Charadriiformes

Charadriiformes
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous-Present, 75–0 Ma
חופמאים-01.jpg
Several members of the order
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Infraclass: Neognathae
Clade: Neoaves
Clade: Aequorlitornithes
Order: Charadriiformes
Huxley, 1867
Families

See text.

Charadriiformes (meaning "having the form of the Eurasian stone-curlew") is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. It includes about 350 species and has members in all parts of the world. Most Charadriiformes live near water and eat invertebrates or other small animals; however, some are pelagic (seabirds), some occupy deserts and a few are found in thick forest.

Taxonomy, systematics and evolution[]

The order was formerly divided into three suborders:

The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy lumps all the Charadriiformes together with other seabirds and birds of prey into a greatly enlarged order Ciconiiformes. However, the resolution of the DNA-DNA hybridization technique used by Sibley & Ahlquist was not sufficient to properly resolve the relationships in this group, and indeed it appears as if the Charadriiformes constitute a single large and very distinctive lineage of modern birds of their own.[1]

The auks, usually considered distinct because of their peculiar morphology, are more likely related to gulls, the "distinctness" being a result of adaptation for diving. Following recent research,[2] a better arrangement may be as follows:

Families in taxonomic order[]

This is a list of the charadriiform families, presented in taxonomic order.

More conservatively, the Thinocori could be included in the Scolopaci (this combined sub-order is called Limicoli), and the Chionidi in the Charadrii. The suborders Thincori, Scolopaci, Chionidi, and Charadri are commonly referred to collectively as waders. Some taxonomy sources place the family Glareolidae in its own suborder, instead of being classified under suborder Lari.[3] The buttonquails are of indeterminate or basal position in the Lari-Scolopaci sensu lato group. The arrangement as presented here is a consensus of the recent studies.[4]


Charadriiformes
Charadrii
Chionida
Burhinidae

Burhinus

Esacus

Chionidae

Chionis

Pluvianellidae

Pluvianellus

Charadriida
Pluvianidae

Pluvianus

Pluvialidae

Pluvialis

Ibidorhynchidae

Ibidorhyncha

Haematopodidae

Haematopus

Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostra

Cladorhynchus

Himantopus

Charadriidae
Charadriinae

Oreopholus

Phegornis

Zonibyx

Eudromias

Afroxyechus

Charadrius

Thinornis

Vanellinae

Vanellus

Anarhynchinae

Erythrogonys

Peltohyas

Eupoda

Anarhynchus

Ochthodromus

Limicoli
Jacanida
Thincoroidea
Pedionomidae

Pedionomus

Thinocoridae

Attagis

Thinocorus

Jacanoidea
Rostratulidae

Nycticryphes

Rostratula

Jacanidae

Hydrophasianus

Jacana

Actophilornis

Metopidius

Microparra

Irediparra

Scolopacida
Scolopacidae
Numeniinae

Bartramia

Numenius

Limosinae

Limosa

Arenariinae

Limicola

Ereunetes

Calidris

Arenaria

Prosobonia

Tringinae

Xenus

Phalaropus

Actitis

Tringa

Scolopacinae

Lymnocryptes

Limnodromus

Scolopax

Gallinago

Chubbia

Coenocorypha

Lari
Turnicida

Ortyxelos

Turnix

Larida
Glareoloidea
Dromadidae

Dromas ardeola

Glareolidae

Stiltia

Rhinoptilus

Cursorius

Glareola

Alcoidea
Stercorariidae

Stercorarius

Alcidae
Fraterculinae

Cerorhinca

Fratercula

Ptychoramphus

Aethia

Alcinae

Brachyramphus

Cepphus

Synthliboramphus

Uria

Alle

Alca

Pinguinus

Laroidea
Laridae
Gyginae

Gygis

Rynchopinae

Rynchops

Anoinae

Anous

Procelsterna

Sterninae

Onychoprion

Sternula

Phaetusa

Gelochelidon

Hydroprogne

Larosterna

Chlidonias

Thalasseus

Sterna

Larinae

Creagrus

Hydrocoloeus

Rhodostethia

Rissa

Pagophila

Xema

Saundersilarus

Chroicocephalus

Leucophaeus

Larus

Ichthyaetus

Cladogram based on Baker, A.J. et al. (2012)[5] and Boyd, J. H. et al. (2016) [3]

Evolution history[]

That the Charadriiformes are an ancient group is also borne out by the fossil record. Much of the Neornithes' fossil record around the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event is made up of bits and pieces of birds which resemble this order. In many, this is probably due to convergent evolution brought about by semiaquatic habits. Specimen VI 9901 (López de Bertodano Formation, Late Cretaceous of Vega Island, Antarctica) is probably a basal charadriiform somewhat reminiscent of a thick-knee.[6] However, more complete remains of undisputed charadriiforms are known only from the mid-Paleogene onwards. Present-day orders emerged around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, roughly 35-30 mya. Basal or unresolved charadriiforms are:

The "transitional shorebirds" ("Graculavidae") are a generally Mesozoic form taxon formerly believed to constitute the common ancestors of charadriiforms, waterfowl and flamingos. They are now assumed to be mostly basal taxa of the charadriiforms and/or "higher waterbirds", which probably were two distinct lineages 65 mya already,[citation needed] and few if any are still believed to be related to the well-distinct waterfowl. Taxa formerly considered graculavids are:

Other wader- or gull-like birds incertae sedis, which may or may not be Charadriiformes, are:

Evolution of parental care in Charadriiformes[]

Shorebirds pursue a larger diversity of parental care strategies than do most other avian orders. They therefore present an attractive set of examples to support the understanding of the evolution of parental care in avians generally (as reviewed in Thomas et al. 2007). The ancestral avian most likely had a female parental care system (Tullberg et al. 2002). The shorebird ancestor specifically evolved from a bi-parental care system, yet the species within the clade Scolopacidae evolved from a male parental care system. These transitions might have occurred for several reasons. Brooding density is correlated with male parental care. Male care systems in birds are shown to have a very low breeding density while female care systems in birds have a high breeding density. (Owens 2005). Certain rates of male and female mortality, male and female egg maturation rate, and egg death rate have been associated with particular systems as well (Klug et al. 2013). It has also been shown that sex role reversal is motivated by the male-biased adult sex ratio (Liker et al. 2013). The reason for such diversity in shorebirds, compared to other birds, has yet to be understood.

See also[]

Footnotes[]

  1. ^ Fain & Houde (2004)
  2. ^ Ericson et al. (2003), Paton et al. (2003), Thomas et al. (2004a,b), van Tuinen et al. (2004), Paton & Baker (2006)
  3. ^ a b John, Boyd. "Charadriiformes". jboyd.net. Retrieved 2017-07-16.
  4. ^ van Tuinen et al. (2004), Paton & Baker (2006)
  5. ^ Baker, Allan J.; Yatsenko, Yuri; Tavares, Erika Sendra (2012). "Eight independent nuclear genes support monophyly of the plovers: The role of mutational variance in gene trees". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65 (2): 631–641. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.018. PMID 22842291.
  6. ^ Case, J. A. and C. P. Tambussi. 1999. Maastrichtian record of neornithine birds in Antarctica: comments on a Late Cretaceous radiation
  7. ^ Proximal right humerus (MNZ S42416) and proximal left carpometacarpi (MNZ S42415, S42435) of a bird the size of a red-necked stint: Worthy et al. (2007)
  8. ^ Several wing and thorax bones of a bird the size of a double-banded plover: Worthy et al. (2007)
  9. ^ Premaxillae (MNZ S42681, S42736) and proximal right scapula (MNZ S41058) of a bird apparently similar to the black-billed gull but almost the size of a kelp gull: Worthy et al. (2007)
  10. ^ Gál et al. (1998-99)
  11. ^ A wading bird the size of a white stork (Ciconia ciconia): Bourdon (2005)

References[]