|Regions with significant populations|
|Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Syria, etc.|
|Azerbaijani, Turkish, Turkmen and Persian|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Bayat tribe (Persian: بیات, Azerbaijani: Bayat tayfası, Turkish: Bayat boyu, Turkmen: Baýat taýpasy) is one of the Oghuz tribes in Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria. When Oghuz Turks started to migrate from the Aral steppes to Khorasan in the 11th and 13th centuries, Bayat people spread throughout the region. They are sub-ethnic groups of Turkmens, Turkish and Azerbaijanis. Bayats are Muslim and speak a southern dialect of Azerbaijani language in Azerbaijan and Iran, or their own dialect of Turkish[failed verification] in Turkey, and Ersari dialect of Turkmen in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The ancient Turkmen proverb says: "Kayi and Bayat tribes shall lead the people" (Turkmen: "Il başy - gaýy-baýat").
Initially, the ethnonym Bayat was mentioned as an Oguz tribe in the 11th century by the Turkic historian Mahmud Kashgari. Bayat - an Oghuz Turkic tribe, who stood together with the Kayi tribe at the head of all 24 Oguz tribes - "Il bashi Kayi-Bayat."
In the traditions of the Turkic tribes, the origin of this tribe is traced to Bayat - the grandson of Oghuz-Khan. In the book of the Khan and historian of the Khiva Khanate, Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur, "Genealogy of the Turkmens," the meaning of the name of the tribe is given as "rich". Bayat was the second son of Gun-Khan, who was the first son of Oguz-Khan. According to the work of the historian, Rashid-al-Din Fazl-Allah, "Oghuz-nameh", which is part of his extensive historical work Jami' al-tawarikh (Collection of Chronicles), the name Bayat means "rich, full of grace".
Bayat is the name of an originally Turkic clan in Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran which traces its origin to the 12th century. When Bayat clan started to migrate from the Aral steppes, their first destination was the city of Nishapur in the south of Khorasan, a state in the north-east of Iran. The Bayat clan moved in the 13th century to three different locations after attacks by Mongol forces.
A second group went south-west towards Isfahan, and the surname Bayat is prominent in Arak, Hamedan, Malayer, Isfahan, Zanjan and Shiraz cities. The third group went north-west, and in Azerbaijan they divided in two; one part of the group took the west to Anatolia, and second part went south into Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.
Until 1928, the Gyzyletrek settlement of the Balkan velayat of Turkmenistan was called Bayathaji, while Bayat Turkmens still live in Darganata, Danew, Turkmenabat, Sayat, Farap and Hojambaz etraps (districts) of the Lebap velayat of Turkmenistan. Representatives of the Bayat tribe may also be found in many districts of Bukhara province of Uzbekistan, especially in Olat and Qarako'l.
Bayats are spread far into western Anatolia, their principal areas of settlement being in the provinces of Konya, Bursa, Afyon, Balıkesir and Kütahya. Today the name in forms such as Bayat, Bayatlar, Bayatlı is found in thirty-two mainly western Anatolian toponyms. The name also appears in toponyms in Iran, two near Arāk, one near Zanjan, one near Urmia, one in Khuzestan, one near Borūjerd, and one in Khorasan. In post-Soviet countries, five places in Azerbaijan, four in Turkmenistan, and one in Uzbekistan close to the Turkmenistan border bear the names Bayat. In Gujarat, India, one place can be found about 250 km away from the India-Pakistan border.
Bayat is a common surname today in Iran, Azerbaijan and to a lesser extent in Turkey, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan where it carries the meaning "Knight" or "Chevalier". The Bayat surname can be found in the United Kingdom, India and South Africa.
Notable people with this name include: