Diane Arbus (; March 14, 1923 – July 26, 1971) was an American photographer noted for photographs of marginalized people—dwarfs, giants, transgender people, nudists, circus performers—and others whose normality was perceived by the general populace as ugly or surreal. Her work has been described as consisting of formal manipulation characterized by blatant sensationalism.
In 1972, a year after she died by suicide (there exists a popular cliche of her being the Sylvia Plath of photographers), Arbus became the first American photographer to have photographs displayed at the Venice Biennale. Millions viewed traveling exhibitions of her work in 1972–1979. The book accompanying the exhibition, Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph, ed by Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel and first published in 1972 was still in print in 2006, having become the best selling photography monograph ever. Between 2003 and 2006, Arbus and her work were the subjects of another major traveling exhibition, Diane Arbus Revelations. In 2006, the motion picture Fur, starring Nicole Kidman as Arbus, presented a fictional version of her life story.
Arbus was born Diane Nemerov to David Nemerov and Gertrude Russek Nemerov, a Jewish couple who lived in New York City and owned Russek's, a famous Fifth Avenue department store. Because of her family's wealth, Arbus was insulated from the effects of the Great Depression while growing up in the 1930s. Her father became a painter after retiring from Russek's; her younger sister would become a sculptor and designer; and her older brother, Howard Nemerov, a professor of English at Washington University in St. Louis, would later become United States Poet Laureate and the father of the Americanist art historian Alexander Nemerov.
Diane's parents were not that involved in her life growing up. Due to her family's wealth, Diane and her siblings were raised by maids and governesses while her mother suffered from depression, and her father was busy with work. She separated herself from her family and her lavish childhood.
Diane Nemerov attended the Fieldston School for Ethical Culture, a prep school. In 1941, at the age of eighteen, she married her childhood sweetheart Allan Arbus, whom she had dated since age 14. Their first daughter, Doon, who would then become a writer, was born in 1945; their second daughter, Amy, who would later become a photographer, was born in 1954. Arbus and her husband worked together. After long hours in the studio, Diane would rush home to cook dinner for Allan and their two daughters. Allan was very supportive of Diane, even after she quit commercial photography and she began developing an independent relationship to photography.
Diane and Allan Arbus separated in 1959 and were divorced in 1969. However, they still remained close because of their daughters. Allan would come over for Sunday breakfast, and he continued to develop Diane's film.
Diane began a relationship with the art director and painter Marvin Israel that would last roughly ten years, until the time of her death. He was married and made clear to Arbus that he was never going to leave his wife. He pushed Arbus very hard regarding her work. He was the one to encourage her to create her first portfolio.
Diane received her first camera from Allan shortly after they married. After receiving the camera, Diane enrolled in classes with photographer Berenice Abbott. The Arbus' interests in photography led them, in 1941, to visit the gallery of Alfred Stieglitz, and learn about the photographers Mathew Brady, Timothy O'Sullivan, Paul Strand, Bill Brandt, and Eugène Atget.:129 In the early 1940s, Diane's father employed them to take photographs for the department store's advertisements. Allan was a photographer for the U.S. Army Signal Corps in World War Two. While Allan was stationed during the early 1940s, Diane documented her first pregnancy, which sparked her interest in photography.
In 1946, after the war, the Arbuses began a commercial photography business called "Diane & Allan Arbus," with Diane as art director and Allan as the photographer. Diane would come up with the concepts for their shoots and then take care of the models. She grew dissatisfied with this role, a role even her husband thought was "demeaning." They contributed to Glamour, Seventeen, Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and other magazines even though "they both hated the fashion world." Despite over 200 pages of their fashion orial in Glamour, and over 80 pages in Vogue, the Arbuses' fashion photography has been described as of "middling quality." Edward Steichen's noted 1955 photography exhibition, The Family of Man, did include a photograph by the Arbuses of a father and son reading a newspaper.
In 1956, Arbus quit the commercial photography business. During a spring shoot for Vogue, Arbus stated, "I can’t do it anymore. I’m not going to do it anymore.” However, she began photographing on assignment for magazines such as Esquire, Harper's Bazaar, and The Sunday Times Magazine in 1959.
Her artistic process was to wander the streets of New York City with a 35mm Nikon. Around 1962, Arbus switched from a 35 mm Nikon camera which produced grainy rectangular images to a twin-lens reflex Rolleiflex camera which produced more detailed square images, on larger 2 1/4 film. She would follow strangers and wait in doorways until she saw someone she felt compelled to photograph. By 1958, she was more strategic, plotting in advance the type of people she wanted to document. She would number her film as she developed her photos. Her first numbered negative was from 1956. Her last known negative was labeled #7459.
Her initial studies were with Berenice Abbott, and with Alexey Brodovich in 1954. It was her studies with Lisette Model, which began in 1956 at The New School, which led to Arbus's signature style. Arbus' style is said to be "direct and unadorned, a frontal portrait centered in a square format. Her pioneering use of flash in daylight isolated the subjects from the background, which contributed to the photos' surreal quality." Model identified in Arbus's work "the power to disturb."  Based on Model's advice, Arbus avoided loading film in the camera as an exercise in truly seeing. The model was known for her large prints of what she called "extremes," such as the very rich and the very poor.
In 1963, Arbus was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for a project on "American rites, manners, and customs"; the fellowship was renewed in 1966. In 1964, Arbus began using a twin-lens reflex Mamiya camera with flash in addition to the Rolleiflex. Her methods included establishing a strong personal relationship with her subjects and re-photographing some of them over many years.
During the 1960s, she was hired by the Matthaeis' (art collectors) to photograph them while she also taught photography at the Parsons School of Design and the Cooper Union in New York City, and the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, Rhode Island.
The first major exhibition of her photographs occurred at the Museum of Modern Art in the influential "New Documents" (1967) alongside the work of Garry Winogrand and Lee Friedlander, curated by John Szarkowski. New Documents, which drew almost 250,000 visitors demonstrated Arbus’s interest in what Szarkowski referred to as society’s “frailties” and presented what he described as "a new generation of documentary photographers," described elsewhere as "photography that emphasized the pathos and conflicts of modern life presented without orializing or sentimentalizing but with a critical, observant eye." The show was polarizing, receiving both praise and criticism, with some identifying Arbus as a disinterested voyeur and others praising her for her evident empathy with her subjects.
Some of her artistic work was done on assignment, from 1960 to 1971. For example, in 1968 she shot documentary photographs of poor sharecroppers in rural South Carolina (for Esquire magazine). In general, her magazine assignments decreased as her fame as an artist increased. Szarkowski hired Arbus in 1970 to research an exhibition on photojournalism called "From the Picture Press"; it included many photographs by Weegee whose work Arbus admired.
Using softer light than in her previous photography, she took a series of photographs in her later years of people with intellectual disability showing a range of emotions. At first, Arbus considered these photographs to be "lyric and tender and pretty," but by June 1971, she told Lisette Model that she hated them.
Among other photographers and artists she befriended during her career, Arbus was close to photographer Richard Avedon; he was approximately the same age, his family had also run a Fifth Avenue department store, and many of his photographs were also characterized by detailed frontal poses. Another good friend was Marvin Israel, an artist, graphic designer, and art director whom Arbus met in 1959.:144
During her career, Arbus photographed Mae West, Ozzie Nelson and Harriet Nelson, Bennet Cerf, atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair, and Marguerite Oswald (Lee Harvey Oswald's mother).
Arbus experienced "depressive episodes" during her life similar to those experienced by her mother, and the episodes may have been made worse by symptoms of hepatitis. Arbus wrote in 1968, "I go up and down a lot," and her ex-husband noted that she had "violent changes of mood." On July 26, 1971, while living at Westbeth Artists Community in New York City, Arbus took her own life by ingesting barbiturates and slashing her wrists with a razor. She wrote the words "Last Supper" in her diary and placed her appointment book on the stairs leading up to the bathroom. Marvin Israel found her body in the bathtub two days later; she was 48 years old. Photographer Joel Meyerowitz told the journalist, Arthur Lubow, "If she was doing the kind of work she was doing and photography wasn’t enough to keep her alive, what hope did we have?”
Her ashes were buried at Ferncliff Cemetery, but no record exists at the cemetery.
Without a will, the responsibility of Arbus' work went to her daughter, Doon. Doon had her work displayed in the Venice Biennale and a posthumous retrospective at MoMA just over a year after her mother's death.
- Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph. Edited by Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel. Accompanied an exhibition at Museum of Modern Art, New York.
- Diane Arbus: Magazine Work. Edited by Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel. With texts by Diane Arbus and essays by Thomas W. Southall.
- Untitled. Edited by Doon Arbus and Yolanda Cuomo.
- Diane Arbus: Revelations. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 9780375506208. Includes essays by Sandra S. Phillips ("The question of belief") and Neil Selkirk ("In the darkroom"); a chronology by Elisabeth Sussman and Doon Arbus including text by Diane Arbus; afterword by Doon Arbus; and biographies of fifty five of Arbus' friends and colleagues by Jeff L. Rosenheim. Accompanied an exhibition that premièred at San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
- Diane Arbus: A Chronology, 1923–1971. New York: Aperture, 2011. ISBN 978-1-59711-179-9. By Elisabeth Sussman and Doon Arbus. Contains the chronology and biographies from Diane Arbus: Revelations.
, Jewish Giant, taken at Home with His Parents in the Bronx, New York, 1970
Arbus's most well-known individual photographs include:
- Child with Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C. 1962 – Colin Wood, with the left strap of his jumper awkwardly hanging off his shoulder, tensely holds his long, thin arms by his side. Clenching a toy grenade in his right hand and holding his left hand in a claw-like gesture, his facial expression is maniacal. However, the contact sheet demonstrates that his deranged appearance was an orial choice by Arbus who took a number of shots of this really quite ordinary boy who just shows off for the camera. A print of this photograph was sold in 2005 at auction for $408,000.
- Teenage Couple on Hudson Street, N.Y.C., 1963 – Wearing long coats and "worldlywise expressions", two adolescents appear older than their ages.
- Triplets in Their Bedroom, N.J. 1963 – Three girls sit at the head of a bed.
- A Young Brooklyn Family Going for a Sunday Outing, N.Y.C. 1966 – Richard and Marylin Dauria, who lived in the Bronx. Marylin holds their baby daughter, and Richard holds the hand of their young son, who is mentally challenged.
- A Young Man in Curlers at Home on West 20th Street, N.Y.C. 1966 – A close-up shows the man's pock-marked face with plucked eyebrows, and his hand with long fingernails holds a cigarette. Early reactions to the photograph were strong; for example, someone spat on it in 1967 at the Museum of Modern Art. A print was sold for $198,400 at a 2004 auction.
- Boy With a Straw Hat Waiting to March in a Pro-War Parade, N.Y.C. 1967 – With an American flag at his side, he wears a bow tie, a pin in the shape of a bow tie with an American flag motif, and two round button badges: "Bomb Hanoi" and "God Bless America / Support Our Boys in Viet Nam". The image may cause the viewer to feel both different from the boy and sympathetic toward him. An art consulting firm purchased a print for $228,000 at a 2005 auction.
- Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. 1967 – Young twin sisters Cathleen and Colleen Wade stand side by side in dark dresses. The uniformity of their clothing and haircut characterize them as being twins while the facial expressions strongly accentuate their individuality. This photograph is echoed in Stanley Kubrick's film The Shining, which features twins in an identical pose as ghosts. A print was sold at auction for $478,400 in 2004.
- A Family on Their Lawn One Sunday in Westchester, N.Y. 1968 – A woman and a man sunbathe while a boy bends over a small plastic wading pool behind them. In 1972, Neil Selkirk was put in charge of producing an exhibition print of this image when Marvin Israel advised him to make the background trees appear "like a theatrical backdrop that might at any moment roll forward across the lawn.".:270 This anecdote illustrates vividly just how fundamental dialectics between appearance and substance are for the understanding of Arbus' art. A print was sold at auction in 2008 for $553,000.
- A Naked Man Being a Woman, N.Y.C. 1968 – The subject has been described as in a "Venus-on-the-half-shell pose" (referring to The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli) or as "a Madonna turned in contrapposto... with his penis hidden between his legs" (referring to a Madonna in contrapposto). The parted curtain behind the man adds to the theatrical quality of the photograph.
- A Very Young Baby, N.Y.C. 1968 – A photograph for Harper's Bazaar depicts Gloria Vanderbilt's then-infant son, the future CNN anchorman Anderson Cooper.
- A Jewish Giant at Home with His Parents in The Bronx, N.Y. 1970 – Eddie Carmel, the "Jewish Giant," stands in his family's apartment with his much shorter mother and father. Arbus reportedly said to a friend about this picture: "You know how every mother has nightmares when she's pregnant that her baby will be born a monster?... I think I got that in the mother's face...." The photograph motivated Carmel's cousin to narrate a 1999 audio documentary about him. A print was sold at auction for $421,000 in 2007.
In addition, Arbus' Box of Ten Photographs was a portfolio of selected 1963–1970 photographs in a clear Plexiglas box/frame that was designed by Marvin Israel and was to have been issued in a limited ion of 50. However, Arbus completed only about 11 boxes and sold only four (two to Richard Avedon, one to Jasper Johns, and one to Bea Feitler).:220 One copy printed by Neil Selkirk after Arbus's death sold for $553,600 in 2005, an auction record for Arbus.
Arbus is the best known female photographer of her generation. As stated in the journal History of Photography in 2012, "The obsessive, self-indulgent, no-holds-barred quality of Diane Arbus's life, and the helpless, desperate nature of her death, have led to the photographer's being portrayed as a spectacularly flawed shooting star of photographic history." After Arbus's death, her daughter Doon managed Arbus's estate. She forbade examination of Arbus's correspondence and often denied permission for exhibition or reproduction of Arbus's photographs. The ors of an academic journal published a two-page complaint in 1993 about the estate's control over Arbus's images and its attempt to censor part of an article about Arbus. As of 2000, the estate would not release Arbus's 1957–1965 images of transvestites. A 2005 article called the estate's allowing the British press to reproduce only fifteen photographs an attempt to "control criticism and debate." The estate was also criticized in 2008 for minimizing Arbus's early commercial work.
In mid–1972, Arbus was the first American photographer to have photographs displayed at the Venice Biennale; her ten photographs were described as "the overwhelming sensation of the American Pavilion" and "an extraordinary achievement."
The Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective of Arbus's work in late 1972 that subsequently traveled around the United States and Canada through 1975; it was estimated that over seven million people saw the exhibition. A different retrospective traveled around the world between 1973 and 1979.
Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel ed and designed a 1972 book Diane Arbus: an Aperture Monograph, published by Aperture and accompanying the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition. It contained eighty of Arbus's photographs, as well as texts from classes that she gave in 1971, some of her writings, and interviews, including some of her most widely cited quotations:
- "My favorite thing is to go where I've never been."
- "Our whole guise is like giving a sign to the world to think of us in a certain way, but there's a point between what you want people to know about you and what you can't help people knowing about you. And that has to do with what I've always called the gap between intention and effect."
- "Freaks was a thing I photographed a lot.... Most people go through life dreading they'll have a traumatic experience. Freaks were born with their trauma. They've already passed their test in life. They're aristocrats."
- "I do feel I have some slight corner on something about the quality of things. I mean it's very subtle and a little embarrassing to me, but I believe there are things which nobody would see unless I photographed them."
In comparing movies to photographs, Arbus once said, "When you go to the movies, and you see two people in bed, you're willing to put aside the fact that you perfectly well know that there was a director and a cameraman and assorted lighting people all in that same room, and the two people in bed weren't really alone. But when you look at a photograph, you can never put that aside." She has also said that "everybody has this thing where they need to look one way, but they come out looking another way, and that's what people observe...you see someone on the street, and essentially what you notice about them is the flaw." Another comment of hers is that "everybody has that thing where they need to look one way but they come out looking another way...and that has to do with what I've always called the gap between intention and effect. I mean if you scrutinize reality closely enough, if in some way you really, really get to it, it becomes fantastic."
In 2001–2004 Diane Arbus: an Aperture Monograph was selected as one of the most important photobooks in history. Over 300,000 copies had been sold by 2004, unusual as "independent" photobooks are normally produced in ions of less than 5,000.
A half-hour documentary film about Arbus's life and work known as Masters of Photography: Diane Arbus or Going Where I've Never Been: The Photography of Diane Arbus was produced in 1972 and released on video in 1989.
Patricia Bosworth wrote an unauthorized biography of Arbus published in 1984. Although it is said to be "the main source" for understanding Arbus, Bosworth reportedly "received no help from Arbus's daughters, or from their father, or from two of her closest and most prescient friends, Avedon and ... Marvin Israel". The book was also criticized for insufficiently considering Arbus's writings, for speculating about missing information, and for focusing on "sex, depression and famous people," instead of Arbus's art.
Between 2003 and 2006, Arbus and her work were the subject of another major traveling exhibition, Diane Arbus Revelations, which was organized by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Accompanied by a book of the same name, the exhibition included artifacts such as correspondence, books, and cameras as well as 180 photographs by Arbus. By "making substantial public excerpts from Arbus's letters, diaries and notebooks" the exhibition and book "undertook to claim the center-ground on the basic facts relating to the artist's life and death." Because Arbus's estate approved the exhibition and book, the chronology in the book is "effectively the first authorized biography of the photographer.":121–225
In 2006, the fictional film Fur: an Imaginary Portrait of Diane Arbus was released, starring Nicole Kidman as Arbus; it used Patricia Bosworth's book Diane Arbus: A Biography as a source of inspiration.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art purchased twenty of Arbus's photographs (valued at millions of dollars) and received Arbus's archives as a gift from her estate in 2007.
In 2018, The New York Times published a belated obituary for her as part of the Overlooked history project. 
Reactions of critics and others
Susan Sontag wrote an essay in 1973 entitled "Freak Show" that was critical of Arbus' work; it was reprinted in her 1977 book On Photography as "America, Seen Through Photographs, Darkly." Among other criticisms, Sontag opposed the lack of beauty in Arbus' work and its failure to make the viewer feel compassionate about Arbus' subjects. Sontag's essay itself has been criticized as "an exercise in aesthetic insensibility" and "exemplary for its shallowness." Sontag has also stated that "the subjects of Arbus' photographs are all members of the same family, inhabitants of a single village. Only, as it happens, the idiot village is America. Instead of showing identity between things which are different (Whitman's democratic vista), everybody is the same." A 2008 essay characterized Sontag and Arbus as "Siamese twins of photographic art," because they both struggled with photography as art versus documentation (e.g., the relationship of photographer and subject). A 2009 article noted that Arbus had photographed Sontag and her son in 1965, causing one to "wonder if Sontag felt this was an unfair portrait." Philip Charrier argues in a 2012 article that despite its narrowness and widely discussed faults, Sontag's critique continues to inform much of the scholarship and criticism of Arbus' oeuvre. The article proposes overcoming this tradition by asking new questions, and by shifting the focus away from matters of biography, ethics, and Arbus' suicide.
Other critics' opinions of Arbus' photographs vary widely, for example:
- Max Kozloff wrote in 1967 that Arbus' photographs have "an extraordinary ethical conviction" because they were taken with the subjects' consent and thereby challenged the viewer.
- Robert Hughes praised Arbus in 1972 as having "altered our experience of the face."
- Hilton Kramer opined in 1972 that Arbus "altered the terms of the art she practiced" and "completely wins us over."
- Judith Goldman in 1974 was of the opinion that Arbus' photographs betrayed their subjects by portraying them as full of despair.
- David Pagel in 1992 found Arbus' pictures of women with intellectual disability "remarkable" and "intriguing."
- Jed Perl felt that Arbus was "master of the high-falutin' creep-out" and that her photographs were "an emotional tease" in a 2003 critique.
- Barbara O'Brien in a 2004 review of the exhibition "Diane Arbus: Family Albums" found her and August Sander's work "filled with life and energy."
- Peter Schjeldahl, while claiming in 2005 that "no other photographer has been more controversial," also felt that her work was "revolutionary."
- Brian Sewell dismissed Arbus's work in 2005 as unremarkable and as having gained prominence partly because of her suicide, but as "worth a second glance."
- Ken Johnson, reviewing a show of Arbus' lesser-known works in 2005, likened Arbus' story-telling ability to that of writer Flannery O'Connor.
- Leo Rubinfien in 2005 compared Arbus to Franz Kafka and Samuel Beckett in exploring absurdity and fatalism.
- Stephanie Zacharek wrote in 2006 "When I look at her pictures, I see not a gift for capturing whatever life is there, but a desire to confirm her suspicions about humanity's dullness, stupidity, and ugliness."
- Wayne Koestenbaum asked in 2007 whether Arbus' photographs humiliate the subjects or the viewers.
Some of Arbus' subjects and their relatives have offered their opinions:
- The father of the twins pictured in "Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. 1967" felt that the photograph "was the worst likeness" of the girls he had ever seen.
- Writer Germaine Greer, who was the subject of an Arbus photograph in 1971, criticized it as an "undeniably bad picture" and Arbus' work in general as unoriginal and focusing on "mere human imperfection and self-delusion."
- Norman Mailer said, in 1971, "Giving a camera to Diane Arbus is like putting a live grenade in the hands of a child." Mailer was reportedly displeased with the well-known "spread-legged" New York Times Book Review photo. Arbus photographed him in 1963.
- Colin Wood, the subject of "Child With a Toy Grenade in Central Park," said, “She saw in me the frustration, the anger at my surroundings, the kid wanting to explode but can’t because he’s constrained by his background.”
Notable solo exhibitions
- 1972: Diane Arbus Portfolio: 10 Photos. Venice Biennale.
- 1972–1975: Diane Arbus (125 photographs, curated by John Szarkowski). Museum of Modern Art, New York; Baltimore; Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa; Detroit Institute of Arts; Witte Memorial Museum, San Antonio, Texas; New Orleans Museum of Art; Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, California; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; Florida Center for the Arts, University of South Florida, Tampa; and Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, Champaign.
- 1974: "Hommage à Diane Arbus" by Jean-Marc Bustamante, Arles' Théâtre Antique, Rencontres d'Arles festival, France.
- 1973–79: Diane Arbus: Retrospective (118 photographs, curated by Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel). Seibu Museum, Tokyo; Hayward Gallery, London; Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, England; Scottish Arts Council, Edinburgh, Scotland; Van Abbe Museum, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam; Lenbachhaus Städtische Galerie, Munich, Germany; Von der Heydt Museum, Wuppertal, Germany; Frankfurter Kunstverein; 14 galleries and museums in Australia; and 7 galleries and museums in New Zealand.
- 1980: Diane Arbus: Vintage Unpublished Photographs. Robert Miller Gallery, New York.
- 1984–1987: Diane Arbus: Magazine Work 1960–1971. Spencer Museum of Art, Lawrence, Kansas; Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minneapolis; University of Kentucky Art Museum, Lexington; University Art Museum, California State University, Long Beach; Neuberger Museum, State University of New York at Purchase; Wellesley College Museum, Massachusetts; and Philadelphia Museum of Art.
- 1986: Seattle Art Museum.
- 1991: Diane Arbus: Photographs. Edwynn Houk Gallery, Chicago.
- 1991: Diane Arbus. Ydessa Hendeles Art Foundation, Toronto.
- 1992: Diane Arbus: the Untitled Series, 1970–1971. Jan Kesner Gallery, Los Angeles.
- 1995: The Movies: Photographs from 1956 to 1958. Robert Miller Gallery, New York.
- 1997: Diane Arbus: Women. Photology Gallery, London.
- 2003–2006: Diane Arbus: Revelations. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; CaixaForum, Barcelona; and Walker Art Center, Minneapolis.
- 2004–2005: Diane Arbus: Family Albums. Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, South Hadley, Massachusetts; Grey Art Gallery, New York; Portland Museum of Art, Maine; Spencer Museum of Art, Lawrence, Kansas; and Portland Art Museum, Oregon.
- 2005: Diane Arbus: Other Faces Other Rooms. Robert Miller Gallery, New York.
- 2007: Something Was There: Early Work by Diane Arbus. Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco.
- 2008–2009: Diane Arbus, a Printed Retrospective, 1960–1971. Kadist Art Foundation, Paris; and Centre Régional de la Photographie Nord Pas-de-Calais, Douchy-les-Mines, France.
- 2009: Diane Arbus. Timothy Taylor Gallery, London.
- 2009–2010: Artist Rooms: Diane Arbus. National Museum Cardiff, Wales; and Dean Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland.
- 2010: Diane Arbus: Christ in a Lobby and Other Unknown or Almost Known Works. Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco.
- 2011–2013: Diane Arbus. Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris; Fotomuseum, Winterthur; Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin; and Foam Fotografiemuseum Amsterdam.
- 2016: Diane Arbus: In the Beginning. Met Breuer, New York.
Arbus' work is held in the following permanent collections:
- Akron Art Museum
- BA-CA Kunstforum, Bank Austria Art Collection, Wien
- Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Alabama
- Center for Creative Photography, Tucson
- Cleveland Museum of Art
- Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT
- Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Poughkeepsie
- Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, MA
- International Center of Photography, New York City
- Institut Valencià d'Art Modern, Valencia, Spain
- John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota
- KMS Fine Art Group, Baar, Switzerland
- Los Angeles County Museum of Art
- Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- Milwaukee Art Museum
- Minneapolis Institute of Art
- Moderna Museet Malmö
- Moderna Museet, Stockholm
- Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA
- Museum of Fine Arts (St. Petersburg, Florida)
- National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa
- New Orleans Museum of Art
- Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid
- Goetz Collection, Munich
- Spencer Museum of Art, Lawrence 
- Sweet Briar College Art Gallery, Sweet Briar, VA
- Tate and National Galleries of Scotland, UK (jointly held)
- The Progressive Art Collection, Mayfield Village
- Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver
- Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, MA
- Ydessa Hendeles Art Foundation, Toronto
- Yokohama Museum of Art, Yokohama, Japan
- ^ a b c d e f Diane Arbus: Revelations. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 0-375-50620-9.
- ^ a b "Diane Arbus, her vision, lide, and death". The New York Times, 13 May 1984. Accessed 10 May 2017
- ^ a b c d Arbus, Diane. Diane Arbus. Millerton, New York: Aperture, 1972. ISBN 0-912334-40-1.
- ^ Bosworth, Patricia. Diane Arbus: a Biography. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005. Page 250. ISBN 0-393-32661-6.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lubow, Arthur (September 14, 2003). "Arbus Reconsidered". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o DeCarlo, Tessa (May 2004). "A Fresh Look at Diane Arbus". Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- ^ Gaines, Steven. The Sky's the Limit: Passion and Property in Manhattan. New York: Little, Brown, 2005. Page 143. ISBN 0-316-60851-3.
- ^ a b c d e f g Kimmelman, Michael (2004-01-09). "PHOTOGRAPHY REVIEW; Diane Arbus, a Hunter Wielding a Lens". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
... at the end of December 1969 [Arbus] was hired by a rich and prominent actor and theater owner, Konrad Matthaei, and his wife, Gay [...], to shoot a family Christmas gathering [...] Her work, like all allegorical art, comes down to formal manipulation. The cliché of her as the Sylvia Plath of photographers [...] Whether you admire or disdain her blatant sensationalism -- because that's what it is -- the quality of your reaction is a measure of her obvious graphic novelty.
- ^ Hughes, Robert (November 13, 1972). "Art: To Hades with Lens". Time Magazine.
- ^ a b c John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. "Fellows. Diane Arbus". Archived 2010-11-25 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f Cheim & Read Gallery. "Diane Arbus: Biography". Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Muir, Robin. "Woman's Studies". The Independent (London), October 18, 1997. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- ^ a b c d Bissell, Gerhard. "Arbus, Diane", in Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon (World Biographical Dictionary of Artists), 2006, and "Diane Arbus" (condensed English version).
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rubinfien, Leo. "Where Diane Arbus Went". Art in America, volume 93, number 9, pages 65–71, 73, 75, 77, October 2005.
- ^ a b Dargis, Manohla. "A Visual Chronicler of Humanity's Underbelly, Draped in a Pelt of Perversity". The New York Times, November 10, 2006. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- ^ a b c d e Crookston, Peter. Extra Ordinary. The Guardian, October 1, 2005. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ a b c d e Schjeldahl, Peter. "Looking Back: Diane Arbus at the Met". The New Yorker, March 21, 2005. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- ^ "Diane Arbus Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works". The Art Story. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
- ^ a b Bosworth, Patricia (May 13, 1984). "Diane Arbus". The New York Times Magazine: 42–59.
- ^ a b c d e Mar, Alex (March 11, 2017). "The Cost of Diane Arbus's Life on the Edge". The Cut.
- ^ Hinckley, David. "M.A.S.H. actor Allan Arbus dead at 95". New York Daily News. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- ^ Grundberg, Andy. "PHOTOGRAPHY". Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- ^ Ault, Alicia. "A Window into the World of Diane Arbus". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- ^ Lubow, Arthur (April 2, 1967). "Arbus Reconsidered". The New York Times Magazine.
- ^ a b c Ronnen, Meir. "The Velazquez of New York". Archived 2010-03-27 at the Wayback Machine. The Jerusalem Post, October 10, 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ a b Tarzan, Deloris. "Arbus – Her Brutal Lens Disclosed Aspects Previously Unseen in Her Subjects". The Seattle Times, September 21, 1986.
- ^ a b O'Neill, Alistair. "A Young Woman, N.Y.C." Photography & Culture, volume 1, number 1, pp. 7–20, July 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Sass, Louis A. "'Hyped on Clarity': Diane Arbus and the Postmodern Condition". Raritan, volume 25, number 1, pp. 1–37, Summer 2005.
- ^ a b c Lacayo, Richard. "Photography: Diane Arbus: Visionary Voyeurism". Time magazine, November 3, 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ Krasinski, Jennifer (July 27 – August 2, 2016). "Beauty and the Streets". Village Voice.
- ^ Pogrebin, Robin (July 10, 2016). "Diane Arbus: The Early Years". The New York Times.
- ^ a b c Badger, Gerry (2003). "Arbus [née Nemerov], Diane". Oxford Art Online. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- ^ a b Fox, Catherine. "Snapshot/Diane Arbus: True Portrait Lies Outside Film." The Atlanta Journal--Constitution Dec 03 2006 ProQuest. 2 Mar. 2017
- ^ Fairy Tales for Grown-Ups (Exhibition pamphlet). National Gallery of Canada. 2000.
- ^ Wood, Gaby (October 8, 2016). "Incest, suicide – and the real reason we should remember Diane Arbus". The Telegraph. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
- ^ "Guggenheim Fund Grants $1,380,000". The New York Times, April 29, 1963.
- ^ a b c Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Diane Arbus Revelations: More About This Exhibition". March 8, 2005 – May 30, 2005. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ Gefter, Philip (9 July 2007). "John Szarkowski, Curator of Photography, Dies at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- ^ a b "No. 21" (PDF). Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- ^ O'Hagan, Sean (20 July 2010). "Was John Szarkowski the most influential person in 20th-century photography?". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- ^ Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago (March 1973). "News Release".
- ^ Warren, Lynne (2006). Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography, 3-Volume Set. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-393-4. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- ^ "Portraits on Assignment (Press Release)". Robert Miller Gallery, Inc. 1984.
- ^ "The Other Side of Diane Arbus". Society, volume 28, number 2, pages 75–79, January/February 1991.
- ^ Szarkowski, John. From the Picture Press. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973.
- ^ a b c Pagel, David. "Diane Arbus: Pictures from the Institutions". Los Angeles Times, May 15, 1992. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ a b c Gefter, Philip. "In Portraits by Others, a Look That Caught Avedon's Eye". The New York Times, August 27, 2006. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 1448). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
- ^ "Arbus Reconsidered". The New York Times, 14 September 2003. Accessed 10 May 2017
- ^ "In the Picture: A new biography of Diane Arbus.". The New Yorker, 6 June 2016. Accessed 10 May 2017
- ^ a b c d e Segal, David. "Double Exposure: a Moment with Diane Arbus Created a Lasting Impression". The Washington Post, May 12, 2005. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- ^ Published in Diane Arbus: Revelations, 2003, p. 164, and online in the article Paris Photo 6 : Diane Arbus à la galerie Robert Miller, 2006.
- ^ a b c Pitman, Joanna. "Vintage Photography: the Market for Photographs Has Grown Rapidly Since the 1980s". Apollo, November 2005. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ a b Brill, Lesley. "The Photography of Diane Arbus". Journal of American Culture, volume 5, issue 1, pages 69–76, Spring 1982.
- ^ a b c d Kimmelman, Michael. "The Profound Vision of Diane Arbus: Flaws in Beauty, Beauty in Flaws". The New York Times, March 11, 2005. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2011-03-19.
- ^ a b Artnet. "Art Market Watch". May 4, 2004. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- ^ Artnet. "Art Market Watch". May 13, 2005. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
- ^ Sotheby's. "A Family on the Lawn One Sunday in Westchester, N.Y." April 8, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ a b Hume, Christopher. "Photography's Tragic Poet of the Bizarre". Toronto Star, January 11, 1991.
- ^ "The Jewish Giant". Archived 2010-06-10 at the Wayback Machine. Sound Portraits Productions, October 6, 1999. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- ^ Christie's. "A Jewish Giant at Home with His Parents, 1967". October 18, 2007. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- ^ Pollock, Lindsay. "The Arbus Traveling Circus". The New York Sun, April 21, 2005. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- ^ a b c Charrier, Philip "On Diane Arbus: Establishing a Revisionist Framework of Analysis". History of Photography, volume 36, number 4, pages 422-438, November 2012.
- ^ a b c d Armstrong, Carol. "Biology, Destiny, Photography: Difference According to Diane Arbus". October, volume 66, pages 28–54, Autumn 1993.
- ^ Trainer, Laureen. "The Missing Photographs: an Examination of Diane Arbus's Images of Transvestites and Homosexuals from 1957 to 1965". Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine. Athanor, volume 18, pages 77–80, 2000.
- ^ a b "Diane Arbus's Carnival of Cruelty". Evening Standard (London), October 14, 2005. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- ^ a b Kramer, Hilton. "Arbus Photos, at Venice, Show Power". The New York Times, June 17, 1972.
- ^ a b c Parr, Martin, and Gerry Badger. The Photobook: a History. Volume I. London & New York: Phaidon, 2004. ISBN 0-7148-4285-0.
- ^ a b Hughes, Robert. "Art: to Hades with Lens". Time, November 13, 1972. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ a b Goldman, Judith. "Diane Arbus: The Gap Between Intention and Effect". Art Journal, volume 34, issue 1, pages 30–35, Fall 1974.
- ^ a b Greer, Germaine. "Wrestling with Diane Arbus". The Guardian, October 8, 2005. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- ^ Feeney, Mark. "She Opened Our Eyes. Photographer Diane Arbus Presented a New Way of Seeing." Boston Globe, November 2, 2003. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- ^ Caslin, Jean, and D. Clarke Evans. Building a Photographic Library. San Antonio: Texas Photographic Society, 2001. ISBN 1-931427-00-3.
- ^ Roth, Andrew, or. The Book of 101 Books: Seminal Photographic Books of the 20th Century. New York: PPP Editions in association with Roth Horowitz LLC, 2001. ISBN 0-9670774-4-3.
- ^ Roth, Andrew, or. The Open Book: a History of the Photographic Book from 1878 to the Present. Göteborg, Sweden: Hasselblad Center, 2004.
- ^ Going Where I've Never Been: The Photography of Diane Arbus (1972) on IMDb
- ^ Traditional Fine Arts Organization. "American Photography. DVD/VHS Videos". Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ a b Zacharek, Stephanie. "Fur: an Imaginary Portrait of Diane Arbus" (review). Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine. Salon.com, November 10, 2006. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- ^ Vogel, Carol. "A Big Gift for the Met: the Arbus Archives". The New York Times, December 18, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- ^ James Estrin. "Diane Arbus Called Her Portraits 'A Secret About a Secret' - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ Padnani, Amisha (2018-03-08). "How an Obits Project on Overlooked Women Was Born". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- ^ Padnani, Amisha (2018-03-08). "Remarkable Women We Overlooked in Our Obituaries". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- ^ a b Parsons, Sarah. "Sontag's Lament: Emotion, Ethics, and Photography". Photography & Culture, volume 2, number 3, pages 289–302, November 2009.
- ^ Baird, Lisa A. "Susan Sontag and Diane Arbus: the Siamese Twins of Photographic Art". Women's Studies, volume 37, issue 8, pages 971–986, December 2008.
- ^ Kozloff, Max. "Photography". The Nation, volume 204, pages 571–573, May 1, 1967.
- ^ Kramer, Hilton. "From fashion to freaks". The New York Times, November 5, 1972.
- ^ Perl, Jed. "Not-So-Simple Simplicity". The New Republic, October 27, 2003. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ O'Brien, Barbara. "Learning to Read: the Epic Narratives of Diane Arbus and August Sander". Art New England, volume 25, number 6, pages 22–23, 67, October/November 2004.
- ^ a b Johnson, Ken. "Art in Review; Diane Arbus". The New York Times, September 30, 2005. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- ^ Koestenbaum, Wayne. "Diane Arbus and Humiliation". Studies in Gender & Sexuality, volume 8, issue 4, pages 345–347, Fall 2007.
- ^ Feeney, Mark. "She Opened Our Eyes Photographer Diane Arbus Presented a New Way of Seeing." Boston Globe. Nov 02 2003 ProQuest. 2 Mar. 2017
- ^ O'Hagan, Sean (October 25, 2016). "Diane Arbus: Portrait of a Photographer review – a disturbing study". The Guardian. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- ^ Thornton, Gene. "Narrative Works - and Arbus." The New York Times, August 31, 1980.
- ^ Hackett, Regina. "Diane Arbus Photographs Reveal Her Rare Power". Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 25, 1986. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- ^ Foerstner, Abigail. "Diane Arbus Demystified Celebrities, Celebrated the Taboo". Chicago Tribune, February 15, 1991.
- ^ Dault, Gary Michael. "Diane Arbus. Ydessa Hendeles Art Foundation, Toronto". C Magazine, number 29, Spring 1991. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- ^ "Weekend's Best". Daily News of Los Angeles, May 29, 1992.
- ^ Morgan, Susan. "Loitering with Intent: Diane Arbus at the Movies". Parkett, number 47, pages 177–183, September 1996.
- ^ Bishop, Louise. "The Challenge of Beauty". Creative Review, volume 17, number 63, December 1997.
- ^ Woodward, Richard B. "Art; Diane Arbus's Family Values". The New York Times, October 5, 2003. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- ^ Kimmelman, Michael. "Photography Review; Diane Arbus, a Hunter Wielding a Lens". The New York Times, January 9, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- ^ Keefer, Bob. "The World of Diane Arbus". The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), February 27, 2005. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- ^ Decoteau, Randall. "Diane Arbus' Noah's Ark of Humanity". Archived 2010-08-15 at the Wayback Machine. New England Antiques Journal, March 2005. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- ^ Baker, Kenneth. "Fraenkel Shows Us Diane Arbus Before She Even Knew Herself". San Francisco Chronicle, September 8, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- ^ Davey, Moyra, and Janson Simon. "Diane Arbus, a Printed Retrospective, 1960–1971". Artforum International, volume 47, number 8, page 183, 2009.
- ^ a b Davies, Lucy. "Diane Arbus: a Flash of Familiarity". The Telegraph (London), May 6, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- ^ Cooper, Neil. "New Diane Arbus exhibition set for Dean Gallery, Edinburgh". The List (Scotland), February 23, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- ^ Baker, Kenneth. "Fraenkel Gallery Pairs Sculptor and Arbus". San Francisco Chronicle, January 7, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- ^ "Diane Arbus".
- ^ "Fotomuseum Winterthur - VORSCHAU/RÜCKSCHAU" (in German). Archived from the original on 2012-12-15. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
- ^ "Exhibitions: Museumsportal Berlin". Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
- ^ "Diane Arbus". Foam Press. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
- ^ "Diane Arbus: In the beginning - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org.
- ^ "Collection". Akron Art Museum. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Highlights of the Bank Austria Art Collection | Bank Austria Kunstforum". Kunstforumwien.at. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Birmingham Museum of Art | » Artists » Diane Arbus, United States, 1923 – 1971". Artsbma.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Photo Friday: Twins | Center for Creative Photography". Ccp.arizona.edu. 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Clevelandart.org".
- ^ "Photographs after 1950 - DAC - Wesleyan University". Wesleyan.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Facebook - The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center - Vassar College". Fllac.vassar.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Harvard Art Museums". Harvard Art Museums. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ Diane Arbus. "Diane Arbus | International Center of Photography". Icp.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "IVAM - Institut Valencià d'Art Modern | Women photographers in the IVAM Collection". Ivam.es. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ When: Jun 30, 2017 – Oct 29, 2017. "Posed: Portrait Photography from the Permanent Collection". The Ringling. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Diane Arbus Fine Art Invest Fund". Faif.ch. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ Diane Arbus. "Diane Arbus | LACMA Collections". Collections.lacma.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Child with a toy hand grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C." National Galleries of Scotland. Accessed 23 November 2016
- ^ "Diane Arbus | Milwaukee Art Museum". Collection.mam.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Diane Arbus". Mia. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- ^ "Unique collaboration - Moderna Museet i Malmö". Modernamuseet.se. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Moderna Museet Collection | Moderna Museet i Stockholm". Modernamuseet.se. 1958-04-03. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Diane Arbus • MOCA". Moca.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Five Decades of Photography at the MFA, Featuring the Dandrew-Drapkin Collection | Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg". Mfastpete.org. 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Review: Stunning, comprehensive photography survey at Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg". Tampabay.com. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Diane Arbus | National Gallery of Canada". Gallery.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ "Search the Collection | National Gallery of Canada". Gallery.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ Noma.org
- ^ Noma.org
- ^ Museoreinasofia.es
- ^ Sammlung-goetz.de
- ^ Spencerart.ku.edu Spencer Museum of Art. Accessed 7 March 2018
- ^ Oldweb.sdc.edu
- ^ "Diane Arbus: Child with a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C. 1962 1962, printed after 1971" Tate. Accessed 23 November 2016
- ^ "Diane Arbus: Child with a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C. 1962" National Galleries of Scotland. Accessed 23 November 2016
- ^ Artfacts.net
- ^ Vanartgallery.bc.ca
- ^ Egallery.williams.edu
- ^ Newyorker.com
- ^ The Globe and Mail
- ^ Yokohama.art.museum
- Bosworth, Patricia. Diane Arbus: a Biography. New York: Knopf, 1984. ISBN 0-394-50404-6. (Reprinted by Heinemann in 1985, ISBN 0-434-08150-7. Reprinted by W.W. Norton in 1995, ISBN 0-393-31207-0. Reprinted by W.W. Norton in 2005 with a new afterword, ISBN 0-393-32661-6. Reprinted by Vintage in 2005 with a new foreword, ISBN 0-09-947036-5.)
- Roegiers, Patrick. Diane Arbus, ou, le Rêve du Naufrage. Paris: Chêne, 1985. ISBN 2-85108-374-0.
- Lee, Anthony W., and John Pultz. Diane Arbus: Family Albums. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-300-10146-5.
- Arbus, Doon, and Diane Arbus. Diane Arbus: the Libraries. San Francisco: Fraenkel Gallery, 2004. ISBN 1-881337-19-7.
- Tellgren, Anna. Arbus, Model, Strömholm. Göttingen, Germany: Steidl, 2005. ISBN 3-86521-143-7.
- Gibson, Gregory. Hubert's Freaks: the Rare-Book Dealer, the Times Square Talker, and the Lost Photos of Diane Arbus. Orlando: Harcourt, 2008. ISBN 978-0-15-101233-6.
- Schultz, William Todd. "An Emergency in Slow Motion: The Inner Life of Diane Arbus". New York: Bloomsbury, 2011. ISBN 1-60819-519-8.
- Lubow, Arthur. Diane Arbus: Portrait of a Photographer. New York: Ecco Press, 2016. ISBN 978-0-06-223432-2.
- Sicherman, Barbara, and Carol Hurd Green. Notable American Women: the Modern Period: a Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-674-62733-4.
- Rose, Phyllis, or. Writing of Women: Essays in a Renaissance. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8195-5131-7.
- Lord, Catherine. "What Becomes a Legend Most: the Short, Sad Career of Diane Arbus". In: The Contest of Meaning: Critical Histories of Photography ed by Richard Bolton. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1989. ISBN 0-262-02288-5.
- Bunnell, Peter C. Degrees of Guidance: Essays on Twentieth-Century American Photography. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-521-32751-2.
- Shloss, Carol. "Off the (W)rack : Fashion and Pain in the Work of Diane Arbus". In: On Fashion ed by Shari Benstock and Suzanne Ferriss. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8135-2032-0.
- Ashby, Ruth, and Deborah Gore Ohrn. Herstory: Women who Changed the World. New York: Viking, 1995. ISBN 0-670-85434-4.
- Felder, Deborah G. The 100 Most Influential Women of All Time: a Ranking Past and Present. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN 0-8065-1726-3.
- "Diane Arbus and the Demon Lover". In: Kavaler-Adler, Susan. The Creative Mystique: from Red Shoes Frenzy to Love and Creativity. New York: Routledge, 1996. Pages 167–172. ISBN 0-415-91412-4.
- Gaze, Delia, or. Dictionary of Women Artists. London and Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997. ISBN 1-884964-21-4.
- Stepan, Peter. Icons of Photography: the 20th Century. New York: Prestel, 1999. ISBN 3-7913-2001-7.
- Coleman, A.D. "Diane Arbus, Lee Friedlander, and Garry Winogrand at Century's End". In: The Social Scene: the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Photography Collection at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, ed by Max Kozloff. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2000. ISBN 0-914357-74-3.
- Naef, Weston J. Photographers of Genius at the Getty. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2004. ISBN 0-89236-748-2.
- Bunnell, Peter C. Inside the Photograph: Writings on Twentieth-Century Photography. New York: Aperture Foundation, 2006. ISBN 1-59711-021-3.
- Davies, David. "Susan Sontag, Diane Arbus and the Ethical Dimensions of Photography". In: Art and Ethical Criticism ed by Garry Hagberg. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-3483-5.
- Gefter, Philip, Photography After Frank. New York: Aperture Foundation, 2009. ISBN 978-1-59711-095-2
- Alexander, M. Darsie. "Diane Arbus: a Theatre of Ambiguity". History of Photography, volume 19, number 2, pages 120–123, Summer 1995.
- Bedient, Calvin. "The Hostile Camera: Diane Arbus". Art in America, volume 73, number 1, pages 11–12, January 1985.
- Budick, Ariella. "Diane Arbus: Gender and Politics". History of Photography, volume 19, number 2, pages 123–126, Summer 1995.
- Budick, Ariella. "Factory Seconds: Diane Arbus and the Imperfections in Mass Culture". Art Criticism, volume 12, number 2, pages 50–70, 1997.
- Charrier, Philip. "On Diane Arbus: Establishing a Revisionist Framework of Analysis". History of Photography, volume 36, number 4, pages 422–438, November 2012.
- Estrin, James. "Diane Arbus, 1923-1971," New York Times, March 8, 2018.
- Hulick, Diana Emery. "Diane Arbus's Women and Transvestites: Separate Selves". History of Photography, volume 16, number 1, pages 34–39, Spring 1992.
- Hulick, Diana Emery. "Diane Arbus's Expressive Methods". History of Photography, volume 19, number 2, pages 107–116, Summer 1995.
- Jeffrey, Ian. "Diane Arbus and the American Grotesque". Photographic Journal, volume 114, number 5, pages 224–29, May 1974.
- Jeffrey, Ian. "Diane Arbus and the Past: when She Was Good". History of Photography, volume 19, number 2, pages 95–99, Summer 1995.
- Kozloff, Max. "The Uncanny Portrait: Sander, Arbus, Samaras". Artforum, volume 11, number 10, pages 58–66, June 1973.
- McPherson, Heather. "Diane Arbus's Grotesque 'Human Comedy'". History of Photography, volume 19, number 2, pages 117–120, Summer 1995.
- Pierpont, Claudia Roth. "Full Exposure," The New Yorker, vol. 92, no. 15 (May 23, 2016), pp. 56-67.
- Rice, Shelley. "Essential Differences: A Comparison of the Portraits of Lisette Model and Diane Arbus". Artforum, volume 18, number 9, pages 66–71, May 1980.
- Warburton, Nigel. "Diane Arbus and Erving Goffman: the Presentation of Self". History of Photography, volume 16, number 4, pages 401–404, Winter 1992.
- Diane Arbus on The Red List
- Austin, Hillary Mac. "Diane Arbus". Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, March 1, 2009.
- Bissell, Gerhard. "Diane Arbus". Condensed English version of the author's originally German biographical entry, "Arbus, Diane" (subscription required), in Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon (World Biographical Dictionary of Artists), 2006.
- Davies, Christie. "Art as Freak Show: Diane Arbus, Revelations at the V&A". London: Social Affairs Unit, December 16, 2005.
- Harden, Mark. "Masters of Photography: Diane Arbus".
- Lubow Arthur."How Diane Arbus Became ‘Arbus’" ". nytimes.com, May 26, 2016.
- Oppenheimer, Daniel. "Diane Arbus". Jewish Virtual Library, 2004.
- Smith, Roberta. "Review/Art; Diane Arbus and Alice Neel, with Attention to the Child". The New York Times, May 19, 1989.
- Van Riper, Frank. "Diane Arbus: Revealed and Rediscovered". The Washington Post, September 25, 2003.