Beechcraft Bonanza

Bonanza
Beech Bonanza Takeoff (5517383917).jpg
Beech S35 Bonanza
Role Civil utility aircraft
National origin United States
Manufacturer Beechcraft
First flight December 22, 1945
Introduction 1947[1]
Status In service
Produced 1947–present
Number built >17,000
Unit cost
US$914,000 (G36, 2019)[2]
Variants Beechcraft Travel Air
Bay Super V
Beechcraft T-34 Mentor

The Beechcraft Bonanza is an American general aviation aircraft introduced in 1947 by Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. The six-seater, single-engined aircraft is still being produced by Beechcraft and has been in continuous production longer than any other airplane in history.[3][4] More than 17,000 Bonanzas of all variants have been built,[5][6] produced in both distinctive V-tail and conventional tail configurations.

Design and development[]

A 1947 advertisement for the first Model 35 Bonanza

At the end of World War II, two all-metal light aircraft emerged, the Model 35 Bonanza and the Cessna 195, that represented very different approaches to the premium end of the postwar civil-aviation market. With its high-wing, seven-cylinder radial engine, fixed tailwheel undercarriage, and roll-down side windows, the Cessna 195 was little more than a continuation of prewar technology; the 35 Bonanza, however, was more like the fighters developed during the war, featuring an easier-to-manage, horizontally opposed, six-cylinder engine, a rakishly streamlined shape, retractable tricycle undercarriage (although the nosewheel initially was not steerable, but castering)[7] and low-wing configuration.

Designed by a team led by Ralph Harmon, the model 35 Bonanza was a relatively fast, low-wing monoplane at a time when most light aircraft were still made of wood and fabric. The Model 35 featured retractable landing gear, and its signature V-tail (equipped with combination elevator-rudders called "ruddervators"), which made it both efficient and the most distinctive private aircraft in the sky. The prototype 35 Bonanza made its first flight on December 22, 1945, with the first production aircraft debuting as 1947 models.[8] The first 30–40 Bonanzas produced had fabric-covered flaps and ailerons, after which those surfaces were covered with magnesium alloy sheet.[9][10]

Three major variants eventually comprised the Bonanza family:

The ICAO aircraft type designators for the three variants are BE35, BE33, and BE36 respectively.[12]

The basic Bonanza fuselage was used for the twin-engined Travel Air, which was later developed into the Baron. Despite its name, the Twin Bonanza uses a different fuselage and is mostly dissimilar to the single-engined Bonanza.

All Bonanzas share an unusual feature: The yoke and rudder pedals are interconnected by a system of bungee cords that assist in keeping the airplane in coordinated flight during turns. The bungee system allows the pilot to make coordinated turns using the yoke alone, or with minimal rudder input, during cruise flight. Increased right-rudder pressure is still required on takeoff to overcome engine torque and P-factor. In the landing phase, the bungee system must be overridden by the pilot when making crosswind landings, which require cross-controlled inputs to keep the nose of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline without drifting left or right. This feature started with the V-tail and persists on the current production model.[citation needed]

Operational history[]

The V-tail design gained a reputation as the "forked-tail doctor killer",[13] due to crashes by overconfident wealthy amateur pilots,[14] fatal accidents, and inflight breakups.[15] "Doctor killer" has sometimes been used to describe the conventional-tailed version, as well.[16][17] However, a detailed analysis by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association of accident records for common single-engine retractable-gear airplanes in the United States between 1982 and 1989 demonstrated that the Bonanza had a slightly lower accident rate than other types in the study. Pilot error was cited in 73% of V-tail crashes and 83% of conventional-tail crashes, with aircraft-related causes accounting for 15% and 11% of crashes respectively.[18] However, the study noted that the aircraft had an unusually high incidence of gear-up landings and inadvertent gear retractions on the ground, which were attributed to a non-standard gear-retraction switch on early models that is easily confused with the switch that operates the flaps. 1984 and later models use a more distinctive relocated landing-gear switch, augmented by "squat switches" in the landing gear that prevent its operation while compressed by the aircraft's weight, and a throttle position switch that prevents gear retraction at low engine power settings.[18]

In the late 1980s, repeated V-tail structural failures prompted the United States Department of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to conduct extensive wind tunnel and flight tests, which proved that the V-tail did not meet type certification standards under certain conditions; the effort culminated with the issuance of an airworthiness directive to strengthen the tail, which significantly reduced the incidence of in-flight breakups. Despite this, Beech has long contended that most V-tail failures involve operations well beyond the aircraft's intended flight envelope.[18][19] Subsequent analysis of National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident records between 1962 and 2007 revealed an average of three V-tail structural failures per year, while the conventional-tailed Bonanza 33 and 36 suffered only eleven such failures during the same time period. Most V-tail failures involved flight under visual flight rules into instrument meteorological conditions, flight into thunderstorms, or airframe icing.[20] In addition to the structural issues, the Bonanza 35 has a relatively narrow center of gravity envelope, and the tail design is intolerant of imbalances caused by damage, improper maintenance, or repainting; such imbalances may induce dangerous aeroelastic flutter.[18] Despite these issues, many Bonanza 35 owners insist that the aircraft is reasonably safe, and its reputation has lessened acquisition costs for budget-conscious buyers.[20]

In 1982, the production of the V-tail Bonanza stopped[21] but the conventional-tail Model 33 continued in production until 1995.[6][22] Still built today is the Model 36 Bonanza, a longer-bodied, straight-tail variant of the original design,[23] introduced in 1968.[6][24]

In January 2012, the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority issued an airworthiness directive grounding all Bonanzas, Twin Bonanzas, and Debonairs equipped with a single pole-style yoke and that have forward elevator control cables that are more than 15 years old until they could be inspected. The AD was issued based on two aircraft found to have frayed cables, one of which suffered a cable failure just prior to takeoff and resulting concerns about the age of the cables in fleet aircraft of this age. At the time of the grounding, some Bonanzas had reached 64 years in service. Aircraft with frayed cables were grounded until the cables were replaced and those that passed inspection were required to have their cables replaced within 60 days regardless. The AD affected only Australian aircraft and was not adopted by the airworthiness authority responsible for the type certificate, the US Federal Aviation Administration. The FAA instead opted to issue a Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin requesting that the elevator control cables be inspected during the annual inspection.[25][26][27]

QU-22 Pave Eagle[]

The QU-22 was a Beech 36/A36 Bonanza modified during the Vietnam War to be an electronic monitoring signal relay aircraft, developed under the project name "Pave Eagle" for the United States Air Force. An AiResearch turbocharged, reduction-geared Continental GTSIO-520-G engine was used to reduce its noise signature, much like the later Army-Lockheed YO-3A.[citation needed] These aircraft were intended to be used as unmanned drones to monitor seismic and acoustic sensors dropped along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos and report troop and supply movements. When the project was put into operation in 1968, however, the aircraft were all flown by pilots of the 554th Reconnaissance Squadron Detachment 1, call sign "Vampire". A separate operation "Compass Flag" monitored the General Directorate of Rear Services along the Ho Chi Minh Trail linking to the 6908th security squadron.[28]

Six YQU-22A prototypes (modifications of the Beech 33 Debonair) were combat-tested in 1968, and two were lost during operations, with a civilian test pilot killed. Twenty-seven QU-22Bs were modified, 13 in 1969 and 14 in 1970, with six lost in combat. Two Air Force pilots were killed in action. All of the losses were due to engine failures or effects of turbulence.[29] A large cowl bump above the spinner was faired-in for an AC current generator, and higher weight set of Baron wings and spars were used to handle the 236-gallon fuel load.[28]

Variants[]

Model 33 Debonair/Bonanza[]

A 1987-built Bonanza F33A in 2016
35-33 Debonair
(1959) An M35 Bonanza with conventional fin and tailplane, one 225 hp Continental IO-470-J,[30] 233 built
35-A33 Debonair
(1961) Model 33 with rear side windows and improved interior trim, 154 built
35-B33 Debonair
(1962-1964) A33 with contoured fin leading edge, N35 fuel tank modifications and P35 instrument panel, 426 built
35-C33 Debonair
(1965-1967) B33 with teardrop rear side windows, enlarged fin fairing and improved seats, 305 built
35-C33A Debonair
(1966-1967) C33 with a 285hp Continental IO-520-B engine and optional fifth seat, 179 built
D33 Debonair
One S35 modified as a military close-support prototype
E33 Bonanza
(1968-1969) C33 with improved Bonanza trim, 116 built
E33A Bonanza
(1968) E33 with a 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, 85 built
E33B Bonanza
E33 with strengthened airframe and certified for aerobatics
E33C Bonanza
(1968-1969) E33B with a 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, 25 built
F33 Bonanza
(1970) E33 with deeper rear side windows and minor improvements, 20 built
F33A Bonanza
(1970-1994) F33 with a 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, later aircraft have a longer S35/V35 cabin and extra seats, 821 built[22]
Beechcraft F33C
F33C Bonanza
(1970) F33A certified for aerobatics, 118 built
G33 Bonanza
(1972-1973) F33 with a 260hp Continental IO-470-N engine and V35B trim, 50 built

Model 35 Bonanza[]

35
(1947–1948), main production with 165 hp (123 kW) Continental E-185-1 engine, 1500 built
A35
(1949) Model 35 with higher takeoff weight, and minor internal changes, 701 built
B35
(1950) A35 with a 165hp Continental E-185-8 engine and other minor changes, 480 built
C35
(1951-1952) B35 with a 185hp Continental E-185-11 engine, metal propeller, larger tail surfaces, and higher takeoff weight, approved for the Lycoming GO-435-D1 engine,[31] 719 built
D35
(1953) C35 with increased takeoff weight and minor changes, 298 built, approved for the Lycoming GO-435-D1 engine[31]
E35
(1954) D35 with optional E-225-8 engine and minor changes, 301 built
F35
(1955) E35 with extra rear window each side, 392 built
G35
(1956) F35 with a Continental E-225-8 engine, 476 built
H35
1957 Model H35 at Jackson Hole Airport.
(1957) G35 with a Continental O-470-G engine, strengthened structure and internal trim changes, 464 built
J35
(1958) H35 with a fuel injected Continental IO-470-C engine, optional autopilot, and improved instruments, 396 built
K35
(1959) J35 with fuel load increase, optional fifth seat and increased takeoff weight, 436 built
M35
(1960) K35 with cambered wingtips and minor changes, 400 built
A 1965 model S35 at Flagstaff Pulliam Airport
1966 Model V35
N35
(1961) M35 with a 260 hp Continental IO-470-N engine, increased fuel capacity, increased takeoff weight, and teardrop rear side windows, 280 built[32]
035
(1961) Experimental version, an N35 fitted with laminar flow airfoil and redesigned landing gear, only one built
P35
(1962–1963) N35 with new instrument panel and improved seating, 467 built
S35
(1964–1965) P35 with a Continental IO-520-B engine, higher takeoff weight, longer cabin interior, optional fifth and sixth seat, and new rear window, 667 built[33]
V35
(1966–1967) S35 with higher takeoff weight, single-piece windshield, optional turbocharged TSIO-520-D engine (as V35-TC), 873 built[34]
V35A
(1968–1969) V35 with a streamlined windshield and minor changes, optional turbocharged TSIO-520-D engine (as V35A-TC), 470 built
V35B
(1970–1982) V35A with minor improvements to systems and trim, optional turbocharged TSIO-520-D engine (as V35B-TC), 24-volt electrical system (1978 and on), 873 built[35]

Model 36 Bonanza[]

A36 Bonanza
Beechcraft A36 Bonanza modified with the Tradewind Turbine's turboprop conversion
36
(1968–1969) E33A with a ten-inch fuselage stretch, four cabin windows each side, starboard rear double doors and seats for six, one 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, 184 built
A36
(1970–2005) Model 36 with improved deluxe interior, a new fuel system, higher takeoff weight, from 1984 fitted with a Continental IO-550-BB engine and redesigned instrument panel and controls, 2128 built[24][36]
A36TC
(1979–1981) Model 36 with a three-bladed propeller and a 300 hp turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-UB engine, 280 built
T36TC
(1979) A36 fitted with T-tail and a 325 hp Continental TSIO-520 engine, one built
B36TC
(1982–2002) A36TC with longer span wing, increased range, redesigned instrument panel and controls, higher takeoff weight, 116 built[37]
G36
(2006–present) – glass cockpit update of the A36 with the Garmin G1000 system[5][38]

QU-22[]

YQU-22A (Model P.1079)
USAF military designation for a prototype intelligence-gathering drone version of the Bonanza 36, six built
YAU-22A (Model PD.249)
Prototype low-cost close-support version using Bonanza A36 fuselage and Baron B55 wings, one built
QU-22B
Production drone model for the USAF operation Pave Eagle, 27 built, modified with turbocharging, three-bladed propeller, and tip-tanks[39]

Modifications[]

Allison Turbine Bonanza
Allison, in conjunction with Soloy, certified a conversion of Beech A36 Bonanza aircraft to be powered by an Allison 250-B17C turboprop engine.[40]
Continental Voyager Bonanza (A36)
standard aircraft with a liquid-cooled Continental Motors TSIOL-550-B engine.[41][42]
Propjet Bonanza (A36)
standard aircraft modified by Tradewind Turbines with an Allison 250-B17F/2 turboprop engine (Original STC # 3523NM by Soloy).[43]
TurbineAir Bonanza (B36TC)
Modification by Rocket Engineering subsidiary West Pacific Air, LLC with a 500 hp Pratt & Whitney PT6A-21 turboprop engine and 124 U.S. gallons (470 L; 103 imp gal) fuel capacity.[44][45][46][47]
Whirlwind System II Turbonormalized Bonanza (36, A36, G36)
standard aircraft modified by Tornado Alley Turbo with a Tornado Alley Turbonormalizing (keeps power up to 20,000ft)[48] system and approved for a 4000 lb MTOW
Whirlwind TCP Bonanza (A36TC or B36TC)
standard aircraft modified by Tornado Alley Turbo with a TCM IO-550B engine and Tornado Alley Turbonormalizing system, this airframe is approved for a 4042 lb MTOW.
Bay Super V
A multiengine conversion of the C35 Bonanza

Model 40[]

The Beechcraft Model 40A was an experimental twin-engined aircraft based on the Bonanza. Only one prototype was built in 1948. It featured a unique over/under arrangement of two 180-hp Franklin engines mounted on top of each other and driving a single propeller. The plane had a different engine cowl from a standard Bonanza, and the nose gear could not fully retract, but otherwise it greatly resembled the production Bonanzas of the time. Certification rules demanded a firewall be fitted between the two engines, however, thus stopping development.[49] The status of the prototype is unknown.

Parastu[]

This is the standard F33 (1970) variant of the Bonanza which has been reverse engineered by Defense Industries Organization of Iran and is being manufactured without a license.[50][51]

Operators[]

Civil[]

Astronaut Gordon Cooper, of Gemini V, poses on the wing of his personal Beechcraft Bonanza in 1963.

The Bonanza is popular with air charter companies, and is operated by private individuals and companies.

In 1949, Turner Airlines (later renamed Lake Central Airlines) commenced operations using three V-tail Bonanzas.[52] That same year, Central Airlines began operations using eight Bonanzas,[53] later adding three more to the fleet before starting to phase them out in 1950 in favor of the Douglas DC-3.[54]

Military[]

 Haiti
Haitian Air Corps – 1 x Bonanza F33[55]
 Iran
Imperial Iranian Air Force – 10 x Bonanza F33A and 39 x Bonanza F33C[56]
 Indonesia
Indonesian Naval Aviation[57]
 Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast Air Force – 1 x Bonanza F33C[58]
 Mexico
Mexican Air Force – 10 x Bonanza F33C[59]
 Netherlands
Netherlands Government Flying School – 16 x Bonanza F33C[60]
 Nicaragua
National Guard – 1 x Bonanaza A35[61]
 Portugal
Portuguese Air Force – 1 × Bonanza A35 operated 1949–55.[62]
 Spain
Spanish Air Force – 29 x Bonanza F33C and 25 x Bonanza F33A[63]
 Thailand
Royal Thai Navy – 3 x Beech 35 Bonanza[64]
 United States
United States Air Force

Notable flights[]

Accidents and incidents[]

There have been numerous accidents and incidents involving the Beechcraft Bonanza. Listed below are a select few of the most notable ones.

Specifications (2011 model G36)[]

Beechcraft Bonanza V35B.svg

Data from Hawker Beechcraft[79][80]

General characteristics

Performance

Avionics

See also[]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References[]

Notes
  1. ^ ""Beech Bonanza: Celebrating 60 years of continuous production, and still going strong." by Mike Potts. World Aircraft Sales Magazine / www.AvBuyer.com. July 2007. Page 109" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25.
  2. ^ "Purchase Planning Handbook" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week Network. June 2019.
  3. ^ Anders Clark. "The Beechcraft A36 Bonanza". Disciples of Flight. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  4. ^ Scott Perdue (2007-05-01). "The Bonanza Hits 60 Strong and Fast!". PlaneAndPilotMag.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  5. ^ a b "Beechcraft Bonanza G36. Product Analysis" (PDF). Wichita, Kansas: Hawker Beechcraft Corporation. pp. 3–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c "Beechcraft Serialization List, 1945 thru 2014" (PDF). beechcraft.com. Beechcraft. August 26, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-16. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  7. ^ Flying magazine, ibid.
  8. ^ "The Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. September 1946. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  9. ^ a b Karant, Max (February 1947). "FLYING's Check Pilot - The Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  10. ^ Flying, Vol. 134, No. 8, August 2007, p. 62 "60 Years of Continuous Bonanza Production
  11. ^ Jacobshagen, Norman (June 1960). "Check Pilot Report: Beech Debonair". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  12. ^ "Aircraft type designators" (PDF). International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  13. ^ Emily Johns (2009-03-29). "Congressman gets bird's-eye view of flood". Star Tribune (Minneapolis-St.Paul).
  14. ^ Alicia Caldwell (1988-09-13). "Pilot in crash had only student license". Tampa Bay Times.
  15. ^ Bill Miller (2008-09-21). "Snapshot: Bad day for the Flying Dutchman". Mail Tribune.
  16. ^ Hawes C. Spencer (June 22, 2006). "NEWS- Qroe quandary: Cause of crash shrouded in fog". The Hook.
  17. ^ Lisa Greene (July 20, 2003). "Doctors find solace in high places". St. Petersburg Times.
  18. ^ a b c d Landsberg, Bruce (5 February 1994). "Bonanza Safety Review". www.aopa.org. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Beechcraft Bonanza". www.aopa.org. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  20. ^ a b Twombly, Ian J. (1 January 2018). "Budget Buy: Beechcraft Bonanza 35". www.aopa.org. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  21. ^ McClellan, J. Mac (April 2002). "V-Tail Bonanza to a Baron 58". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  22. ^ a b Bradley, Patrick (October 1984). "Bargain Bonanza: Beech F33A". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  23. ^ Brechner, Berl (August 1984). "Airplane Evolution: Beech Bonanzas". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  24. ^ a b Moll, Nigel (May 1984). "Pilot Report: Bonanza A36". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  25. ^ Niles, Russ (January 15, 2012). "Australia Grounds Older Bonanzas". AVweb. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  26. ^ AAP (January 16, 2012). "CASA issues directive on light planes". Herald Sun. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  27. ^ Niles, Russ (January 24, 2012). "No FAA Bonanza Cable AD". AVweb. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
  28. ^ a b Mike Collins (September 2014). "The Bonanza Goes to War Meet the QU-22B and the men that flew her". AOPA Pilot.
  29. ^ "USAF Qu-22 Pave Eagle". Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  30. ^ FAA (April 12, 2013), Aircraft Specification 3A15, retrieved January 3, 2014
  31. ^ a b Federal Aviation Administration (March 26, 2007). "Aircraft Specification A-777" (PDF). Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  32. ^ Jacobshagen, Norman (January 1961). "Check Pilot Report: Bonanza N35". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  33. ^ Schlaeger, Gerald J. (May 1964). "Pilot Report: Sweet Sixteen Plus 2". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  34. ^ Weeghman, Richard B. (September 1966). "Beach bumming south of Nassau in a great new Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  35. ^ Collins, Richard L. (March 1976). "Bonanza [V35B]". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  36. ^ McClellan, J. Mac (September 1989). "Simply Irresistible: The Bonanza A36". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  37. ^ George, Fred (June 1992). "Coast-to-Coast Speed Record in a B36TC Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  38. ^ McClellan, J. Mac (March 2006). "Beech First with Complete G1000 System". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  39. ^ Air Progress: 75. December 1971. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ John W.R. Taylor, ed. (1988). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988–89. London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 324–325. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
  41. ^ McClellan, J. Mac (May 1989). "Now, Voyager". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  42. ^ "Supplemental Type Certificate Number SA3151SO" (PDF). faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. July 16, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  43. ^ "Tradewind Turbines". Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  44. ^ Pete Bedell (December 2013). "Performance Bonanza". AOPA Pilot: T=13.
  45. ^ "TurbineAir". Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  46. ^ "Supplemental Type Certificate Number SA01156SE" (PDF). faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. July 16, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  47. ^ Pete Bidell (January 2015). "Turbine Bonanza Conversions". AOPA Pilot: T-2.
  48. ^ "Speed: Buying 180 Knots for $180,000"
  49. ^ Colby, Douglas. "The Ultimate V-Tail". Plane & Pilot Magazine. Werner Publishing Corporation. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  50. ^ John Pike. "GlobalSecurity.org – Parastu". Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  51. ^ "Payvand – Iranian Air Force Highly Equipped". Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  52. ^ Our History - Lake Central Airlines, US Airways website, retrieved January 14, 2014
  53. ^ "Central Airlines Buys 8 Planes for Feeder Service in 3 States". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas. Associated Press. 11 August 1949. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  54. ^ "Central Airlines to Start DC-3 Service over Routes". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas. 7 September 1950. Retrieved 5 November 2019. Until other DC-3's are added to the present three, Central will continue using its Bonanzas—of which there are eleven—on the Fort Worth–Texarkana and Fort Worth–Wichita routes.
  55. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 97.
  56. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 107.
  57. ^ "Empat Pesawat Latih Baru Puspenerbal Diserahterimakan Hari Ini – Surya". Surabaya.tribunnews.com. 2013-12-30. Retrieved 2015-06-28.
  58. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 126.
  59. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 156.
  60. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 164.
  61. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 166.
  62. ^ Nicolli Air Enthusiast May–June 1998, p. 38.
  63. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 203.
  64. ^ World Air Forces – Historical Listings Thailand (THL), archived from the original on 25 January 2012, retrieved 30 August 2012
  65. ^ Air & Space Vol. 22, No. 3, August 2007, "A Bonanza Anniversary", p. 14
  66. ^ Air & Space, V 22, N 3, p. 14
  67. ^ Ball 1971
  68. ^ Air & Space, V 22, N 3, p. 15
  69. ^ "MIT student finishes record flight around the world". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  70. ^ "Jailhouse Relic".
  71. ^ Spokesman Review (via Google), "Cause of Plane Crash Sought" dated August 2, 1955, retrieved on June 6, 2015.
  72. ^ "Aircraft Accident Report – File No. 2-0001" (PDF). Civil Aeronautics Board, Page 3, "The Aircraft" section. September 15, 1959.
  73. ^ "N8972M". National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
  74. ^ "Famous people who died in aviation accidents". planecrashinfo.com. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  75. ^ "NTSB Accident Summary LAX81FA044". ntsb.gov. National Transportation Safety Board. February 7, 1981. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  76. ^ "NTSB preliminary report". Archived from the original on 16 October 2012.
  77. ^ "NTSB preliminary report". Archived from the original on 2013-12-30.
  78. ^ https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/teen-pilot-dad-killed-fatal-flight-inspire-donors-give-3-n258891
  79. ^ Hawker Beechcraft G36 Specifications Archived 2011-07-02 at the Wayback Machine
  80. ^ Hawker Beechcraft G36 Performance Archived 2011-06-28 at the Wayback Machine
Bibliography

External links[]