Asiento

The island of Cádiz by Blaeu in 1662.

The asiento was the license issued by the Spanish crown, by which a set of merchants received the monopoly on a trade route or product.[1] They were included in some peace treaties. An example of it was the payment of a fee, granting legal permission to sell a fixed number of enslaved Africans in the Spanish colonies. They were usually sold to foreigners, mainly Portuguese. They were also considered a tangible asset, comparable to tax farming, and a source of profit for the Spanish crown.[2] The original impetus to import enslaved Africans was to relieve the indigenous inhabitants of the colonies from the labor demands of the Spanish colonists.[3] Dutch merchants became involved in the slave trade. In 1713, the British were awarded the right to the asiento in the Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. The British government passed its rights to the South Sea Company.[4] The British asiento ended with the 1750 Treaty of Madrid between Great Britain and Spain.

In Spain the asientos of the Genoveses (enemies of the Crown of Aragon) and later of the so-called Marranos or Portuguese Jews stand out.

In many cases, intra-nationally, a seat in the form of financing in the case of economies of scale resulted in a chartered company, which was a commercial company whose activities enjoyed the protection of the State by means of a special privilege, which, although it did not always constitute a total monopoly. Its existence dates back to 14th century in Italy, highlighting the British East India Company, the Dutch West India Company or the Casa de la Contratación de Indias in Seville.

Spanish Asiento[]

San Juan de Ulúa, Spanish fort in Veracruz, Mexico (2008)

The general meaning of asiento (from the Spanish verb sentar, to sit, and this from Latin sedere) in Spanish is "consent" or "settlement, establishment". In a commercial context it means "contract, trading agreement." In the words of Georges Scelle, it was "a term in Spanish public law which designates every contract made for the purpose of public utility…between the Spanish government and private individuals."[5]

The asiento system was established following Spanish settlement in the Caribbean, when the indigenous population was undergoing demographic collapse and the Spanish needed another source of labor. Initially a few Christian Africans born in Iberia were transported to the Caribbean. But as the indigenous demographic collapse was ongoing and opponents of Spanish exploitation of indigenous labor grew, including that of Bartolomé de Las Casas, the young Hapsburg king Charles I of Spain allowed for the direct importation of slaves from Africa (bozales) to the Caribbean. The first asiento for selling slaves was drawn up in 1518, granting a Flemish favorite of Charles, Laurent de Gouvenot, a monopoly on importing enslaved Africans for eight years with a maximum of 4,000. Gouvenot promptly sold his license to Genoese merchants in Andalusia for 25,000 ducats.[6] The crown controlled both trade and immigration to the New World, excluding Jews, conversos, Muslims, and foreigners. African slaves were considered merchandise, and their import regulated by the crown.[7] Spain had neither direct access to the African sources of slaves nor the ability to transport them, so the asiento system was a way to ensure a legal supply of Africans to the New World, which brought revenue to the Spanish crown.[8]

For the Spanish crown, the asiento was a source of profit. "The asiento remained the settled policy of the Spanish government for controlling and profiting from the slave trade."[4] In Hapsburg Spain, asientos were a basic method of financing state expenditures: "Borrowing took two forms – long-term debt in the form of perpetual bonds (juros), and short-term loan contracts provided by bankers (asientos). Many asientos were eventually converted or refinanced through juros."[9]

Initially, since Portugal had unimpeded rights in West Africa via its 1494 treaty it dominated the European slave trade of Africans. Before the onset of the official asiento in 1595, when the Spanish monarch also ruled Portugal in the Iberian Union (1580-1640), the Spanish fiscal authorities gave individual asientos to merchants, primarily from Portugal, to bring slaves to the Americas. For the 1560s most of these slaves were obtained in the Upper Guinea regions, especially in the Sierra Leone region where there were many wars associated with the Mande invasions.

San Felipe, Spanish fort in Cartagena (Colombia).

Following the establishment of the Portuguese colony of Angola in 1575, and the gradual replacement of São Tomé by Brazil as the primary producers of sugar, Angolan interests came to dominate the trade, and it was Portuguese financiers and merchants who obtained the larger scale, comprehensive asiento that was established in 1595 during the period of the Iberian Union. The asiento was extended to importation of African slaves to Brazil, with those holding asientos for the Brazilian slave trade often also trading slaves in Spanish America. Spanish America was a major market for African slaves, including many of whom exceeded the quota of the asiento license and illegally sold. Most smuggled slaves were not brought by freelance traders.[10]

Angolan dominance of the trade was pronounced after 1615 when the governors of Angola, starting with Bento Banha Cardoso, made alliance with Imbangala mercenaries to wreak havoc on the local African powers. Many of these governors also held the contract of Angola as well as the asiento, thus insuring their interests. Shipping registers from Vera Cruz and Cartagena show that as many as 85% of the slaves arriving in Spanish ports were from Angola, brought by Portuguese ships. The earlier asiento period came to an end in 1640 when Portugal revolted against Spain, though even then the Portuguese continued to supply Spanish colonies.

Cover of the English translation of the Asiento contract signed by Britain and Spain in 1713 as part of the Utrecht treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession. The contract granted exclusive rights to Britain to sell slaves in the Spanish Indies.

In the 1650s after Portugal achieved its independence from Spain, Spain denied the asiento to the Portuguese, whom they considered rebels.[11] Spain sought to enter the slave trade directly, sending ships to Angola to purchase slaves. It also toyed with the idea of a military alliance with Kongo, the powerful African kingdom north of Angola. But these ideas were abandoned and the Spanish returned to Portuguese and then Dutch interests to supply slaves. The Spanish awarded large contracts for the asiento to the Dutch West India Company in 1675 rather than Portuguese merchants in the 1670s and 1680s.[12] In 1700, with the death of the last Hapsburg monarch, Charles II of Spain, his will named the French House of Bourbon as the successor to the Spanish throne. The asiento was granted in 1702 to the French Guinea Company, for the importation of 48,000 African slaves over a decade. The Africans were transported to French Caribbean colonies of Martinique and Saint Domingue.

Britain disputed the Bourbon inheritance of the Spanish throne and fought in the War of the Spanish Succession. Although Britain did not prevail, it did receive the asiento as part of the Treaty of Utrecht. The asiento became a conduit for British contraband trade all kinds, which undermined Spain's attempts to keep a closed trading system with its colonies.[13] The asiento agreement with the British survived until 1750, when Spain was implementing a number of administrative and economic reforms. The crown bought out the South Sea Company's right to the asiento in 1750. The crown sought another way to supply African slaves, attempting to liberalize its traffic, trying to shift to a system of the free trade in slaves by Spaniards and foreigners in particular colonial locations. These were Cuba, Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico, and Caracas, all of which used African slaves in large numbers.[14]

Europeans' enslavement of Africans was not not challenged, but in 1688 Aphra Behn published Oroonoko, one of the first pieces of antislavery literature.[15]

British South Sea Company[]

At the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Treaty of Utrecht gave to Great Britain a thirty-year asiento or contract, to send one merchant ship to the Spanish port of Portobelo, furnishing 4800 slaves to the Spanish colonies. This provided British traders and smugglers with inroads into the supposedly closed Spanish markets in America. Disputes connected with it led to the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739).[16] Britain gave up its rights to the asiento after the war, in the 1750 Treaty of Madrid.

Similar patents in the English system were the Virginia Company, the Levant Company and the Merchant Adventurers' patent of trade with the United Provinces (essentially concurrent with the modern day Netherlands). A detailed and well written overview of the English system is given by Robert Brenner in "Merchants and Revolution".

Holders of the Asiento[]

Joseph Coymans, with coat of arms, three oxheads, by Frans Hals in (1644). He and his brother, & two cousins named Balthasar and Joan were financing slave trade. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut.
The Dutch merchant in Cadiz Joshua van Belle, involved with his brother Pedro in slave trade, by Murillo in 1670, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin.
Jean Baptiste du Casse, 1700

See also[]

Sources[]

References[]

  1. ^ David Marley (ed. ), Reales asientos y licencias para la introducción de esclavos negros a la América Española (1676-1789), (Windsor 1985).
  2. ^ Blackburn, Robin, The Making of New World Slavery, London: Verso 1997, pp. 135, 141-2.
  3. ^ Haring, Clarence. The Spanish Empire in America, New York: Oxford University Press 1947, p. 219.
  4. ^ a b Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 220.
  5. ^ Postma, Johannes, The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815 (Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 29.
  6. ^ Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 219.
  7. ^ Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 135.
  8. ^ Shelly, Cara. "Asiento" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 1, p. 218. New York: Charles Scribner's and Sons 1996, p. 218.
  9. ^ Mauricio Drelichman and Hans-Joachim Voth, "Lending to the Borrower from Hell: Debt and Default in the Age of Phillip II, 1566-1598", p. 6.
  10. ^ Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 181.
  11. ^ Shelly, "Asiento", p. 218.
  12. ^ Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 203.
  13. ^ Shelly, "Asiento", p. 218
  14. ^ Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 220-21
  15. ^ Wills, J.E. (2001) 1688. A global history, p. 52.
  16. ^ Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 333.
  17. ^ Thomas, Hugh (1997) The Slave Trade. Simon and Schuster, 908 pages
  18. ^ a b Dalla Corte, Gabriela (2006) Homogeneidad, Diferencia y Exclusión en América. Edicions Universitat Barcelona, 447 pages
  19. ^ a b Cortés López, José Luis (2004) Esclavo y Colono. Universidad de Salamanca, 339 pages
  20. ^ "Portada del Archivo Histórico Nacional". censoarchivos.mcu.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  21. ^ "2006.003.0002 a Documents". www.melfisher.org. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  22. ^ The slave trade: the story of the Atlantic slave trade, 1440-1870 Door Hugh Thomas, p. 213.
  23. ^ The Genoese in Spain: Gabriel Bocángel y Unzueta (1603-1658): a biography by Trevor J. Dadson [1]
  24. ^ a b http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/merchants/merchants7.htm
  25. ^ Klooster, W. (1997): Slavenvaart op Spaanse kusten. De Nederlandse slavenhandel met Spaans Amerika, 1648-1701 in Tijdschrift voor de Zeegeschiedenis p. 127.
  26. ^ Shaw, C.M. (199) The overseas Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic before and after the Peace of Munster", In: De zeventiende Eeuw, 13 (1997), pp. 131-139.
  27. ^ a b Wills, J.E. (2001) 1688. A global history, p. 50.
  28. ^ Davies, Kenneth Gordon (1957). The Royal African Company. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415190770.
  29. ^ "Spanish Slavery.- [Charle S II, King of Spain, 1665-1700 Royal Order, signed 'El Rey', commanding Don Balthasar Coymans, Don Juan Barrosa & Don Nicolas Porzio to assemble 10 Capuchin monks (Franciscan friars) from either Cadiz or Amsterdam for the". invaluable.com. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  30. ^ "MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN, CULTURA Y DEPORTE - Portal de Archivos Españoles". pares.mcu.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  31. ^ The transatlantic slave trade: a history door James A. Rawley, Stephen D. Behrendt [2]
  32. ^ Négoce, ports et océans, XVIe-XXe siècles: mélanges offerts à Paul Butel Door Silvia Marzagalli, Paul Butel, Hubert Bonin [3]
  33. ^ Wills, J.E. (2001) 1688. A global history, p. 51.
  34. ^ The African slave trade and its suppression: a classified and annotated… By Peter C. Hogg [4]
  35. ^ "Africa Focus: Africans in bondage : studies in slavery and the slave trade : essays in honor of Philip D. Curtin on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of African Studies at the University of Wisconsin: Chapter 2: The company trade and the numerical distribution of slaves to Spanish America, 1703-1739". digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  36. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Asiento". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 761.