During the events of the Euromaidan protests in Kiev from 21 November 2013 through 23 February 2014, a total of 110–123 protesters and 18 police officers were killed in street clashes in the Ukrainian capital. In addition, one more participant of the Euromaidan was stabbed to death in clashes with pro-Russian activists on 13 March 2014, in Donetsk.
During the Russian annexation of Crimea from 23 February through 19 March 2014, six people were killed. The dead included: three protesters (two pro-Russian and one pro-Ukrainian), two soldiers and one Crimean SDF trooper. The two Ukrainian soldiers who were killed are regularly included in the military death toll from the War in Donbass. On 10 August 2016, Russia accused the Special Forces of Ukraine of conducting a raid near the Crimean town of Armyansk which killed two Russian servicemen. The government of Ukraine dismissed the report as a provocation.
Between 26 January and 27 December 2014, sporadic clashes occurred in the city of Odessa. The deadliest of these were the 2 May 2014 Odessa clashes when 48 protesters were killed (46 pro-Russian and 2 pro-Ukrainian). In addition, one person was killed in a bomb explosion in Odessa on 27 December 2014. The same day, another man was killed in a bombing in the city of Kherson. Both men were identified as the bombers in both explosions. Later, in 2015, on 22 February, a bomb exploded during a rally in Kharkiv leaving four people dead, including a policeman.
Initially, the number of Ukrainian military casualties varied widely due to the Ukrainian Army drastically understating its casualties, as reported by medics, activists and soldiers on the ground, as well as at least one lawmaker. Several medical officials reported they were overstretched due to the drastic number of casualties. Eventually, the Ukrainian Defense Ministry stated that the numbers recorded by the National Museum of Military History were the official ones, although still incomplete, with 4,124 deaths (3,980 identified and 144 unidentified) cataloged by 4 September 2018.
Deaths by regions
The following table does not include the 298 deaths from the shootdown of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 or the deaths of Ukrainian servicemen, which are listed separately.
At the beginning of June 2015, the Donetsk region’s prosecutors reported 1,592 civilians had gone missing in government-controlled areas, of which 208 had been located. At the same time, a report by the United Nations stated 1,331–1,460 people were missing, including at least 378 soldiers and 216 civilians. 345 unidentified bodies, of mostly soldiers, were also confirmed to be held at morgues in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast or buried. In all, as of late October, 774 people were missing according to the government, including 271 soldiers. By the end of December 2017, the number of confirmed missing on the Ukrainian side was 402, including 123 soldiers. The separatists also reported 433 missing on their side by mid-December 2016.
As of mid-March 2015, according to the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU), 1,553 separatists had been released from captivity during prisoner exchanges between the two sides. Subsequently, Ukraine released another 322 people by late February 2016, while by September, 1,598 security forces members and 1,484 civilians had been released by the rebels. 1,110 separatist fighters and supporters, including 743 civilians, were reportedly still being held by Ukrainian forces as of late March 2016. The figure of separatist prisoners was updated to 816, including 287–646 civilians, in December. At the end of May 2015, the Ukrainian commander of Donetsk airport, Oleg Kuzminykh, who was captured during the battle for the complex, was released.
In December 2017, a large prisoner exchange took place where the rebels released 73 out of 176 prisoners they were holding, while Ukraine released 306 out of 380 of their prisoners. Out of those that were released by Ukraine, 29 brought to the exchange point refused to go back to separatist-held territory, while 40 who were already previously released did not show up for the exchange. Meanwhile, out of those released by the rebels, 32 were soldiers. This brought the overall number of prisoners released by the rebels to 3,215. Among those still held by the separatists, 74 were soldiers. The number of released prisoners was updated to 3,224 in late June 2018, while the number of those still held by the rebels was put at 113.
Foreign volunteers have been involved in the conflict fighting on both sides. The NGO Cargo 200 reported that they documented the deaths of 1,479 Russian citizens while fighting as part of the rebel forces. The United States Department of State estimated 400–500 of these were regular Russian soldiers. Two Kyrgyz and one Georgian have also been killed fighting on the separatist side. Additionally, at least 190 foreign-born Ukrainian citizens and 14 foreigners died on the Ukrainian side. One of those killed was the former Chechen rebel commander Isa Munayev.
In late August 2015, according to a reported leak by a Russian news site, Business Life (Delovaya Zhizn), 2,000 Russian soldiers had been killed in Ukraine by 1 February 2015.
^The deaths of the Russian soldiers have not been confirmed by their government and have possibly been included in the toll of dead rebel fighters.
^Out of the 1,185 civilians and rebels killed in the Luhansk region by 15 February 2015, 456 were civilians who died by 29 October. In addition, 526 of the civilians and rebels died in Luhansk city alone by 11 September, of which 300 were confirmed as civilians by 31 August.
^ abThe Museum of Military History also lists separately 144 currently unidentified soldiers who were killed: 69 at Krasnopolye cemetery, 65 at Kushugum cemetery and 10 at Starobilsk cemetery.
^With the overall death toll being nearly 10,500 by early June 2018, of which about 4,000 were confirmed as soldiers and at least 3,023 as civilians, an estimate of 3,477 rebel dead can be made for this period. Another 61 rebels were killed in June–November 2018 (see weekly DPR humanitarian updates here).