African-American women in medicine

African-American women have been practicing medicine informally in the contexts of midwifery and herbalism centuries, but have only been practicing medicine formally as physicians since 1864, when Rebecca Crumpler became the first African-American woman to earn a medical degree.





  1. ^ C.,, Atwater, Edward. Women medical doctors in the United States before the Civil War : a biographical dictionary. Rochester, NY. ISBN 9781580465717. OCLC 945359277.
  2. ^ "Virginia Alexander". Changing the Face of Medicine.
  3. ^ "Dr. Alexa Irene Canady". Changing the Face of Medicine.
  4. ^ a b emery, crystal (2015). against all odds. URU, The Right to Be, Inc.