Amir

Emir (/əˈmɪər, ˈmɪər, ˈmɪər/; Arabic: أمير ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or political office, or other person possessing actual or ceremonial authority. The title has a long history of use in the Arab World, East Africa, West Africa, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. In the modern era, when used as a formal monarchical title, it is roughly synonymous with "prince", applicable both to a son of a herary monarch, and to a reigning monarch of a sovereign principality, namely an emirate. The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah), a cognate for "princess". Prior to its use as a monarchical title, the term "emir" was historically used to denote a "commander", "general", or "leader" (for example, Amir al-Mu'min). In contemporary usage, "emir" is also sometimes used as either an honorary or formal title for the head of an Islamic, or Arab (regardless of religion) organisation or movement.

Origins[]

Amir Muhammad Abul Abbas of Sicily conquering Italy's Messiana
The court of the Durrani Emirate of Afghanistan in 1839

Amir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic root a-m-r, "command". Originally simply meaning "commander”, it came to be used as a title of leaders, governors, or rulers of smaller states. In modern Arabic the word is analogous to the title “Prince". The word entered English in 1593, from the French émir.[1] It was one of the titles or names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[citation needed]

In the Bible, Deuteronomy 26:18 and in Isaiah 3:10, this word is used in Hebrew as a verb with a similar meaning.

Princely, ministerial and noble titles[]

Military ranks and titles[]

From the start, emir has been a military title. In the 9th century the term was used to denote a ruler of a state i.e. Italy's Emirate of Sicily.

In certain decimally-organized Muslim armies, Amir was an officer rank. For example, in Mughal India, the Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen (divided into ten units, each under a sipah salar), ten of them under one malik. In the imperial army of Qajar Persia:

The following posts referred to "amir" under medieval Muslim states include:

In the former Kingdom of Afghanistan, Amir-i-Kabir was a title meaning "great prince" or "great commander".

Muhammad Amin Bughra, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, and Abdullah Bughra declared themselves emirs of the First East Turkestan Republic.

Other uses[]

See also[]

Specific emirates of note

References[]

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas. "amir (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  2. ^ "Emir of Kuwait wraps up Gulf mediation visits - Qatar News - Al Jazeera". www.aljazeera.com.
  3. ^ "Gulf Ministers Hold Key Talks Before GCC Summit". MalaysianDigest.com. December 5, 2017. Archived from the original on 2018-01-15. Retrieved 2018-01-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  4. ^ Al Qasimi, Muhammad. "Sheikh Dr Sultan".
  5. ^ Amos, Deborah (1991). "Sheikh to Chic". Mother Jones. p. 28. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  6. ^ "Saudi Arabia: HRH or HH? - American Bedu". 7 August 2016. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016.
  7. ^ "Family Tree". www.datarabia.com. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  8. ^ Howell, Georgina (15 January 2015). Queen of The Desert: The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell. ISBN 9781447286264.
  9. ^ Batatu, Hanna (1978). The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq: A Study of Iraq's Old Landed and Commercial Classes and of its Communists, Ba`thists and Free Officers. Princeton University Press.