. ^ Magid, Marion (1 April 1967). "Diane Arbus in New Documents". Arts Magazine: 54.
  88. ^ Kramer, Hilton. "From fashion to freaks". The New York Times, November 5, 1972.
  89. ^ a b Parsons, Sarah. "Sontag's Lament: Emotion, Ethics, and Photography". Photography & Culture, volume 2, number 3, pages 289–302, November 2009.
  90. ^ Sontag, Susan (15 November 1973). "Freak Show". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  91. ^ Goldin, Nan (November 1995). "Untitled—Diane Arbus". Artforum.
  92. ^ Als, Hilton (27 November 1995). "Unmasked A different kind of collection from Diane Arbus". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  93. ^ Prose, Francine (November 2003). "Revisiting the Icons: The intimate photography of Diane Arbus". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  94. ^ O'Brien, Barbara. "Learning to Read: the Epic Narratives of Diane Arbus and August Sander". Art New England, volume 25, number 6, pages 22–23, 67, October/November 2004.
  95. ^ a b Johnson, Ken. "Art in Review; Diane Arbus". The New York Times, September 30, 2005. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  96. ^ Koestenbaum, Wayne. "Diane Arbus and Humiliation". Studies in Gender & Sexuality, volume 8, issue 4, pages 345–347, Fall 2007.
  97. ^ Koestenbaum, Wayne (2 December 2013). "Dirty Mind: An Interview with Wayne Koestenbaum". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  98. ^ Feeney, Mark (21 July 2016). "Met Breuer exhibit shows Diane Arbus emerging". The Boston Globe.
  99. ^ Lehrer, Adam (6 November 2018). "Diane Arbus 'Untitled' Works Inaugurate David Zwirner's Status as Co-Reps of Artist's Estate". Forbes.
  100. ^ a b c d e Segal, David. "Double Exposure: a Moment with Diane Arbus Created a Lasting Impression". The Washington Post, May 12, 2005. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  101. ^ Feeney, Mark. "She Opened Our Eyes Photographer Diane Arbus Presented a New Way of Seeing." Boston Globe. Nov 02 2003 ProQuest. 2 Mar. 2017
  102. ^ O'Hagan, Sean (October 25, 2016). "Diane Arbus: Portrait of a Photographer review – a disturbing study". The Guardian. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  103. ^ Published in Diane Arbus: Revelations, 2003, p. 164, and online in the article Paris Photo 6 : Diane Arbus à la galerie Robert Miller, 2006.
  104. ^ Christie's, Lot 26A. "Diane Arbus (1923-1971) Child with a toy hand grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C., 1962". www.christies.com. Christie's. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  105. ^ a b Brill, Lesley. "The Photography of Diane Arbus". Journal of American Culture, volume 5, issue 1, pages 69–76, Spring 1982.
  106. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2011-03-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  107. ^ Artnet. "Art Market Watch". May 4, 2004. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
  108. ^ Christie's, Lot 117 (6 April 2016). "Diane Arbus (1923-1971), Boy with a straw hat waiting to march in a pro-war parade, N.Y.C., 1967". www.christies.com. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  109. ^ "Diane Arbus (1923–1971) Identical twins, Roselle, N.J., 1966". Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  110. ^ Sotheby's. "A Family on the Lawn One Sunday in Westchester, N.Y."[permanent dead link] April 8, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  111. ^ a b Hume, Christopher. "Photography's Tragic Poet of the Bizarre". Toronto Star, January 11, 1991.
  112. ^ "The Jewish Giant". Archived 2010-06-10 at the Wayback Machine Sound Portraits Productions, October 6, 1999. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
  113. ^ Christie's, Lot 25B (17 May 2017). "Diane Arbus, A Jewish Giant at Home". www.christies.com. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  114. ^ Pollock, Lindsay. "The Arbus Traveling Circus". The New York Sun, April 21, 2005. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
  115. ^ Christie's, Lot 23. "Diane Arbus (1923-1971) A box of ten photographs". www.christies.com. Christies. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  116. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Fraenkel Gallery. "Diane Arbus". Fraenkel Gallery. Fraenkel Gallery. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  117. ^ Thornton, Gene. "Narrative Works - and Arbus." The New York Times, August 31, 1980.
  118. ^ Dault, Gary Michael. "Diane Arbus. Ydessa Hendeles Art Foundation, Toronto". C Magazine, number 29, Spring 1991. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  119. ^ "Weekend's Best". Daily News of Los Angeles, May 29, 1992.
  120. ^ Morgan, Susan. "Loitering with Intent: Diane Arbus at the Movies". Parkett, number 47, pages 177–183, September 1996.
  121. ^ Bishop, Louise. "The Challenge of Beauty". Creative Review, volume 17, number 63, December 1997.
  122. ^ Woodward, Richard B. "Art; Diane Arbus's Family Values". The New York Times, October 5, 2003. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  123. ^ Keefer, Bob. "The World of Diane Arbus". The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), February 27, 2005. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  124. ^ Decoteau, Randall. "Diane Arbus's Noah's Ark of Humanity". Archived 2010-08-15 at the Wayback Machine New England Antiques Journal, March 2005. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  125. ^ Baker, Kenneth. "Fraenkel Shows Us Diane Arbus Before She Even Knew Herself". San Francisco Chronicle, September 8, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  126. ^ Davey, Moyra, and Janson Simon. "Diane Arbus, a Printed Retrospective, 1960–1971". Artforum International, volume 47, number 8, page 183, 2009.
  127. ^ a b Davies, Lucy. "Diane Arbus: a Flash of Familiarity". The Telegraph (London), May 6, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  128. ^ Cooper, Neil. "New Diane Arbus exhibition set for Dean Gallery, Edinburgh". The List (Scotland), February 23, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010;
  129. ^ Baker, Kenneth. "Fraenkel Gallery Pairs Sculptor and Arbus". San Francisco Chronicle, January 7, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
  130. ^ "Diane Arbus".
  131. ^ "Fotomuseum Winterthur - VORSCHAU/RÜCKSCHAU" (in German). Archived from the original on 2012-12-15. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  132. ^ "Exhibitions: Museumsportal Berlin". Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
  133. ^ "Diane Arbus". Foam Press. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  134. ^ "diane arbus: in the beginning". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  135. ^ "diane arbus". SFMOMA. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  136. ^ "Diane Arbus: In The Park". Lévy Gorvy Gallery. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  137. ^ "Diane Arbus: A box of ten photographs". Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  138. ^ "Diane Arbus Untitled | David Zwirner". David Zwirner. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  139. ^ "Collection". Akron Art Museum. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  140. ^ "Highlights of the Bank Austria Art Collection | Bank Austria Kunstforum". Kunstforumwien.at. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  141. ^ "Birmingham Museum of Art | » Artists » Diane Arbus, United States, 1923 – 1971". Artsbma.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  142. ^ "Photo Friday: Twins | Center for Creative Photography". Ccp.arizona.edu. 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  143. ^ "Clevelandart.org".
  144. ^ "Photographs after 1950 - DAC - Wesleyan University". Wesleyan.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  145. ^ "Facebook - The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center - Vassar College". Fllac.vassar.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  146. ^ Sammlung-goetz.de
  147. ^ "Harvard Art Museums". Harvard Art Museums. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  148. ^ Diane Arbus. "Diane Arbus | International Center of Photography". Icp.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  149. ^ "IVAM - Institut Valencià d'Art Modern | Women photographers in the IVAM Collection". Ivam.es. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  150. ^ When: Jun 30, 2017 – Oct 29, 2017. "Posed: Portrait Photography from the Permanent Collection". The Ringling. Retrieved 2018-03-09.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  151. ^ "Diane Arbus Fine Art Invest Fund". Faif.ch. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  152. ^ Diane Arbus. "Diane Arbus | LACMA Collections". Collections.lacma.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  153. ^ "Child with a toy hand grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C." National Galleries of Scotland. Accessed 23 November 2016
  154. ^ "Diane Arbus | Milwaukee Art Museum". Collection.mam.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  155. ^ "Diane Arbus". Mia. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  156. ^ "Unique collaboration - Moderna Museet i Malmö". Modernamuseet.se. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  157. ^ "Moderna Museet Collection | Moderna Museet i Stockholm". Modernamuseet.se. 1958-04-03. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  158. ^ "Diane Arbus • MOCA". Moca.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  159. ^ "Five Decades of Photography at the MFA, Featuring the Dandrew-Drapkin Collection | Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg". Mfastpete.org. 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  160. ^ "Review: Stunning, comprehensive photography survey at Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg". Tampabay.com. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  161. ^ Museoreinasofia.es
  162. ^ "Diane Arbus | National Gallery of Canada". Gallery.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  163. ^ "Search the Collection | National Gallery of Canada". Gallery.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  164. ^ Noma.org
  165. ^ Noma.org
  166. ^ Artfacts.net
  167. ^ Spencerart.ku.edu Spencer Museum of Art. Accessed 7 March 2018
  168. ^ Oldweb.sdc.edu
  169. ^ "Diane Arbus: Child with a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C. 1962 1962, printed after 1971" Tate. Accessed 23 November 2016
  170. ^ "Diane Arbus: Child with a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C. 1962" National Galleries of Scotland. Accessed 23 November 2016
  171. ^ Vanartgallery.bc.ca
  172. ^ Egallery.williams.edu
  173. ^ Newyorker.com
  174. ^ The Globe and Mail
  175. ^ Yokohama.art.museum

Further reading[]


Book chapters[]


External links[]