Arezzo

Arezzo
Comune
Comune di Arezzo
Piazza Grande; from left: Santa Maria della Pieve, the old Tribunal Palace and the Lay Fraternity
Piazza Grande; from left: Santa Maria della Pieve, the old Tribunal Palace and the Lay Fraternity
Coat of arms of Arezzo
Coat of arms
Arezzo is located in Tuscany
Arezzo
Arezzo
Location of Arezzo in Tuscany
Arezzo is located in Italy
Arezzo
Arezzo
Arezzo (Italy)
Coordinates: 43°28′24″N 11°52′12″E / 43.47333°N 11.87000°E / 43.47333; 11.87000Coordinates: 43°28′24″N 11°52′12″E / 43.47333°N 11.87000°E / 43.47333; 11.87000
Country Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Arezzo (AR)
Frazioni see list
Government
 • Mayor Alessandro Ghinelli (FI)
Area
 • Total 386.25 km2 (149.13 sq mi)
Elevation 296 m (971 ft)
Population (31 December 2013)[1]
 • Total 99,232
 • Density 260/km2 (670/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Aretini
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code 52100
Dialing code 0575
Patron saint Saint Donatus of Arezzo
Saint day 7 August
Website Official website

Arezzo (Italian pronunciation: [aˈrettso]) is a city and comune in Italy and the capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about 80 kilometres (50 miles) southeast of Florence at an elevation of 296 metres (971 ft) above sea level. It is also 30 km west of Città di Castello. In 2013 the population was about 99,000.

History[]

Described by Livy as one of the Capitae Etruriae (Etruscan capitals), Arezzo (Aritim in Etruscan) is believed to have been one of the twelve most important Etruscan cities—the so-called Dodecapolis, part of the Etruscan League. Etruscan remains establish that the acropolis of San Cornelio, a small hill next to that of San Donatus, was occupied and fortified in the Etruscan period. There is other significant Etruscan evidence: parts of walls, an Etruscan necropolis on Poggio del Sole (still named "Hill of the Sun"), and most famously, the two bronzes, the "Chimera of Arezzo" (5th century BC) and the "Minerva" (4th century BC) which were discovered in the 16th century and taken to Florence. Increasing trade connections with Greece also brought some elite goods to the Etruscan nobles of Arezzo: the krater painted by Euphronios c. 510 BC depicting a battle against Amazons (in the Museo Civico, Arezzo 1465) is unsurpassed.

Roman pottery sherd from Arezzo, Latium, found at Arikamedu in India (1st century AD), an evidence of the role of the city in Roman trade with India through Persia during the Augustan period. Musée Guimet.

Conquered by the Romans in 311 BC, Arretium became a military station on the via Cassia, the road by which Rome expanded into the basin of the Po. Arretium sided with Marius in the Roman Civil War, and the victorious Sulla planted a colony of his veterans in the half-demolished city, as Arretium Fidens ("Faithful Arretium"). The old Etruscan aristocracy was not extinguished: Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, whose name is eponymous with "patron of the arts", was of the noble Aretine Etruscan stock. The city continued to flourish as Arretium Vetus ("Old Arretium"), the third largest city in Italy in the Augustan period, well known in particular for its widely exported pottery manufactures, the characteristic moulded and glazed Arretine ware, bucchero-ware of dark clay and red-painted vases (the so-called "coral" vases).

Around 261 AD the town council of Arezzo dedicated an inscription to its patron L. Petronius Taurus Volusianus. See that article for discussion of the possible political/military significance of Volusianus's association with the city.

In the 3rd to 4th century Arezzo became an episcopal seat: it is one of the few cities whose succession of bishops are known by name without interruption to the present day, in part because they were the feudal lords of the city in the Middle Ages. The Roman city was demolished, partly through the Gothic War and the invasion of the Lombards, partly dismantled, as elsewhere throughout Europe, and the stones reused for fortifications by the Aretines. Only the amphitheater remained.

The commune of Arezzo threw off the control of its bishop in 1098 and was an independent city-state until 1384. Generally Ghibelline in tendency, it opposed Guelph Florence. In 1252 the city founded its university, the Studium. After the rout of the Battle of Campaldino (1289), which saw the death of Bishop Guglielmino Ubertini (it), the fortunes of Ghibelline Arezzo started to ebb, apart from a brief period under the Tarlati family, chief among them Guido Tarlati, who became bishop in 1312 and maintained good relations with the Ghibelline party. The Tarlati sought support in an alliance with Forlì and its overlords, the Ordelaffi, but failed: Arezzo yielded to Florentine domination in 1384; its individual history was subsumed by that of Florence and the Medicean Grand Duchy of Tuscany. During this period Piero della Francesca worked in the church of San Francesco di Arezzo producing the splendid frescoes, recently restored, which are Arezzo's most famous works. Afterwards the city began an economical and cultural decay, which ensured that its medieval centre was preserved.

In the 18th century the neighbouring marshes of the Val di Chiana, south of Arezzo, were drained and the region became less malarial. At the end of the-century French troops led by Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Arezzo, but the city soon turned into a resistance base against the invaders with the "Viva Maria" movement, winning the city the role of provincial capital. In 1860 Arezzo became part of the Kingdom of Italy. City buildings suffered heavy damage during World War II; the Germans made a stand in front of Arezzo early in July 1944 and there was fierce fighting before the town was taken and liberated on 16 July by the British 6th Armoured Division assisted by New Zealand troops from the 2nd New Zealand Division. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Arezzo War Cemetery, where 1,266 men are buried, is located to the North West of the city.[2]

Pope Benedict XVI visited Arezzo and two other Italian municipalities on May 13, 2012.[3]

Geography[]

Arezzo is set on a steep hill rising from the floodplain of the River Arno. In the upper part of the town are the cathedral, the town hall and the Medici Fortress (Fortezza Medicea), from which the main streets branch off towards the lower part as far as the gates. The upper part of the town maintains its medieval appearance despite the addition of later structures. Arezzo's city proper is near the high risk areas for earthquakes, but located in a transitional area where the risk for severe earthquakes is much lower than in nearby Umbria and Abruzzo, albeit it is slightly more vulnerable than Florence.[4] Notable earthquakes are still a very rare phenomenon in the province, with a 4.6 quake 25 kilometres (16 mi) to its north-east that claimed no lives on 26 November 2001 the exception.[5]

Climate[]

Under the Köppen climate classification Arezzo is either a humid subtropical climate or an oceanic climate (Cfa/Cfb), having traditionally leaned towards the latter.[6] It has uncharacteristically hot summer days for a maritime climate, with the lows moderating the average temps and bringing it to sit right on the border with subtropical.

Climate data for Arezzo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
22.0
(71.6)
24.4
(75.9)
27.0
(80.6)
30.4
(86.7)
35.2
(95.4)
40.3
(104.5)
40.4
(104.7)
34.4
(93.9)
30.0
(86)
22.6
(72.7)
18.0
(64.4)
40.4
(104.7)
Average high °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
10.7
(51.3)
14.0
(57.2)
16.8
(62.2)
22.3
(72.1)
26.1
(79)
30.0
(86)
30.2
(86.4)
25.4
(77.7)
19.4
(66.9)
13.1
(55.6)
9.5
(49.1)
18.9
(66)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
5.6
(42.1)
8.1
(46.6)
10.7
(51.3)
15.4
(59.7)
18.9
(66)
22.0
(71.6)
22.1
(71.8)
18.2
(64.8)
13.5
(56.3)
8.2
(46.8)
5.2
(41.4)
12.7
(54.9)
Average low °C (°F) 0.0
(32)
0.5
(32.9)
2.2
(36)
4.7
(40.5)
8.5
(47.3)
11.6
(52.9)
13.9
(57)
14.1
(57.4)
11.1
(52)
7.6
(45.7)
3.3
(37.9)
1.0
(33.8)
6.5
(43.8)
Record low °C (°F) −20.2
(−4.4)
−20.0
(−4)
−8.7
(16.3)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.6
(38.5)
4.8
(40.6)
5.8
(42.4)
0.5
(32.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−8.0
(17.6)
−15.0
(5)
−20.2
(−4.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.6
(1.835)
51.3
(2.02)
58.7
(2.311)
75.5
(2.972)
72.8
(2.866)
56.9
(2.24)
41.2
(1.622)
44.7
(1.76)
81.1
(3.193)
95.5
(3.76)
106.6
(4.197)
70.6
(2.78)
801.5
(31.556)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.9 6.8 6.9 9.4 9.0 6.9 3.8 4.8 6.6 8.3 9.0 7.6 86
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico [7]
Source #2: Ogimet [8]

Main sights[]

Piazza Grande
Aerial view
City wall
The Vasari Loggia on Piazza Grande
Cathedral of Arezzo
The Communal Palace in Arezzo
Church of San Domenico
Santa Maria della Pieve
Cimabue's Crucifix in the church of San Domenico, 1265–1268
The Tarlati polyptych by Pietro Lorenzetti, 1320, at Santa Maria della Pieve; includes a depiction of Donatus of Arezzo (far left)
Roman amphitheatre

Piazza Grande[]

The Piazza Grande is the most noteworthy medieval square in the city, opening behind the 13th century Romanesque apse of Santa Maria della Pieve. Once the main marketplace of the city, it is currently the site of the Giostra del Saracino ("Joust of the Saracen"). It has a sloping pavement in red brick with limestone geometrical lines. Aside from the apse of the church, other landmarks of the square include:

Churches[]

Others[]

Festivals[]

In popular culture[]

Famous residents[]

See Category:People from Arezzo, which includes people actually born in town.

Sports[]

Hamlets[]

  • Agazzi
  • Antria
  • Badia San Veriano
  • Bagnoro
  • Battifolle
  • Bicciano
  • Campoluci
  • Campriano
  • Capolona
  • Ceciliano
  • Chiani
  • Chiassa Superiore
  • Cincelli
  • Frassineto
  • Gaville
  • Giovi
  • Gragnone
  • Il Matto
  • Indicatore
  • La Pace
  • Le Poggiola
  • Meliciano
  • Misciano
  • Molinelli
  • Molin Nuovo
  • Monte Sopra Rondine
  • Montione
  • Mugliano
  • Olmo
  • Ottavo
  • Palazzo del Pero
  • Patrignone
  • Pieve a Ranco
  • Poggio Ciliegio
  • Policiano
  • Pomaio
  • Ponte a Chiani
  • Ponte alla Chiassa
  • Pieve a Quarto
  • Ponte Buriano
  • Poti
  • Pratantico
  • Puglia
  • Policiano
  • Quarata
  • Rigutino
  • Ripa di Olmo
  • Rondine
  • Ruscello
  • San Firenze
  • San Giuliano
  • San Leo
  • San Marco Vill'Alba
  • San Polo
  • Santa Firmina
  • Santa Maria alla Rassinata
  • Sant'Andrea a Pigli
  • San Zeno
  • Sargiano
  • Staggiano
  • Stoppe d'Arca
  • Subbiano
  • Talla
  • Torrino
  • Tregozzano
  • Venere
  • Vitiano

International relations[]

University of Oklahoma campus[]

The University of Oklahoma of Norman, Oklahoma, United States, has a branch campus in Arezzo.[9] On September 10, 2010, the University of Oklahoma Foundation (a nonprofit organization organized for the purpose of receiving and administering gifts for the benefit of the University of Oklahoma) purchased the Monastery of St. Clare of the Order of Poor Clares (Monastero Di S. Chiara Dell'Ordine Della Clarisse) in Arezzo. The building will be leased from the foundation by the University. Operation and renovation of the monastery will be by the University.[10]

The former monastery was built in the 18th century. Zach Messite, PhD, Dean of the University's College of International Studies, said that the Arezzo Campus programs are designed to provide students with a unique exposure to the local culture: "As a way to foster a relationship between the campus and the city, students will be required to take a class that gets them involved with the (local) community."[11]

Twin towns – sister cities[]

Arezzo is twinned with:

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ "GeoDemo". istat.it. 2014.
  2. ^ "AREZZO WAR CEMETERY". CWGC. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  3. ^ Sala Stampa Archived November 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Which areas of Italy have the highest risk of earthquakes?". The Local (Italy). 28 October 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  5. ^ "M 4.6 Central Italy 2001-11-26". Earthquakes USGS.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Climate Summary for Arezzo". Weatherbase.
  7. ^ "AREZZO" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  8. ^ "Decoded synop data". Ogimet. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  9. ^ "The Italian Center of the University of Oklahoma". OU.edu. University of Oklahoma.
  10. ^ "The University of Oklahoma Foundation Consolidated Financial Statement June 30, 2011 and 2010, Note 8" (PDF). oufoundation.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 23, 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  11. ^ Allen, Silas (April 22, 2012). "University of Oklahoma renovates Tuscan monastery for use as overseas campus". Daily Oklahoman. Retrieved 2012-04-24 – via NewsOK.com.
  12. ^ "Sister Cities". City of Norman. Retrieved 2012-01-07.

Bibliography[]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Arezzo

Further reading[]

External links[]