Assam separatist movements

Assam separatist conflict
Part of the Insurgency in Northeast India
IN-AS.svg
State of Assam
DateApril 7, 1990 – Present (29 years and 1 month)
Location
Status Ongoing (Skirmish Level)
Belligerents
 India
Border conflicts:
 Bangladesh
 Bhutan
ULFA
KLNLF (until 2018)
NDFB
DHD (until 2013)
UPDS (until 2014)
ACF MULTA
Commanders and leaders
Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Shankar Dayal Sharma
Kocheril Raman Narayanan
APJ Abdul Kalam
Pratibha Patil
Pranab Mukherjee
Ram Nath Kovind
Paresh Baruah
Arabinda Rajkhowa
Pradip Gogoi
Anup Chetia
Raju Baruah
Chitrabon Hazarika
Ashanta Bagh Phukan
Ramu Mech
Sashadhar Choudhury
Bhimkanta Buragohain
Mithinga Daimary
Pranati Deka
Drishti Rajkhowa
Sabin Boro
Men Sing Takbi
Pradip Terang
Unknown Unknown
Strength
1,325,000 3,000–6,000 (1996)[1]
3,500 (2005)[2]
225 (2008)[3]
100 Unknown
Casualties and losses
12,000 killed[4]

Assam separatist movements are insurgency movements operating in Northeast India's oil-rich state[5] of Assam. The conflict started in the 1970s[5] following tension between the native indigenous Assamese people and the Indian government over alleged neglect and internal colonisation through its federal centre in Delhi.[6][7] The conflict has resulted in the deaths of 12,000 United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) members and 18,000 others.[8][9]

Several organisations contribute to the insurgency including the ULFA, the Adivasi National Liberation Army, Karbi Longri N.C. Hills Liberation Front (KLNLF) and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) with ULFA perhaps the largest of these groups,[9] and one of the oldest, having been founded in 1979.[10] The ULFA has attacked Hindi-speaking migrant workers[11] and a movement exists favouring secession from the Republic of India.[12] The alleged neglect and economic exploitation by the Indian state are the main reasons behind the growth of this secessionist movement.

The ULFA seeks to establish a sovereign Assam via armed struggle. MULTA on the other hand seeks to establish an Islamic state in India via jihadist struggle of Muslims of both indigenous and migrant origin. The Government of India banned the organization in 1990 and classifies it as a terrorist group, while the US State Department lists it under "Other groups of concern".

Founded at Rang Ghar, a historic structure dating to the Ahom kingdom on April 7, 1979, the ULFA has been the subject of military operations by the Indian Army since 1990, which have continued into the present.[13] In the past two decades some 30,000 people have died[14] in the clash between the rebels and the government. Though separatist sentiment is considered strong,[15] it is disputed if the secessionist movement continues to enjoy popular support. Conversely, assertions of Assamese nationalism are found in Assamese literature and culture. The neglect and exploitation by the Indian state are common refrains in the Assamese-language media[16] with some reports casting the ULFA leaders as saviors.[17]

Internationally acclaimed Assamese novelist Indira Goswami has tried to broker peace[18][19][20] for several years between the rebels and the government.[21] In a recent development Hiren Gohain,[22][23] a public intellectual, has stepped in to expe the process.

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ "Global security - United Liberation Front of Asom". Archived from the original on 5 September 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Global security - The National Democratice Front of Bodoland (NDFB)". Archived from the original on 5 September 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  3. ^ DailyExcelsior[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "Five killed in Assam bomb blasts - DAWN.COM". dawn.com. Archived from the original on 27 October 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Bloody Tea". Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  6. ^ Kashyap, Aruni (19 May 2010). "India needs talks for Assam's peace". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  7. ^ "Bomb Kills 10 at India Independence Parade". The New York Times. 15 August 2004. p. 15 (section 1). Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  8. ^ "The Sentinel". sentinelassam.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  9. ^ a b Pike, John. "Assam". Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  10. ^ "United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) - Terrorist Group of Assam". Archived from the original on 17 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  11. ^ "Assam: ULFA's Rerun of Violence against Migrant Workers". Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Where Have They All Gone? | Assam Portal". Assam.org. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  14. ^ "The Sentinel". Sentinelassam.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  15. ^ Malakar, Paresh (December 2006). "Assamese identity". Frontline. 23 (24). Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  16. ^ "The Assam conflict: a failure of the press". openDemocracy. 29 July 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  17. ^ "India needs talks for Assam's peace | Aruni Kashyap | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  18. ^ "National : Indira Goswami makes fresh attempt at brokering peace". The Hindu. 29 June 2007. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  19. ^ "Prince Clasu Award Indira Goswami". Princeclausfund.org. 29 June 2007. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  20. ^ "Conflict and Peace in India's Northeast: The Role of Civil Society" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  21. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ TI Trade (13 October 2010). "The Assam Tribune Online". Assamtribune.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  23. ^ "Peace interlocutor meets ULFA leaders in Guwahati jail". Sify.com. 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2010.