Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland Clinic logo.svg
Cleveland Clinic Miller Family Pavilion.jpg
Cleveland Clinic Main Campus Sydell & Arnold Miller Family Pavilion building
Geography
Location9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Coordinates41°30′09″N 81°37′16″W / 41.502595°N 81.621066°W / 41.502595; -81.621066Coordinates: 41°30′09″N 81°37′16″W / 41.502595°N 81.621066°W / 41.502595; -81.621066
Organization
Care systemPrivate
FundingNon-profit hospital
TypeAcademic
Affiliated university
Services
Beds1,500
Helipads
HelipadFAA LID: 6OI8[1]
Number Length Surface
ft m
H1 55 17 Concrete
History
Opened1921
Links
Websitewww.clevelandclinic.org
ListsHospitals in Ohio

The Cleveland Clinic is an American academic medical center based in Cleveland, Ohio. Owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921, it runs a 170 acre campus in Cleveland, as well as 11 regional hospitals, 19 family health centers in northeast Ohio, and hospitals in Florida and Nevada.[2] Outside the United States, Cleveland Clinic also operates the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital and a sports medicine clinic in Toronto.[2] A Cleveland Clinic hospital campus in London is scheduled to open in 2021.[3] Tomislav Mihaljevic is the president and CEO.[4]

Cleveland Clinic is consistently ranked as one of the best hospitals in the United States. In 2018-2019, the U.S. News & World Report ranked Cleveland Clinic as the number 2 hospital in the Best Hospitals Honor Roll, as it was nationally ranked in 14 adult and 10 pediatric specialties.[5] Cleveland Clinic’s cardiology program has ranked No. 1 in the nation since 1995.[6]

Cleveland Clinic's operating revenue in 2017 was $8.4 billion and its operating income $330 million.[7] That year it recorded 7.6 million patient visits and 229,132 admissions. As of 2019, it has over 60,000 employees, a figure that includes over 11,800 nurses and over 3,953 physicians and scientists in 140 specialties;.[2] It is affiliated with the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, with which it started a physician-investigator medical school training program: the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine.[8] Cleveland Clinic is also the teaching hospital for Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine and Kent State University College of Podiatric Medicine. In addition, Cleveland Clinic has 1900 residents and fellows in 109 training programs approved by the Accration Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME).[9] The Cleveland Clinic also publishes the peer-reviewed journal Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine.[10] In 2008, Cleveland Clinic became the first healthcare provider in the United States to become a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact and the second in the world.[11]

History[]

Beginnings[]

The organization grew out of the surgical practice of Frank J. Weed (died 1891) at 16 Church Street on the near-west side of Cleveland.[12][13] The practice was purchased by his two assistants, Frank E. Bunts and George Washington Crile.[14][15] In 1892 they were joined by Crile's cousin, William E. Lower,[16] and in 1897 the practice moved to the Osborn Building on Prospect Avenue, downtown Cleveland.[12][17]

A four-story outpatient building was constructed, and Cleveland Clinic was dedicated at a private ceremony on February 26, 1921.[18][19] It opened its doors two days later to the public and registered 42 patients.[20] By April 1921, it had 60 employees, including 14 physicians and four nurses.[21] In 1922 the founders purchased four private homes nearby for hospitalization, radiation treatment, and administration.[21] A fifth house was acquired as a residence for patients with diabetes receiving insulin treatments.[21][22] To meet rising patient volume, a 184-bed hospital was built in 1924, located at East 90th Street and Carnegie Avenue.[23] A power plant, laundry, and ice plant were also built.[21][24] A research laboratory was constructed in 1928.[21][25]

Cleveland Clinic fire[]

Cleveland Clinic's original building, built in 1921

On May 15, 1929, nitrocellulose x-ray films stored in the basement of the outpatient building ignited.[26][27][28] An explosion sent a cloud of toxic oxides of nitrogen and carbon though the building. One hundred and twenty-three people lost their lives, including John Phillips, one of the founders.[29][30] A dozen investigating agencies were not able to determine what had caused the fire. Cleveland Clinic's own inquiry narrowed the possible causes down to spontaneous combustion caused by heat; a discarded cigarette or match; and contact with an extension cord light hung over a stack of films.[27]

Philanthropist Samuel Mather formed a committee of 36 community leaders to help Cleveland Clinic reestablish itself in temporary quarters across the street.[27][31][32] Patient care services resumed five days later.[31] The 1921 building was completely renovated, and a new three-story clinic building, with a new main entrance, was added in 1931.[27] All debts were repaid by 1941.[33]

Growth of specialization[]

George Washington Crile, one of the founders

Cleveland Clinic built new operating rooms in the early 1970s to accommodate the growth of cardiac surgery.[24] The Martha Holden Jennings Education Building opened in 1964, with an auditorium named for Dr. Bunts. A new hospital building (currently home to Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital) opened in 1966, and a research building opened in 1974 (demolished in 2007).[24] A pathology and laboratory medicine building was constructed on Carnegie Avenue in 1980.[34]

Willian S. Kiser, chairman of the board 1977–1989,[35] led the development of a strategic plan to accommodate growing patient volumes in the late 1970s. This resulted in a group of buildings known as the Century Project. Completed in 1985, the Century Project includes a 14-story outpatient building (now known as the Crile Building) designed by architect Cesar Pelli.[36]

Research and education[]

The Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute conducts biomedical research in a 480,000-square-foot building that opened in 1999,[37] following a $16 million donation from Al and Norma Lerner in 1997, the largest single charitable donation made to the Cleveland Clinic up until that point.[38] In 2002, the Lerners eclipsed their previous gift and made a $100 million donation to establish the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine (CCLCM) of Case Western Reserve University, which opened in 2004.[39] Physician researcher Eric Topol played an important role in securing the donation from the Lerner family.[40] Topol served as Provost and Chief Academic Officer at CCLCM until 2006, when his position was eliminated amid controversy regarding his criticism of Vioxx and disagreements with other Cleveland Clinic leaders, including then-CEO Toby Cosgrove.[41] CCLCM is a five year medical school program affiliated with the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine with 32 students per class, each receiving a scholarship for full tuition and fees.[42][43] While traditional MD-granting medical schools in the U.S. are four-year programs, the extra year in the program is dedicated to a year of research.[23] The curriculum is notable for its lack of class rank, pre-clinical or clinical grading, or end-of-course examinations.[44]

In 2019, Cleveland Clinic and Case Western opened the Samson Pavilion Health Education Campus on the campus of the Cleveland Clinic, a $515 million building project, amid a multi-million dollar joint fundraising campaign between CWRU and the cleveland Clinic.[45] The campus houses students Case Western Reserve School of Medicine (CCLCM and traditional MD programs), Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing and Case School of Dental Medicine, all of which—with the exception of CCLCM—had previously held classes on the campus of CWRU and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center.[46] The move, announced in 2013, was a major contributing factor for University Hospitals to shift its name from University Hospitals Case Medical Center to University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center in 2016, as well as renegotiate its affiliation agreement with CWRU that same year.[47]

Cleveland Clinic publishes the peer-reviewed Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine monthly, focusing on internal medicine, endocrinology, and diabetes.[48] The Top 10 Medical Innovations is an annual list (since 2007) selected in October each year by a panel of Cleveland Clinic physicians and scientists. For consideration on the list, the development must be considered likely to be available to the public in the upcoming year and to be expected to have a significant impact on a large part of the population.[49]

Reputation[]

Cleveland Clinic is consistently regarded as one of the top hospital systems in the United States and in the world, and it is well regarded particularly in technological management systems.[50]

Rankings[]

In 2018-2019, Cleveland Clinic was ranked as the #2 overall hospital in the United States by the U.S. News & World Report, behind the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. A total of 4,656 hospitals were considered in 12 main data-driven medical and surgical specialty areas and four additional specialty areas, collating data on patient safety, performance measures, and complication rates.[51] Cleveland Clinic was found to be nationally ranked in 14 adult specialties and 10 children's specialties and was recognized as the #1 hospital in Ohio and in the Cleveland Metropolitan Area. It also achieved the highest rating possible in 9 specified procedures or conditions: abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, aortic valve surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, colon cancer surgery, heart bypass surgery, heart failure, hip replacement, knee replacement, and lung cancer surgery.[52] In addition, for the 14th year in a row, Cleveland Clinic was ranked as the #1 hospital in the United States for cardiology and heart surgery as a specialty. Similarly, in March 2019, Newsweek named Cleveland Clinic the number 2 hospital in the world, behind Mayo Clinic and in front of Singapore General Hospital.[53]

Safety[]

Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center

In a Kaiser Family Foundation review of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data for hospital acquired conditions in 2014, Cleveland Clinic received an 8.7 score (1–10 possible, with 10 being the best), in the bottom 7% of hospitals.[54]

Between 2010 and 2013, CMS undertook an extensive series of investigations into the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, with at least a dozen inspections and follow-up visits triggered by patient complaints.[55][56] An analysis of Medicare inspection data between 2011 and 2014 found that the Cleveland Clinic Foundation was one of at least 230 instances in which validated serious incidents—dubbed "immediate jeopardy" complaints—led CMS to threaten loss of ability to serve Medicare patients unless the problems were fixed immediately. Due to numerous serious ongoing safety violations, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation was on payment termination track for 19 months, placing at stake $1B in annual Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement.[55] The citations were reported and analyzed in detail by Modern Healthcare, which posted some of the safety documents.[55][56]

In its 2020 Overall Hospital Quality Star Ratings, CMS gave a five-star rating to the Cleveland Clinic, as well as several community hospitals in the Cleveland Clinic system, including Fairview Hospital, Hillcrest Hospital, and Lutheran Hospital.[57] In these ratings, Cleveland Clinic Martin North Hospital received a one-star rating.[58]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, administration at the Cleveland Clinic initially instructed physicians that they were not allowed to wear face masks outside of patient care areas.[59] The Cleveland Clinic stated this made this decision as they felt the evidence did not support them.[59] Other hospitals however require such masks.[59] Later, the policies were revised, and all staff members were required to wear cloth or protective masks.[60] Masks were obtained from a variety of sources, including Amish and sports apparel manufacturers, among other suppliers.[61][62]

Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital[]

Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital
Cleveland-clinic-childrens-logo.svg
Organisation
TypeChildren's hospital
Affiliated university
Services
Beds389
Links
WebsiteChildren's Website

Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital (CCCH) is a pediatric acute care children's teaching hospital located in Cleveland, Ohio. The hospital has 389 pediatric beds[63] and is affiliated the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine,[8] Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine and Kent State University College of Podiatric Medicine. The hospital provides comprehensive pediatric specialties and subspecialties to infants, children, teens, and young adults aged 0–21[64][65] throughout Cleveland and the wider northern Ohio region. Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital also sometimes treats adults that require pediatric care. The hospital is a few blocks away from the Ronald McDonald House of Cleveland.[66]

The hospital has an American Academy of Pediatrics verified level III neonatal intensive care unit that has a capacity of 17 bassinets.[67] The hospital also has 38 bed pediatric intensive care beds for critical pediatric patients age 0-21.[68]

The hospital does not have a pediatric trauma center and transports all pediatric trauma patients to the nearby Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital.[69]

Awards[]

As of 2021 Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital has placed nationally all 10 ranked pediatric specialties on U.S. News and World Report.[70]

2021 U.S. News and World Report Rankings for Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital[71]
Specialty Rank (In the U.S.) Score (Out of 100)
Neonatology #14 85.8
Pediatric Cancer #17 80.0
Pediatric Cardiology and Heart Surgery #15 81.4
Pediatric Diabetes & Endocrinology #44 65.9
Pediatric Gastroenterology & GI Surgery #12 86.1
Pediatric Nephrology #35 69.2
Pediatric Neurology & Neurosurgery #25 79.7
Pediatric Orthopedics #26 73.2
Pediatric Pulmonology & Lung Surgery #32 73.6
Pediatric Urology #23 67.5

Locations[]

Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, Nevada

Cleveland Clinic's main campus consists of 60 buildings on 170 acres (69 ha) near University Circle, in Fairfax, Cleveland.[72] Cleveland Clinic operates 19[73][74] family health and ambulatory surgery centers in surrounding communities, a multispecialty hospital and family health center in Weston, Florida, and an outpatient clinic specializing in sports medicine in Toronto, Canada.[75]

In 1996, the Cleveland Clinic took over Fairview Health System centered on Fairview Hospital and serving the West Side of Cleveland and the western suburbs.[76] ln the same year, the Cleveland Clinic also took over the four-hospital Meridia Health System, absorbing Euclid Hospital in Euclid, Hillcrest Hospital in Mayfield Heights, Huron Hospital in East Cleveland, and South Pointe Hospital in Warrensville Heights.[76] In October 2010, the Cleveland Clinic announced plans to close the Level II Trauma Center at Huron Hospital, prompting a joint lawsuit from the cities of Cleveland and East Cleveland, which was later dropped after the Clinic delayed closure plans.[77] In 2011, amid criticism from residents and leaders in East Cleveland, the Clinic closed Huron Hospital,[77] replacing it with a community health center and leaving the east side of Cleveland without a trauma center until University Hospitals opened a Level I trauma center in 2015.[78]

In May 2010 Cleveland Clinic's Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health opened in a unique structure designed by architect Frank Gehry in Las Vegas, Nevada.[79] An overseas location, the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, opened in 2015.[80] In August 2015 the Akron General Health System in Akron, Ohio, joined the Cleveland Clinic system. Akron General includes Akron General Hospital, Visiting Nurse Service and Affiliates, Hospice of VNS, Lodi Community Hospital, Edwin Shaw Rehabilitation Institute, and three health and wellness centers.[81] In May 2017 Cleveland Clinic reached an agreement to acquire 150-bed Union Hospital in Dover, Ohio.[82] In 2018, the Indian River Medical Center in Vero Beach, Florida, and Martin Health, consisting of a hospital in Port St. Lucie and two hospitals in Stuart, Florida, joined the Cleveland Clinic system.[83]

The organization began work renovating an historic building at 33 Grosvenor Place in central London, England, in 2018. Demolition of the interior of the six-story, 198,000-square-foot building has begun, with a construction completion date of late 2020.[84]

Finances[]

In 2011 Cleveland Clinic was second on the Becker's Hospital Review list of top-grossing hospitals in the United States, with total patient revenue of $9.14 billion.[85] The hospital posted $243 million operating income on $8 billion revenue in 2016. Operating income fell about 50% from 2015, which it said was due to shrinking reimbursements and rising drug costs.[86][87] In 2017 its operating income was $330M on $8.4B in revenue.[7]

In 2015, the Clinic's endowment stood at more than $12 billion.[88] During the coronavirus pandemic, the Cleveland Clinic received a $199 million grant from the United States Department of Health and Human Services under the CARES Act, funding that was intended to prevent health care providers from going under. In 2019, the Cleveland Clinic reported having $7 billion in cash reserves, with investment profits of $1.2 billion.[89]

In addition, Cleveland Clinic plays a significant role in the regional economy of Cleveland and the statewide economy. As of 2019, it is Ohio's largest employer, and generates $17.8 billion for the state.[90][91]

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ "AirNav: 6OI8 - Cleveland Clinic Foundation Heliport". Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "Facts & Figures", Cleveland Clinic.
  3. ^ Christ, Ginger (August 15, 2018). "Cleveland Clinic London opening will coincide with system's centennial", cleveland.com.
  4. ^ "Tomislav Mihaljevic", Cleveland Clinic.
  5. ^ "U.S. News & World Report". April 9, 2019.
  6. ^ "U.S. News Rankings". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Ellison, Ayla (March 1, 2018). "Cleveland Clinic's operating income rebounds to $330M". Beckers Hospital Review.
  8. ^ a b "Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine". portals.clevelandclinic.org. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  9. ^ https://my.clevelandclinic.org/departments/graduate-medical-education
  10. ^ "About Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine". Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine.
  11. ^ "Mission, Vision, Values". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  12. ^ a b Kazi, R. A. (2003). "The life and times of George Washington Crile". Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 49 (3): 289–290. PMID 14597804.
  13. ^ English, Peter C. (1980). Shock, Physiological Surgery and George Crile. Greenwood Press, p. 62.
  14. ^ Clough, John D. (2004). To Act as a Unit: The Story of the Cleveland Clinic (PDF). Cleveland, Ohio: The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. pp. 21–23. ISBN 9781596240001.
  15. ^ Smith, Dale, C. (1986). "Modern Surgery and the Development of Group Practice in the Midwest". Caduceus. 2 (3): 27. PMID 3297262.
  16. ^ Sajadi, Kamran P.; Goldman, Howard B. (2010). "The History of Urology in Cleveland, Ohio". Urology. 76 (6): 1293–7. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2010.05.039. PMID 20810152.
  17. ^ "George Crile". Whonam? - A dictionary of medical eponyms. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  18. ^ "Mission Vision and Values", Cleveland Clinic. Accessed May 17, 2015.
  19. ^ Retrieved from http://blog.cleveland.com/medical/2008/09/07CGCLINICTIME.pdf, August 26, 2015 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine[full citation needed]
  20. ^ Clifton, Brad and Carmosino, Jessica (April 10, 2013). "Creating Cleveland Clinic". Center for Public History and Digital Humanities, Cleveland State University.
  21. ^ a b c d e Rowland, Amy; Feather (1938). The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.
  22. ^ "Ohio Memory, a product of the Ohio Historical Society and the State Library of Ohio : View Image". server16007.contentdm.oclc.org.
  23. ^ a b "Cleveland Clinic Foundation". Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. May 11, 2005.
  24. ^ a b c Sheldon, William C. (2008). Pathfinders of the Heart, the History of Cardiology at Cleveland Clinic. Xlibris, p. 60.
  25. ^ Rose, William Ganson (1950). Cleveland: The Making of a City. Kent State University Press, p. 1011.
  26. ^ Brown, Gary. "The Monday After: X-ray films burn noxious fumes at Cleveland Clinic". CantonRep.com, July 14, 2014.
  27. ^ a b c d Bellamy, John Stark II (1995). They Died Crawling: And other Tales of Cleveland Woe. Cleveland: Gray & Company, 218–232.
  28. ^ Time Magazine, May 27, 1929, 15–16.
  29. ^ Bellamy, John Stark (2009). Cleveland's greatest disasters!: 16 tragic true tales of death and destruction : an anthology. Gray & Co. pp. 87–104. ISBN 9781598510584. OCLC 472202926.
  30. ^ "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: CLEVELAND CLINIC DISASTER". Retrieved May 7, 2011.
  31. ^ a b Plain Dealer123 Die in Clinic Disaster; Poison Gas Seeps into System; Explosion Rocks Building, August 23, 1998
  32. ^ Reading Times, May 17, 1929, p2
  33. ^ Profiles in Performance: Business Intelligence Journeys and the Roadmap for Change, Howard Dresner, Wiley & Sons, 2010, p. 57
  34. ^ Porter, Michael; Teisberg, Elizabeth (2014). Cleveland Clinic: Growth Strategy 2014. Harvard Business School, pp. 4–5.
  35. ^ Kastor, John A (2005). Specialty care in the Era of managed care: Cleveland clinic versus, University hospitals of Cleveland. J. Jopkins University Press. p. 236. ISBN 0801881749. OCLC 875711188.
  36. ^ retrieved from http://pcparch.com/project/crile-clinic, on August 26, 2015
  37. ^ Parker-pope, Tara (October 26, 2009). "Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute". Barber & Hoffman Inc. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
  38. ^ "Lerner Donates $100 Million To Clinic". Cleveland 19 News. June 20, 2002. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  39. ^ Boulian, Tracy (December 26, 2010). "The biggest gift they ever got". Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  40. ^ Robbins, Gary (September 15, 2012). "Eric Topol's tough prescription for improving medicine". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  41. ^ Mortland, Shannon (February 9, 2006). "Topol leaving for Case". Crain's Business Cleveland. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  42. ^ Wang, Shirley (May 15, 2008). "Cleveland Clinic's Medical School To Offer Tuition-Free Education". Wall Street Journal.
  43. ^ Bednar, Laura (August 26, 2016). "Paths to a Ph.D." John Carroll University.
  44. ^ Fishleder, AJ; Henson, LC; Hull, AL (April 2007). "Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine: An Innovative Approach to Medical Education and the Training of Physician Investigators". Academic Medicine. 82 (4): 390–6. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318033364e. PMID 17414197. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  45. ^ Litt, Steven (July 21, 2020). "Is CWRU-Cleveland Clinic Health Education Campus end of big-box era as Clinic shifts focus?". Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  46. ^ Litt, Steven (October 1, 2015). "Cleveland Clinic, CWRU break ground on $515M Health Education Campus including dental clinic in Hough". Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  47. ^ Coutre, Lydia (September 8, 2016). [UH dropping 'Case' from flagship medical center name "UH dropping 'Case' from flagship medical center name"] Check |url= value (help). Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  48. ^ "About Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine". Cleveland Clinic. 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
  49. ^ Cheshire, Sara (October 31, 2014). "Cleveland Clinic: Top 10 medical innovations for 2015 - CNN.com". CNN.
  50. ^ Adler, Jerry (November 26, 2009). "What Health Reform Can Learn From Cleveland Clinic". Newsweek.
  51. ^ "FAQ: How and Why We Rank and Rate Hospitals. U.S. News & World Report". April 9, 2019.
  52. ^ "U.S. News & World Report, Cleveland Clinic. Procedures & Conditions". April 9, 2019.
  53. ^ EDT, Noah Miller On 3/20/19 at 9:55 AM (March 20, 2019). "The 10 best hospitals in the world". Newsweek. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  54. ^ staff (December 18, 2014). "Penalties For Hospital Acquired Conditions" (PDF). Kaiser Health News. Kaiser Family Foundation.
  55. ^ a b c Carlson, Joe. "Cleveland Clinic cases highlight flaws in safety oversight", Modern Healthcare. June 7, 2014.
  56. ^ a b Carlson, Joe. "Selected Cleveland Clinic hospital inspection reports". Modern Healthcare. June 7, 2014.
  57. ^ Vaidya, Anuja (January 29, 2020). "The 407 hospitals with 5 stars from CMS". Becker's Hospital Review. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  58. ^ Masson, Gabrielle (January 30, 2020). "228 hospitals with a 1 star rating from CMS". Becker's Hospital Review. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  59. ^ a b c Richtel, Matt (March 31, 2020). "Frightened Doctors Face Off With Hospitals Over Rules on Protective Gear". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
  60. ^ "Yes, You Can (and Should) Still Go to the ER for Emergencies During the COVID-19 Pandemic". Cleveland Clinic Health Essentials. May 1, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020. At Cleveland Clinic, for example, the following protocols are in place: ...Caregivers wear masks. All patients and visitors are also given cloth masks to wear to help prevent spread of the virus from anyone who has symptoms as well as those who might be infected but don’t have symptoms. In the emergency department, workers wear protective masks and goggles.
  61. ^ Williamson, Elizabeth (April 9, 2020). "In Ohio, the Amish Take on the Coronavirus". New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  62. ^ Bona, Marc (April 22, 2020). "Cleveland Clinic receives 15,000 masks from sports-apparel manufacturer Fanatics". Plain Dealer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  63. ^ "Cleveland Clinic Children's". www.childrenshospitals.org. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  64. ^ "Pediatric Rehabilitation & Therapy | Cleveland Clinic Children's". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  65. ^ "Specialties | Amherst Family Health Center". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  66. ^ "House Guest FAQs". Ronald McDonald House Cleveland. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  67. ^ "Pediatric Neonatology (NICU) | Cleveland Clinic Children's". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  68. ^ "Pediatric Critical Care | Cleveland Clinic Children's". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  69. ^ Zeltner, Brie; Dealer, The Plain (November 1, 2015). "Cleveland Clinic clarifies its trauma protocol for transferring kids after questions over child's death". cleveland. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  70. ^ "Rainbow Babies, Cleveland Clinic Children's make U.S. News rankings". Crain's Cleveland Business. June 3, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  71. ^ "Best Children's Hospitals: Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital". U.S. News and World Report. 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  72. ^ Steven Litt for The Plain Dealer. January 22, 2012 Cleveland Clinic's new master plan envisions bigger, greener campus with ample room to grow for decades
  73. ^ "Dr. Tarek Elsawy named new president of Reliant Medical". telegram.com.
  74. ^ Kelly Gooch. "Cleveland Clinic to hire 500 RNs at 3 job fairs: 6 things to know".
  75. ^ "Cleveland Clinic Canada".
  76. ^ a b Solov, Diane (October 5, 1996). "Clinic is winner in competition for merger with Meridia System". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
  77. ^ a b Tribble, Sarah Jane (June 6, 2011). "Cleveland Clinic closing Huron Hospital". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
  78. ^ Magaw, Timothy (May 8, 2015). "University Hospitals plans to launch regional trauma network". Crain's Business Cleveland. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  79. ^ Strain, Eric (April 4, 2010). "Lou Ruvo Center design defines purpose of facility, Las Vegas Sun". Las Vegas Sun. Las Vegas, NC: Greenspan Media Group. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  80. ^ "Sheikh Mohammed and Moroccan king inaugurate Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi". The National. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  81. ^ "Cleveland Clinic Exercises Option to take full Ownership of Akron General". Akron Beacon Journal. August 28, 2015. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  82. ^ Coutré, Lydia (June 11, 2017). "Cleveland Clinic continues its march south". Crain's Cleveland Business. Crain Publishing. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  83. ^ Vogel, Mike (December 18, 2018). "Expansion spree: Cleveland Clinic is opening new facilities and buying others". Florida Trend. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  84. ^ Christ, Ginger (February 23, 2018). "Cleveland Clinic's London hospital to open in early 2021". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, OH: AdvanceOhio. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  85. ^ Oh J. (August 29, 2011). "100 Top Grossing Hospitals in America". Becker's Hospital Review.
  86. ^ Coutre, Lydia (February 15, 2017). "2016 was a tough year for Cleveland Clinic finances". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  87. ^ Zeltner, Brie (February 15, 2017). "Cleveland Clinic CEO Toby Cosgrove reports rough financial year for hospital in 2016". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  88. ^ "Cleveland Clinic Creates Internal CIO Role - Chief Investment Officer". www.ai-cio.com.
  89. ^ Drucker, Jesse; Silver-Greenberg, Jessica; Kliff, Sarah (May 25, 2020). "Wealthiest Hospitals Got Billions in Bailout for Struggling Health Providers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  90. ^ Mihaljevic, Tom. "Cleveland Clinic Injects $17.8 Billion into Ohio's Economy". Clevelandclinic.org. Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  91. ^ Exner, Rich. "Ohio's 100 largest employers - 2019 rankings led by Cleveland Clinic, Walmart, others". Cleveland.com. The Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 17, 2019.

Further reading[]