Asian Development Bank

Asian Development Bank
Adb-logo-block.jpg
ADB logo
MottoFighting poverty in Asia and the Pacific
Formation19 December 1966; 51 years ago (1966-12-19)
TypeMultilateral Development Bank
Legal statusTreaty
PurposeSocial and economic development
HeadquartersOrtigas Center
Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines
Region served
Asia-Pacific
Membership
67 countries
President
Takehiko Nakao
Main organ
Board of Governors[1]
Staff
3,092 employees[2]
Websitewww.adb.org
Asian Development Bank member states
  Outside regions
  Asia-Pacific region

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966,[3] which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines. The company also maintains 31 field offices around the world[4] to promote social and economic development in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and non-regional developed countries.[5] From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 67 members, of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 from outside. The ADB was modeled closely on the World Bank, and has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members' capital subscriptions. ADB releases an annual report that summarizes its operations, budget and other materials for review by the public.[6] The ADB-Japan Scholarship Program (ADB-JSP) enrolls about 300 students annually in academic institutions located in 10 countries within the Region. Upon completion of their study programs, scholars are expected to contribute to the economic and social development of their home countries.[7] ADB is an official United Nations Observer.[8]

As of 31 December 2016, Japan and United States hold the largest proportion of shares at 15.607%. China holds 6.444%, India holds 6.331%, and Australia holds 5.786%.[9]

Organization[]

President Rodrigo Duterte pose for a photo with ADB President Takehiko Nakao and other officials of ADB during the 51st ADB Annual Meeting in Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong City, Philippines on May 5, 2018.

The highest policy-making body of the bank is the Board of Governors, composed of one representative from each member state. The Board of Governors, in turn, elect among themselves the twelve members of the Board of Directors and their deputies. Eight of the twelve members come from regional (Asia-Pacific) members while the others come from non-regional members.[10]

The Board of Governors also elect the bank's president, who is the chairperson of the Board of Directors and manages ADB. The president has a term of office lasting five years, and may be reelected. Traditionally, and because Japan is one of the largest shareholders of the bank, the president has always been Japanese.

The current president is Takehiko Nakao, who succeeded Haruhiko Kuroda in 2013.[11]

The headquarters of the bank is at 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines,[12][13] and it has 31 field offices in Asia and the Pacific and representative offices in Washington, Frankfurt, Tokyo and Sydney. The bank employs about 3,000 people, representing 60 of its 67 members.[14]

List of presidents[]

Name Dates Nationality
Takeshi Watanabe 1966–1972  Japanese
Shiro Inoue 1972–1976  Japanese
Taroichi Yoshida 1976–1981  Japanese
Masao Fujioka 1981–1989  Japanese
Kimimasa Tarumizu 1989–1993  Japanese
Mitsuo Sato 1993–1999  Japanese
Tadao Chino 1999–2005  Japanese
Haruhiko Kuroda 2005–2013  Japanese
Takehiko Nakao 2013–  Japanese

History[]

1960s[]

As early as 1956, Japan Finance Minister Hisato Ichimada had suggested to United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that development projects in Southeast Asia could be supported by a new financial institution for the region. A year later, Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi announced that Japan intended to sponsor the establishment of a regional development fund with resources largely from Japan and other industrial countries. But the US did not warm to the plan and the concept was shelved. See full account in "Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of the Asian Development Bank," July 2017.

The idea came up again late in 1962 when Kaoru Ohashi, an economist from a research institute in Tokyo, visited Takeshi Watanabe, then a private financial consultant in Tokyo, and proposed a study group to form a development bank for the Asian region. The group met regularly in 1963, examining various scenarios for setting up a new institution and drew on Watanabe’s experiences with the World Bank. However, the idea received a cool reception from the World Bank itself and the study group became discouraged.

In parallel, the concept was formally proposed at a trade conference organized by the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) in 1963 by a young Thai economist, Paul Sithi-Amnuai. (ESCAP, United Nations Publication March 2007, "The first parliament of Asia" pp. 65). Despite an initial mixed reaction, support for the establishment of a new bank soon grew.

An expert group was convened to study the idea, with Japan invited to contribute to the group. When Watanabe was recommended, the two streams proposing a new bank—from ECAFE and Japan—came together. Initially, the US was on the fence, not opposing the idea but not ready to commit financial support. But a new bank for Asia was soon seen to fit in with a broader program of assistance to Asia planned by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson in the wake of the escalating US military support for the government of South Vietnam.

As a key player in the concept, Japan hoped that the ADB offices would be in Tokyo. However, eight other cities had also expressed an interest—Bangkok, Colombo, Kabul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Phnom Penh, Singapore, and Tehran. To decide, the 18 prospective regional members of the new bank held three rounds of votes at a ministerial conference in Manila in November/December 1965. In the first round on 30 November, Tokyo failed to win a majority, so a second ballet was held the next day at noon. Although Japan was in the lead, it was still inconclusive, so a final vote was held after lunch. In the third poll, Tokyo gained eight votes to Manila’s nine, with one abstention. Therefore, Manila was declared the host of the new development bank. The Japanese were mystified and deeply disappointed. Watanabe later wrote in his personal history of ADB: "I felt as if the child I had so carefully reared had been taken away to a distant country." (Asian Development Bank publication, "Towards a New Asia", 1977, p. 16)

As intensive work took place during 1966 to prepare for the opening of the new bank in Manila, high on the agenda was choice of president. Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato asked Watanabe to be a candidate. Although he initially declined, pressure came from other countries and Watanabe agreed. In the absence of any other candidates, Watanabe was elected first President of the Asian Development Bank at its Inaugural Meeting on 24 November 1966.

By the end of 1972, Japan had contributed $173.7 million (22.6% of the total) to the ordinary capital resources and $122.6 million (59.6% of the total) to the special funds. In contrast, the United States contributed only $1.25 million to the special fund.[5]

After its creation in the 1960s, ADB focused much of its assistance on food production and rural development. At the time, Asia was one of the poorest regions in the world.[15]

Early loans went largely to Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea and the Philippines; these nations accounted for 78.48% of the total ADB loans between 1967 and 1972. Moreover, Japan received tangible benefits, 41.67% of the total procurements between 1967 and 1976. Japan tied its special funds contributions to its preferred sectors and regions and procurements of its goods and services, as reflected in its $100 million donation for the Agricultural Special Fund in April 1968.[5]

Watanabe served as the first ADB president to 1972.[16][17]

1970s–1980s[]

In the 1970s, ADB's assistance to developing countries in Asia expanded into education and health, and then to infrastructure and industry. The gradual emergence of Asian economies in the latter part of the decade spurred demand for better infrastructure to support economic growth. ADB focused on improving roads and providing electricity. When the world suffered its first oil price shock, ADB shifted more of its assistance to support energy projects, especially those promoting the development of domestic energy sources in member countries.[15]

Following considerable pressure from the Reagan Administration in the 1980s, ADB reluctantly began working with the private sector in an attempt to increase the impact of its development assistance to poor countries in Asia and the Pacific. In the wake of the second oil crisis, ADB expanded its assistance to energy projects. In 1982, ADB opened its first field office, in Bangladesh, and later in the decade it expanded its work with non-government organizations (NGOs).[15]

Japanese presidents Inoue Shiro (1972–76) and Yoshida Taroichi (1976–81) took the spotlight in the 1970s. Fujioka Masao, the fourth president (1981–90), adopted an assertive leadership style, launching an ambitious plan to expand the ADB into a high-impact development agency.

1990s[]

In the 1990s, ADB began promoting regional cooperation by helping the countries on the Mekong River to trade and work together. The decade also saw an expansion of ADB's membership with the addition of several Central Asian countries following the end of the Cold War.[15]

In mid-1997, ADB responded to the financial crisis that hit the region with projects designed to strengthen financial sectors and create social safety nets for the poor. During the crisis, ADB approved its largest single loan – a $4 billion emergency loan to the South Korea. In 1999, ADB adopted poverty reduction as its overarching goal.[15]

2000s[]

The early years of 2000s saw a dramatic expansion of private sector finance. While the institution had such operations since the 1980s (under pressure from the Reagan Administration) the early attempts were highly unsuccessful with low lending volumes, considerable losses and financial scandals associated with an entity named AFIC. However, beginning in 2002, the ADB undertook a dramatic expansion of private sector lending under a new team. Over the course of the next six years, the Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) grew by a factor of 41 times the 2001 levels of new financings and earnings for the ADB. This culminated with the Board's formal recognition if these achievements in March 2008, when the Board of Directors formally adopted the Long Term Strategic Framework (LTSF). That document formally stated that assistance to private sector development was the lead priority of the ADB and that it should constitute 50% of the bank's lending by 2020.

In 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic hit the region and ADB responded with programs to help the countries in the region work together to address infectious diseases, including avian influenza and HIV/AIDS. ADB also responded to a multitude of natural disasters in the region, committing more than $850 million for recovery in areas of India, Indonesia, Maldives, and Sri Lanka which were impacted by the December 2004 Asian tsunami. In addition, $1 billion in loans and grants was provided to the victims of the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.[15]

In 2009, ADB's Board of Governors agreed to triple ADB's capital base from $55 billion to $165 billion, giving it much-needed resources to respond to the global economic crisis. The 200% increase is the largest in ADB's history, and was the first since 1994.[15]

2010s[]

Asia moved beyond the economic crisis and by 2010 had emerged as a new engine of global economic growth though it remained home to two-thirds of the world’s poor. In addition, the increasing prosperity of many people in the region created a widening income gap that left many people behind. ADB responded to this with loans and grants that encouraged economic growth.[15]

In early 2012, the ADB began to re-engage with Myanmar in response to reforms initiated by the government. In April 2014, ADB opened an office in Myanmar and resumed making loans and grants to the country.[15]

In 2017, ADB combined the lending operations of its Asian Development Fund (ADF) with its ordinary capital resources (OCR). The result was to expand the OCR balance sheet to permit increasing annual lending and grants to $20 billion by 2020 — 50% more than the previous level.[15]

Objectives and activities[]

Aim[]

The ADB defines itself as a social development organization that is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. This is carried out through investments – in the form of loans, grants and information sharing – in infrastructure, health care services, financial and public administration systems, helping nations prepare for the impact of climate change or better manage their natural resources, as well as other areas.

Focus areas[]

Eighty percent of ADB’s lending is concentrated public sector lending in five operational areas.[18]

Financings[]

Five largest borrowing countries[28]
Country 2016 2015
$ million % $ million %
 China 15,615 24.8 14,646 25.2
 India 13,331 21.2 12,916 22.2
 Indonesia 8,700 13.8 8,214 14.1
 Philippines 5,935 9.4 5,525 9.5
 Pakistan 4,570 7.3 4,319 7.4
Others 14,831 23.5 12,486 21.6
Total 62,983 100.0 58,106 100.0

The ADB offers "hard" loans on commercial terms primarily to middle income countries in Asia and "soft" loans with lower interest rates to poorer countries in the region. Based on a new policy, both types of loans will be sourced starting January 2017 from the bank’s ordinary capital resources (OCR), which functions as its general operational fund.[29]

The ADB's Private Sector Department (PSOD) can and does offer a broader range of financings beyond commercial loans. They also have the capability to provide guarantees, equity and mezzanine finance (a combination of debt and equity).

In 2017, ADB lent $19.1 billion of which $3.2 billion went to private enterprises, as part of its "nonsovereign" operations. ADB’s operations in 2017, including grants and cofinancing, totaled $28.9 billion.[30]

ADB obtains its funding by issuing bonds on the world's capital markets. It also relies on the contributions of member countries, retained earnings from lending operations, and the repayment of loans.[31]

Private sector investments[]

ADB provides direct financial assistance, in the form of debt, equity and mezzanine finance to private sector companies, for projects that have clear social benefits beyond the financial rate of return. ADB’s participation is usually limited but it leverages a large amount of funds from commercial sources to finance these projects by holding no more than 25% of any given transaction.[32]

Cofinancing[]

ADB partners with other development organizations on some projects to increase the amount of funding available. In 2014, $9.2 billion—or nearly half—of ADB’s $22.9 billion in operations were financed by other organizations.[33] According to Jason Rush, Principal Communication Specialist, the Bank communicates with many other multilateral organizations.

Funds and resources[]

More than 50 financing partnership facilities, trust funds, and other funds – totalling several billion each year – are administered by ADB and put toward projects that promote social and economic development in Asia and the Pacific.[34] ADB has raised Rs 5 billion or around Rs 500 crores from its issuance of 5-year offshore Indian rupee (INR) linked bonds. Also, plans to raise around $20 billion from the capital markets in 2016.[35]

Access to information[]

ADB has an information disclosure policy that presumes all information that is produced by the institution should be disclosed to the public unless there is a specific reason to keep it confidential. The police calls for accountability and transparency in operations and the timely response to requests for information and documents.[36] ADB does not disclose information that jeopardizes personal privacy, safety and security, certain financial and commercial information, as well as other exceptions.[37]

Notable projects and technical assistance[]

Criticism[]

Since the ADB's early days, critics have charged that the two major donors, Japan and the United States, have had extensive influence over lending, policy and staffing decisions.[46]

Oxfam Australia has criticized the Asian Development Bank for insensitivity to local communities. "Operating at a global and international level, these banks can undermine people's human rights through projects that have detrimental outcomes for poor and marginalized communities."[47] The bank also received criticism from the United Nations Environmental Program, stating in a report that "much of the growth has bypassed more than 70 percent of its rural population, many of whom are directly dependent on natural resources for livelihoods and incomes."[48]

There had been criticism that ADB's large scale projects cause social and environmental damage due to lack of oversight. One of the most controversial ADB-related projects is Thailand's Mae Moh coal-fired power station. Environmental and human rights activists say ADB's environmental safeguards policy as well as policies for indigenous peoples and involuntary resettlement, while usually up to international standards on paper, are often ignored in practice, are too vague or weak to be effective, or are simply not enforced by bank officials.[49][50]

The bank has been criticized over its role and relevance in the food crisis. The ADB has been accused by civil society of ignoring warnings leading up the crisis and also contributing to it by pushing loan conditions that many say unfairly pressure governments to deregulate and privatize agriculture, leading to problems such as the rice supply shortage in Southeast Asia.[51]

Indeed, whereas the Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) closed out that year with financings of $2.4 billion, the ADB has significantly dropped below that level in the years since and is clearly not on the path to achieving its stated goal of 50% of financings to the private sector by 2020. Critics also point out that the PSOD is the only Department that actually makes money for the ADB. Hence, with the vast majority of loans going to concessionary (sub-market) loans to the public sector, the ADB is facing considerable financial difficulty and continuous operating losses.

List of 20 largest countries and regions by subscribed capital and voting power[]

The following table are amounts for 20 largest countries by subscribed capital and voting power at the Asian Development Bank as of December 2014.[52]

The 20 largest countries and regions by subscribed capital and voting power at the Asian Development Bank
Rank Country Subscribed capital
(% of total)
Rank Country Voting power
(% of total)
World 100.000 World 100.000
1  Japan 15.677 1  Japan 12.840
2  United States 15.567 2  United States 12.752
3  China 6.473 3  China 5.477
4  India 6.359 4  India 5.386
5  Australia 5.812 5  Australia 4.948
6  Canada 5.254 6  Canada 4.502
7  Indonesia 5.131 7  Indonesia 4.404
8  South Korea 5.060 8  South Korea 4.347
9  Germany 4.345 9  Germany 3.775
10  Malaysia 2.735 10  Malaysia 2.487
11  Philippines 2.393 11  Philippines 2.213
12  France 2.338 12  France 2.169
13  Pakistan 2.188 13  Pakistan 2.049
14  United Kingdom 2.051 14  United Kingdom 1.940
15  Italy 1.815 15  Italy 1.751
16  New Zealand 1.543 16  New Zealand 1.533
17  Thailand 1.368 17  Thailand 1.393
18  Taiwan 1.094 18  Taiwan 1.174
19  Netherlands 1.030 19  Netherlands 1.123
20  Bangladesh 1.026 20  Bangladesh 1.119

Members[]

Asian Development Bank – Developing Member Countries (DMC) graduation stages[53]
  Outside regions
  Asia-Pacific region developed members
  DMC graduated from assistance, Group-D
  Ordinary Capital Resources (OCR) financing, Group-C
  OCR and ADF blended financing, Group-B
  Asian Development Fund (ADF) financing, Group-A

ADB has 67 members (as of 23 November 2017): 48 members from the Asian and Pacific Region, 19 members from Other Regions.[54] The year after a member's name indicates the year of membership. At the time a country ceases to be a member, the Bank shall arrange for the repurchase of such country's shares by the Bank as a part of the settlement of accounts with such country in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 43.[55]

Regional members Date of accession
 Afghanistan 1966
 Australia 1966
 Cambodia 1966
 India 1966
 Indonesia 1966
 Japan 1966
 Korea, Republic of 1966
 Lao People's Democratic Republic[56] 1966
 Malaysia 1966
   Nepal 1966
 New Zealand 1966
 Pakistan 1966
 Philippines 1966
 Samoa 1966
 Singapore 1966
 Sri Lanka 1966
 Taipei,China[57][58] 1966
 Thailand 1966
 Vietnam[59] 1966
 Hong Kong, China[60] 1969
 Fiji 1970
 Papua New Guinea 1971
 Tonga 1972
 Bangladesh 1973
 Burma 1973
 Solomon Islands 1973
 Kiribati 1974
 Cook Islands 1976
 Maldives 1978
 Vanuatu 1981
 Bhutan 1982
 China, People's Republic of 1986
 Marshall Islands 1990
 Micronesia, Federated States of 1990
 Mongolia 1991
 Nauru 1991
 Tuvalu 1993
 Kazakhstan 1994
 Kyrgyz Republic 1994
 Uzbekistan 1995
 Tajikistan 1998
 Azerbaijan 1999
 Turkmenistan 2000
 Timor-Leste 2002
 Palau 2003
 Armenia 2005
 Brunei Darussalam 2006
 Georgia 2007
Nonregional members Date of accession
 Austria 1966
 Belgium 1966
 Canada 1966
 Denmark 1966
 Finland 1966
 Germany[61] 1966
 Italy 1966
 Netherlands 1966
 Norway 1966
 Sweden 1966
 United Kingdom 1966
 United States 1966
  Switzerland 1967
 France 1970
 Spain 1986
 Turkey 1991
 Portugal 2002
 Luxembourg 2003
 Ireland 2006

See also[]

References[]

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  14. ^ "Key Facts". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-11-26.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "ADB History". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
  16. ^ Devesh Kapur; John Prior Lewis; Richard Charles Webb (2010-12-01). The World Bank: Perspectives. Brookings Institution Press. pp. 304–. ISBN 0-8157-2014-9.
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  23. ^ "Information and Communications Technology". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  24. ^ "Energy". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  25. ^ "Water for All". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
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  27. ^ "Regional Cooperation and Integration". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
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  30. ^ Bank, Asian Development. "ADB news release". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2018-01-12.
  31. ^ "FAQs". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  32. ^ "Private Sector (Nonsovereign) Financing". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  33. ^ "Official Cofinancing". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  34. ^ "Funds". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  35. ^ India, Press Trust of (28 July 2016). "ADB raises Rs 500 cr in rupee-linked bonds" – via Business Standard.
  36. ^ "Overview". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  37. ^ "Exceptions to Disclosure". Asian Development Bank. adb.org. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  38. ^ "Hairatan to Mazar-i-Sharif railway | Railways of Afghanistan". www.andrewgrantham.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  39. ^ "Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project – Additional Financing in Armenia: General Procurement Notice | Devex". www.devex.com. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  40. ^ "Proposed Green Power Development Project in Bhutan | Devex". www.devex.com. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
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  42. ^ "ADB supports vocational education in Indonesia". Antara. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
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  44. ^ "Food and Nutrition Social Welfare Programme and Project (Capacity Development Project – M&E)". Oxford Policy Management. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  45. ^ "Pacific banks go branchless to reach the unbanked | Scoop News". www.scoop.co.nz. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
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  47. ^ "The Asian Development Bank and Food Security". Oxfam Australia.
  48. ^ "Inter Press Service – News and Views from the Global South". Archived from the original on 2007-12-12.
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  53. ^ "A Graduation Policy for the Bank's DMCs". Asian Development Bank.
  54. ^ "Members". Asian Development Bank.
  55. ^ Agreement Establishing the Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  56. ^ Joined as  Kingdom of Laos, succeeded by Lao PDR in 1975
  57. ^ "Asian Development Bank and Taipei,China: Fact Sheet". Asian Development Bank.
  58. ^ Joined as  China, Republic of representing not only Taiwan Area, but also nominally Mainland China until 1986. However, its share of Bank capital was based on the size of Taiwan's capital, unlike the World Bank and IMF where the government in Taiwan had had a share. The representation was succeeded by  People's Republic of China in 1986. However, the ROC was allowed to retain its membership, but under the name of Taipei, China (space deliberately omitted after the comma) — a name it protests. Uniquely, this allows both sides of the Taiwan Straits to be represented at the institution.
  59. ^ Formerly  Viet Nam, Republic of until 1975
  60. ^ Joined as "British Hong Kong", not "Hong Kong SAR"
  61. ^ Founding member; joined as West Germany.

Further reading[]

External links[]