Alveolar nasal click

Nasal alveolar velar click
ŋ͡ǃ
ǃ̃
ᵑǃ
ʗ̃
ᵑʗ
Audio sample
Nasal alveolar uvular click
ɴ͡ǃ
ᶰʗ
(etc)

The alveolar nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ǃ̃⟩ or ⟨ᵑǃ⟩; a symbol abandoned by the IPA but still preferred by some linguists is ⟨ʗ̃⟩ or ⟨ᵑʗ⟩.

Features[]

Features of the alveolar nasal click:

Occurrence[]

Alveolar nasal clicks are found primarily in the various Khoisan language families of southern Africa and in some neighboring Bantu languages.

Language Word IPA Meaning
ǃKung an [ᵑǃáŋ] = [ʗ̃áŋ] 'inside'
Damin n!2u [ᵑǃᵑǃu] = [ʗ̃ʗ̃u] 'water'
Hadza henqee [ɦeŋᵑǃeʔe] = [ɦeŋʗ̃eʔe] 'dead leopard'
Khoekhoe xuruǃomǃnâ [xȕɾúᵑǃˀóm̀ᵑǃã̀ã̀] = [xȕɾúʗ̃ˀóm̀ʗ̃ã̀ã̀] 'to yank at something'
Zulu inqola [iᵑǃɔ́ːla] = [iʗ̃ɔ́ːla] 'cart'

Glottalized alveolar nasal click[]

Glottalized
alveolar nasal click
ǃ̃ˀ
ᵑǃ͡ʔ
ᵑ̊ǃˀ
ʗ̃͡ʔ
ᵑʗˀ

All Khoisan languages, and a few Bantu languages, have glottalized nasal clicks. These are formed by closing the glottis so that the click is pronounced in silence; however, any preceding vowel will be nasalized.

Language Word IPA Meaning
Hadza teqqe [teᵑǃˀe] = [teʗ̃ˀe] 'to carry'
Khoekhoe xuruǃomǃnâ [xȕɾúᵑǃˀóm̀ᵑǃã̀ã̀] = [xȕɾúʗ̃ˀóm̀ʗ̃ã̀ã̀] 'to yank at something'
Xhosa ukuqhankqalaza [ukʼuǃʰaᵑǃˀalaza] = [ukʼuʗʰaʗ̃ˀalaza] 'to struggle'

Notes[]