COVID-19 drug repurposing research

Drug repositioning (also known as drug re-purposing, re-profiling, re-tasking, or therapeutic switching) is the re-purposing of an approved drug for the treatment of a different disease or medical condition than that for which it was originally developed.[1] This is one line of scientific research which is currently being pursued to develop safe and effective COVID-19 treatments.[2][3] Other research directions include the development of a COVID-19 vaccine[4] and convalescent plasma transfusion.[5]

During the pandemic, several existing antiviral medications, previously developed or used as treatments for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), HIV/AIDS, and malaria, were being researched as COVID‑19 treatments, with some moved into clinical trials.[6][7][8]

In a statement to the journal Nature Biotechnology in February 2020, US National Institutes of Health Viral Ecology Unit chief Vincent Munster said, "The general genomic layout and the general replication kinetics and the biology of the MERS, SARS and [SARS-CoV-2] viruses are very similar, so testing drugs which target relatively generic parts of these coronaviruses is a logical step".[2]



Chloroquine is an anti-malarial medication that is also used against some auto-immune diseases. On 18 March, the WHO announced that chloroquine and the related hydroxychloroquine would be among the four drugs studied as part of the Solidarity clinical trial.[9] On 19 March, President Donald Trump encouraged the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine during a national press conference. These endorsements led to massive increases in public demand for the drugs.[10] New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced that New York State trials of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine would begin on 24 March.[11]

On 28 March, the FDA authorized the use of hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA).[12] The treatment has not been approved by the FDA's clinical trials process and is authorized under the EUA only as an experimental treatment for emergency use in patients who are hospitalized but are not able to receive treatment in a clinical trial.[13][12] The CDC has said that "the use, dosing, or duration of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection" are not yet established.[14] Doctors have said they are using the drug when "there's no other option".[15] On 9 April, the National Institutes of Health began the first clinical trial to assess whether hydroxychloroquine is safe and effective to treat COVID‑19.[15][16]

In May, a multinational study of 96,032 people hospitalized with COVID-19 found that use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (with or without an antiviral drug) provided no benefit, but instead increased the risk of heart arrhythmias and death.[17] On 24 April the FDA cautioned against using the drug outside a hospital setting or clinical trial after reviewing case reports of adverse effects including ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and in some cases death.[18] According to Johns Hopkins' ABX Guide for COVID‑19, "Hydroxychloroquine may cause prolonged QT, and caution should be used in critically ill COVID‑19 patients who may have cardiac dysfunction or if combined with other drugs that cause QT prolongation".[19] Caution was also recommended as to the combination of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine with treatments which might inhibit the CYP3A4 enzyme (by which these drugs are metabolized), as such combination might indirectly result in higher plasma levels of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and thus enhance the risk for significant QT prolongation.[20] A Veterans Affairs study released results showing that people treated with hydroxychloroquine were more likely to die than those who received no drug treatment at all.[21]

Drugs used for treatment of infectious diseases may also be considered for use for post-exposure prophylaxis. On May 22 The Lancet published a response to criticism of the Indian government's decision to allow chemoprophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine for some high risk persons who may have had exposure to COVID. Researchers supporting prophylactic administration of hydroxychloquine note that results from recently published human trials have suggested that hydroxychloroquine may decrease the duration of both viral shedding and symptoms if the drug is administered early.[22] British researchers are studying whether the drug is effective when used for prevention. 10,000 NHS workers, along with 30,000 additional volunteers from Asia, South America, Africa and other parts of Europe are participating in the global study. Results are expected by the end of 2020.[23]

Due to safety concerns and evidence of heart arrhythmias leading to higher death rates, the WHO suspended the hydroxychloroquine arm of the multinational Solidarity trial in late May 2020.[24][25] The WHO had enrolled 3,500 patients from 17 countries in the Solidarity trial.[24]


Chinese clinical trials in Wuhan and Shenzhen claimed to show favipiravir was "clearly effective".[26] 35 patients in Shenzhen tested negative in a median of 4 days, while the length of illness was 11 days in the 45 patients who did not receive it.[27] In a study conducted in Wuhan on 240 patients with pneumonia, half were given favipiravir and half received umifenovir. The researchers found that patients recovered from coughs and fevers faster when treated with favipiravir, but there was no change in how many patients in each group progressed to more advanced stages of illness (treatment with a ventilator).[28]

On 22 March, Italy approved the drug for experimental use against COVID‑19 and began conducting trials in the three regions most affected by the disease.[29] The Italian Medicines Agency reminded the public that the existing evidence in support of the drug is scant and preliminary.[30] On 2 April, Germany announced that it would purchase the drug from Japan for its stockpile, and use the military to deliver the drug to university hospitals, where the drug will be used to treat COVID‑19 patients.[31] According to the South China Morning Post, Shinzo Abe has made overtures to the Trump administration about purchasing the drug.[32]

The drug may be less effective in severe cases of illness where the virus has already multiplied. It may not be safe for use by pregnant women or those trying to conceive.[27]

Interferon beta[]

IFN-β will be included in the international Solidarity Trial in combination with the HIV drugs Lopinavir and Ritonavir.[33] as well as the REMAP-CAP [34]

Finnish biotech firm Faron Pharmaceuticals continues to develop INF-beta for ARDS and is currently involved in worldwide initiatives[which?] against COVID-19, including the Solidarity trial.[35]UK biotech firm Synairgen started conducting trials on IFN-β, a drug that was originally developed to treat COPD.[9]


One study of lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), a combination of the antivirals lopinavir and ritonavir, concluded that "no benefit was observed".[36][37] The drugs were designed to inhibit HIV from replicating by binding to the protease. A team of researchers at the University of Colorado are trying to modify the drugs to find a compound that will bind with the protease of SARS-CoV-2.[38]

There are criticisms within the scientific community about directing resources to repurposing drugs specifically developed for HIV/AIDS.[2] The WHO included lopinavir/ritonavir in the international Solidarity trial.[9]


Remdesivir was created and developed by Gilead Sciences as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections.[39]

During 2020, several clinical trials were underway.[7] The first randomized, placebo-controlled trial of remdesivir in China showed the drug had no clinical or virological benefits compared to the placebo group and caused adverse effects in the remdesivir-treated people, leading to early termination of the trial.[40][41]

On 1 May 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted Gilead Emergency Use Authorization of remdesivir to be distributed and used by licensed health care providers to treat adults and children hospitalized with severe COVID‐19.[42] Severe COVID‐19 is defined as patients with an oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 94% on room air or requiring supplemental oxygen or requiring mechanical ventilation or requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a heart‐lung bypass machine.[43][42][44] Distribution of remdesivir under the EUA will be controlled by the U.S. government for use consistent with the terms and conditions of the EUA.[42] Gilead will supply remdesivir to authorized distributors, or directly to a U.S. government agency, who will distribute to hospitals and other healthcare facilities as directed by the U.S. Government, in collaboration with state and local government authorities, as needed.[42] The agreement between Gilead and five generic pharmaceutical companies in India and Pakistan will help make the medicine for 127 countries.[citation needed]

Intravenous vitamin C[]

According to, there are six ongoing clinical trials of intravenous vitamin C for people who are hospitalized and severely ill with COVID‑19; three placebo controlled (China, Canada, US) and three with no control (Italy, US, US).[45]

Oral vitamin D[]

According to, several Phase II-IV clinical trials are underway to assess the use of oral vitamin D for prevention or treatment of COVID‑19 infection, with most in preliminary stages and none completed, as of May 2020.[46] Most trials have the design of studying COVID-19-infected people who are vitamin D deficient.[46] The rationale for these trials is based on speculation and observational reports that low vitamin D may be associated with a higher incidence and severity of this infection.[47] After adjustments were made for potential confounding factors, such as ethnicity, one study found insufficient evidence to indicate that vitamin D supplementation provided a benefit to reduce susceptibility to COVID-19 infection.[48]


New York State began trials for the antibiotic azithromycin on 24 March 2020.[49]

Hydroxychloroquine combined with zinc and an antibiotic[]

Because zinc has properties as a cofactor in the immune response for producing antibodies during viral infections,[50] it is being included among multiple-agent "cocktails" for investigating potential treatment of people hospitalized with COVID-19 infection.[51] One such cocktail is hydroxychloroquine combined with zinc (as a sulfate, 220 mg per day for 5 days, a zinc dose 20 times higher than the reference daily intake level)[50] and an approved antibiotic, either azithromycin or doxycycline in a Phase IV trial in New York State.[52]

Zinc deficiency – which decreases immune capacity to defend against pathogens – is common among elderly people, and may be a susceptibility factor in viral infections.[50] The mechanism for any potential benefit of including zinc in a cocktail treatment for recovery from severe viral infection is unknown.[50][51]


Japan's National Center for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM) is planning a clinical trial for Teijin's Alvesco (ciclesonide), an inhaled corticosteroid for asthma, for the treatment of pre-symptomatic patients infected with the novel coronavirus.[53]

Ciclesonide was identified as a candidate antiviral in an in vitro drug screening assay done in Korea.[54]


A form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a Phase II trial is underway with 200 patients to be recruited from severe, hospitalized cases in Denmark, Germany, and Austria to determine the effectiveness of the treatment.[55][56]


Researchers from the Montreal Heart Institute in Canada are currently studying the role of colchicine in reducing inflammation and pulmonary complications in patients suffering from mild symptoms of COVID‑19.[57] The study, named COLCORONA, is recruiting 6000 adults aged 40 and over who were diagnosed with COVID‑19 and experience mild symptoms not requiring hospitalization.[57][58] Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding or who do not have an effective contraceptive method are not eligible.[58]


Several anticoagulants are being tested in Italy. Low-molecular-weight heparin is being widely used to treat patients, prompting the Italian Medicines Agency to publish guidelines on its use.[59] A multicenter study on 300 patients researching the use of enoxaparin sodium at prophylaxis and therapeutic dosages was announced in Italy on 14 April.[60]


Famotidine has been suggested as a treatment for COVID-19,[61]

[62] and a clinical study is currently underway.[63]


Dipyridamole is proposed as a treatment for COVID-19,[61][62] and a clinical trial is currently underway.[64]


Sildenafil is proposed as a treatment for COVID-19,[61][62] and a phase 3 clinical trial is currently underway.[65]


Fenofibrate and bezafibrate have been suggested for treatment of life-threatening symptoms of COVID-19.[61][62]


Cimetidine has been suggested as a treatment for COVID-19.[61][62]


Niclosamide was identified as a candidate antiviral in an in vitro drug screening assay done in Korea.[54]


Fenretinide was identified as a candidate antiviral in an in vitro drug screening assay done in Korea.[54]. NanoFenretinide is nanoparticle sized fenretinide and repurposed oncology drug approved to enter the clinic for a lymphoma indication "Phase 1 Trial of ST-001 nanoFenretinide in Relapsed/Refractory T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - Full Text View -".</ref>. Fenretinide's clinical safety profile also makes it an ideal candidate in combination regimens.

Drugs by class[]

Antiviral drugs[]

Considerable scientific attention has been focused on re-purposing approved antiviral drugs that have been previously developed against other viruses, such as MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and West Nile virus.[66]



Some antibiotics that have been identified as potentially re-purposable as COVID‑19 treatments:[74][75]


Drugs with immune modulating effects that may prove useful in COVID-19 treatment:


  1. ^ "Repurposing Drugs". National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health. 7 November 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Harrison C (27 February 2020). "Coronavirus puts drug repurposing on the fast track". Nature Biotechnology. 38 (4): 379–381. doi:10.1038/d41587-020-00003-1. PMID 32205870.
  3. ^ Sleigh SH, Barton CL (2010). "Repurposing Strategies for Therapeutics". Pharmaceutical Medicine. 24 (3): 151–159. doi:10.1007/BF03256811.
  4. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccine Frontrunners".
  5. ^ Duan K, Liu B, Li C, Zhang H, Yu T, Qu J, et al. (April 2020). "Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 117 (17): 9490–9496. doi:10.1073/pnas.2004168117. PMC 7196837. PMID 32253318.
  6. ^ Li G, De Clercq E (March 2020). "Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 19 (3): 149–150. doi:10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0. PMID 32127666.
  7. ^ a b "COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccine Tracker". Milken Institute. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  8. ^ Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB (April 2020). "Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review". JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6019. PMID 32282022.
  9. ^ a b c Devlin H, Sample I (19 March 2020). "What are the prospects for a COVID-19 treatment?". The Guardian.
  10. ^ Liu M, Caputi TL, Dredze M, Kesselheim AS, Ayers JW (April 2020). "Internet Searches for Unproven COVID-19 Therapies in the United States". JAMA Internal Medicine. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1764. PMC 7191468. PMID 32347895.
  11. ^ "NY COVID-19 cases surge; Javits Center to house temporary hospitals". Fox 5. 23 March 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup March 30, 2020" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 30 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Fact Sheet for Patients and Parent/Caregivers Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of Chloroquine Phosphate for Treatment of COVID-19 in Certain Hospitalized Patients". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  14. ^ "Information for clinicians on therapeutic options for COVID-19 patients". US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  15. ^ a b Gross SJ (9 April 2020). "As CDC drops guidance on chloroquine as COVID-19 therapy, doctors ask for research". Miami Herald.
  16. ^ Clinical trial number NCT04332991 for "Outcomes Related to COVID-19 Treated With Hydroxychloroquine Among In-patients With Symptomatic Disease (ORCHID)" at
  17. ^ Mehra, Mandeep R.; Desai, Sapan S.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Patel, Amit N. (22 May 2020). "Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis". The Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6. ISSN 0140-6736.
  18. ^ "FDA cautions against use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for COVID-19 outside of the hospital setting or a clinical trial due to risk of heart rhythm problems | FDA". 24 April 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  19. ^ see under Treatment section of Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2); Johns Hopkins ABX Guide (Retrieved 18 April 2020)
  20. ^ Azithromycin, ritonavir and lopinavir are among such CYP3A4 inhibitors. See under ss. C.1. LQTS and COVID-19 of SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, and inherited arrhythmia syndromes, published in Heart_Rhythm on March 31, 2020 (retrieved May 23, 2020)
  21. ^ Rowland, Christopher. "Anti-malarial drug Trump touted is linked to higher rates of death in VA coronavirus patients, study says". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  22. ^ Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis for high-risk COVID-19 contacts in India
  23. ^ "Hydroxychloroquine: NHS staff to take drug as part of global trial". The Guardian. 21 May 2020.
  24. ^ a b "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 25 May 2020". World Health Organization. 25 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  25. ^ Maria Cheng, Jamey Keaten (25 May 2020). "WHO pauses hydroxychloroquine coronavirus trial over safety concerns". Global News. The Associated Press. Retrieved 27 May 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  26. ^ McCurry J (18 March 2020). "Japanese flu drug 'clearly effective' in treating coronavirus, says China".
  27. ^ a b Gregory A (18 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Japanese anti-viral drug effective in treating patients, Chinese official says". The Independent.
  28. ^ Regalado A (23 March 2020). "Which Covid-19 drugs work best?". MIT Technology Review.
  29. ^ di Pietrobelli G (22 March 2020). "Coronavirus, il Veneto sperimenta l'antivirale giapponese Favipiravir. Ma l'Aifa: "Ci sono scarse evidenze scientifiche su efficacia"". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  30. ^ "AIFA precisa, uso favipiravir per COVID-19 non autorizzato in Europa e USA, scarse evidenze scientifiche sull'efficacia". (in Italian). 22 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  31. ^ Fukao K (3 April 2020). "Berlin to stockpile millions of doses of Fujifilm's anti-flu drug". Nikkei Asian Review.
  32. ^ Jeong-ho L. "China and South Korea split over Japanese anti-flu drug Avigan in fight against coronavirus". South China Morning Post.
  33. ^ "WHO officials enroll first patients from Norway and Spain in 'historic' coronavirus drug trial". CNBC. 27 March 2020.
  34. ^ "REMAP-CAP Trial". REMAP-CAP.
  35. ^ "News and press releases". Faron Pharmaceuticals New and Press Release. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  36. ^ "Antiviral Drug Combo Ineffective Vs. Coronavirus". WebMD. 20 March 2020.
  37. ^ Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wang J, Fan G, et al. (March 2020). "A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19". The New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (19): 1787–1799. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001282. PMC 7121492. PMID 32187464.
  38. ^ Brown J (20 March 2020). "Colorado researchers are racing to find an antiviral drug that could save people with the new coronavirus".
  39. ^ Warren TK, Jordan R, Lo MK, Ray AS, Mackman RL, Soloveva V, et al. (March 2016). "Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys". Nature. 531 (7594): 381–5. Bibcode:2016Natur.531..381W. doi:10.1038/nature17180. PMC 5551389. PMID 26934220.
  40. ^ a b Cao B, Wang C, Wang Y, Zhou F, Zhang D, Zhao J, Du R, Hu Y, Cheng Z, Gao L, Jin Y (29 April 2020). "Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial". The Lancet. 395 (10236): 1569–1578. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9. PMC 7190303. PMID 32423584.
  41. ^ Boseley S (23 April 2020). "First trial for potential Covid-19 drug shows it has no effect". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  42. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions on the Emergency Use Authorization for Remdesivir for Certain Hospitalized COVID‐19 Patients". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  43. ^ "Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of Remdesivir for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. Lay summary. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  44. ^ Holland S, Mason J, Maler S (1 May 2020). "FDA Authorizes Remdesivir Drug for COVID-19". The New York Times.
  45. ^ " Vitamin C COVID-19". 26 March 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  46. ^ a b "International clinical trials assessing vitamin D in people with COVID-19"., US National Library of Medicine. May 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  47. ^ Rhodes, JM; Subramanian, S; Laird, E; Kenny, RA (20 April 2020). "Editorial: low population mortality from COVID-19 in countries south of latitude 35 degrees North supports vitamin D as a factor determining severity". Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 51 (12): 1434–1437. doi:10.1111/apt.15777. PMID 32311755.
  48. ^ Hastie, CE; Mackay, DF; Ho, F; Celis-Morales, CA; Katikireddi, SV; Niedzwiedz, CL; Jani, BD; Welsh, P; Mair, FS; Gray, SR; O'Donnell, CA; Gill, JM; Sattar, N; Pell, JP (7 May 2020). "Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank". Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. 14 (4): 561–565. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050. PMC 7204679. PMID 32413819.
  49. ^ a b "Amid Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic, Governor Cuomo Accepts Recommendation of Army Corps of Engineers for Four Temporary Hospital Sites in New York". 22 March 2020.
  50. ^ a b c d "Zinc". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  51. ^ a b Brian P. Dunleavy (13 May 2020). "Zinc might boost effectiveness of malaria drug against COVID-19, experts say". United Press International. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  52. ^ Clinical trial number NCT04370782 for "Hydroxychloroquine and Zinc With Either Azithromycin or Doxycycline for Treatment of COVID-19 in Outpatient Setting" at
  53. ^ "Japan Plans Alvesco Clinical Trial for Coronavirus". 31 March 2020.
  54. ^ a b c Jeon S, Ko M, Lee J, Choi I, Byun SY, Park S, et al. (May 2020). "Identification of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from FDA-approved drugs". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology. doi:10.1128/aac.00819-20. PMID 32366720. Lay summary. Drug repositioning is the only feasible option to address the COVID-19 global challenge immediately. We screened a panel of 48 FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 which were pre-selected by an assay of SARS-CoV and identified 24 potential antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some drug candidates showed very low micromolar IC50s and in particular, two FDA-approved drugs - niclosamide and ciclesonide – were notable in some respects.
  55. ^ Ansede M (3 April 2020). "Doscientos enfermos probarán un fármaco que ha bloqueado el coronavirus en minirriñones humanos". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  56. ^ "Apeiron Biologics moves forward with APN01 for treatment of COVID-19". Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  57. ^ a b, Zone Santé-. "Début d'une étude clinique pour tester un médicament contre les effets de la COVID-19 | Coronavirus".
  58. ^ a b "COLCORONA Clinical Trial | Stop COVID-19". Colcorona.
  59. ^ "Farmaci utilizzabili per il trattamento della malattia COVID19 | Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco". (in Italian). Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  60. ^ "Coronavirus, al via studio su eparina per 300 pazienti". Adnkronos. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  61. ^ a b c d e Rogosnitzky M, Berkowitz E, Jadad AR (May 2020). "Delivering Benefits at Speed through Real-World Repurposing of Off-Patent Drugs: The COVID-19 Pandemic as a Case in Point". JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. 6 (2): e19199. doi:10.2196/19199. PMC 7224168. PMID 32374264.
  62. ^ a b c d e Rogosnitzky M, Berkowitz E, Jadad AR. "Real-world Repurposing of Generic Drugs as a Multifaceted Strategy against COVID-19 JMIR Preprints. 23/04/2020:19583". doi:10.2196/preprints.19583. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[unreliable source?]
  63. ^ "New York clinical trial quietly tests heartburn remedy against coronavirus". Science. 26 April 2020.
  64. ^ "Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) - The world health organization international clinical trials registered organization registered platform".
  65. ^ "A Pilot Study of Sildenafil in COVID-19 - Full Text View -".
  66. ^ Dong L, Hu S, Gao J (2020). "Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics. 14 (1): 58–60. doi:10.5582/ddt.2020.01012. PMID 32147628.
  67. ^ Dong L, Hu S, Gao J (29 February 2020). "Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics. 14 (1): 58–60. doi:10.5582/ddt.2020.01012. PMID 32147628.
  68. ^ Lu H (March 2020). "Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Bioscience Trends. 14 (1): 69–71. doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01020. PMID 31996494.
  69. ^ Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. (March 2020). "Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro". Cell Research. 30 (3): 269–271. doi:10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0. PMC 7054408. PMID 32020029.
  70. ^ Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, Hoang VT, Meddeb L, Mailhe M, et al. (March 2020). "Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents: 105949. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949. PMC 7102549. PMID 32205204.
  71. ^ Weston S, Haupt R, Logue J, Matthews K, Frieman MB (27 March 2020). "FDA approved drugs with broad anti-coronaviral activity inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro". Preprint. doi:10.1101/2020.03.25.008482 – via bioRxiv.
  72. ^ "ФМБА России: доказана противовирусная активность "Мефлохина" в отношении возбудителя COVID-19". (in Russian). Federal Biomedical Agency. 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  73. ^ Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA, Wagstaff KM (April 2020). "The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro". Antiviral Research. 178: 104787. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787. PMC 7129059. PMID 32251768.
  74. ^ "Coronavirus: Scientists could repurpose drugs to treat infection". Medical News Today. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  75. ^ "Existing Drugs May Offer a First-Line Treatment for Coronavirus Outbreak". Global Health News Wire. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  76. ^ Baron SA, Devaux C, Colson P, Raoult D, Rolain JM (March 2020). "Teicoplanin: an alternative drug for the treatment of COVID-19?". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 55 (4): 105944. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105944. PMC 7102624. PMID 32179150.
  77. ^ a b c Andersen PI, Ianevski A, Lysvand H, Vitkauskiene A, Oksenych V, Bjørås M, et al. (February 2020). "Discovery and development of safe-in-man broad-spectrum antiviral agents". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 93: 268–276. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.018. PMC 7128205. PMID 32081774.

Further reading[]

External links[]