Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib

imran ibn Abd al-Muttalib
أَبُو طَالِب ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب
أبو طالب بن عبد المطلب.png
Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib
2nd Chief of the Banu Hashim
In office
c. 578 – 619
Preceded byAbd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim
Succeeded byAbu Lahab ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Personal details
Born
'Imran (عِمْرَان) or
'Abd Manaf (عَبْد مَنَاف)[1]

c. 535
Mecca, Hijaz, Arabia
Diedc. 619(619-00-00) (aged 83–84)
Mecca
Spouse(s)Fatima bint Asad
Children
Parents

Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (Arabic: أَبُو طَالِب ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب, romanizedAbū Ṭālib ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; c. 535 – 619) was the second chief of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh. He was the father of the fourth caliph Ali (r. 656–661) and an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Following the death of his father Abd al-Muttalib, Abu Talib inherited the offices of Siqaya and Rifada.[2] He was well-respected in Mecca, despite a declining fortune.[3]

Early life[]

Abu Talib was born in Mecca in c. 535. Abu Talib's birth name is disputed with Abd Manaf and Imran cited by the early sources.[1] He acquired the kunya (teknonym) Abū Ṭālib, meaning the "father of Talib", the name of his eldest son.

His father Abd al-Muttalib was the first chief of the Banu Hashim and a respected member of the Quraysh. Abd al-Muttalib was the son of Hashim ibn al-Mughira, the eponymous progenitor of the Hashim clan. Abu Talib's mother Fatima bint Amr hailed from the Banu Makhzum, a leading clan of the Quraysh and Mecca's pre-Islamic aristocracy.[4] Abu Talib's two full brothers were al-Zubayr and Abd Allah, the father of Muhammad.[5] Following the death of Abd Allah and his wife Amina, Muhammad was taken care by Abd al-Muttalib. In c. 578, Abd al-Muttalib died and Abu Talib accepted the guardianship for his nephew. Abu Talib, despite his poverty, took in Muhammad in an act of selfless generosity.[6] Another tradition states that while on his deathbed, Abdul Muttalib, the father of Abu Talib, chose the latter amongst his sons and entrusted him with the task of raising Muhammad.[7] Although Abu Talib was responsible for providing Siqaya and Rifada (Food and Beverages) of Hajj pilgrims, he lived in poverty. In order to fulfill his obligations towards the pilgrims, he had to borrow money from his uncle Abbas, which he failed to return, thus being forced to letting Abbas take over the duty. Nevertheless, his social position did not take any harm from this failure.[8]

Muhammad loved his uncle, and Abu Talib loved him in return.[9] Abu Talib is remembered as a gifted poet, and many poetic verses in support of Muhammad are attributed to him.[2][10] Once, as Abu Talib was about to leave for a trading expion, Muhammad wept and could not bear being separated from him. To this Abu Talib responded, "By God I will take him with me, and we shall never part from each other."[11]

Later in life, as an adult, Muhammad saw that Abu Talib was struggling financially after a severe drought. Muhammad decided to take charge of one of Abu Talib's children and he convinced Al-'Abbas to do the same. They discussed this matter with Abū Ṭālib, who asked that his favorite child 'Aqīl be left with him. Al-'Abbās chose Ja'far, and Muhammad chose 'Alī.[12][13][14][15][16][excessive citations]

Protecting Muhammad[]

In tribal society, a tribal affiliation is important, otherwise a man can be killed with impunity.[17] As leader of the Banu Hashim, Abu Talib acted as a protector to Muhammad. After Muhammad began preaching the message of Islam, members of the other Qurayshite clans increasingly came to feel threatened by Muḥammad. In attempts to quiet him, they pressured Abū Ṭālib to silence his nephew or control him. Despite these pressures, Abu Talib maintained his support of Muḥammad, defending him from the other leaders of the Quraysh. Leaders of the Quraysh directly confronted Abu Talib several times. Abu Talib brushed them off and continued to support Muhammad even when it put a rift between him and the Quraysh. In one account, the Quraysh even threatened to fight the Banu Hashim over this conflict.[18] In a particular narration of one such confrontation, Abu Talib summoned Muhammad to speak with the Quraysh. Muhammad asked the Quraysh leaders to say the shahada and they were astounded.[19]

The Quraysh even tried to bribe Abu Talib. They told Abu Talib that if he let them get hold of Muhammad, then he could adopt 'Umarah ibn al Walid ibn al Mughirah, the most handsome youth in Quraysh.[18][20][21] When this also failed, the Quraysh elicited the support of other tribes to boycott trading with or marrying members of the Banu Hashim lineage. This boycott started seven years after Muhammad first received revelation and lasted for three years.[2] The goal was to put pressure on the Hashimites and even starve them into submission.[22] For the sake of security, many members of the Banu Hashim moved near to Abu Talib (Encyclopedia of Islam), and the place became like a ghetto.[22] This didn't cause undue hardship[23] because many had family members in other tribes that would smuggle goods to them.[22] Abu Talib's brother, Abu Lahab, sided with the Quraysh on this issue; he moved to a house in the district of Abd Shams to demonstrate support for the Quraysh.[22][24] He thought Muhammad was either mad or an impostor.[25]

Protecting Muhammad put considerable pressure on Abu Talib and the Banu Hashim. In one instance Abu Talib exclaimed to Muhammad, "Save me and yourself, and do not put a greater burden on me than I cannot bear." Muhammad responded, "Oh uncle! By God Almighty I swear, even if they should put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left that I abjure this cause, I shall not do so until God has vindicated it or caused me to perish in the process."[26] Seeing his nephew's emotion, Abu Talib responded, "Go, nephew, and say what you like. By God, I will never hand you over for any reason."[27]

Death[]

Abū Ṭālib died around 619 AD, at more than 80 years of age, about 10 years after the start of Muhammad's mission.[2] This year is known as the Year of Sorrow for Muhammad, because not only did his uncle Abu Talib die, but also his wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, within a month of Abu Talib.

Before Abu Talib died, Muhammad asked him to pronounce the Shahadah.[19] In another tradition Abu Talib was dissuaded from saying the Shahadah by the Quraysh.[28] According to the historiographer Fred McGraw Donner, both of these traditions have very old isnads but the first variation has two different isnads which might suggest that the second variation is a modification of the older, first variation.[28]

In yet another variation of Abu Talib's death, his brother, Al-'Abbās, who was sitting next to Abu Talib as he died, saw Abu Talib moving his lips. Al-'Abbās claimed that Abu Talib had said the shahada but Muhammad replied that he had not heard it.[2][29][30]

After Abu Talib's death, Muhammad was left unprotected. Abu Talib's brother and successor as the Chief of the family, that is Abu Lahab, did not protect him, as he was an enemy of Muhammad, so Muhammad and his followers faced incredible persecution. Muhammad is quoted as exclaiming, "By God, Quraysh never harmed me so much as after the death of Abu Talib."[31][32] The early Muslims relocated to Abyssinia and then to Medina in order to escape persecution by the Quraysh.

Views[]

The memory of Abu Talib is influenced by political aims of the Sunni and Shia Muslims.[33]

Sunni[]

It is reported in Sunni Islam that the Quranic verse 28:56 ("O Prophet! Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He will") was revealed concerning Abu Talib's rejection of Islam at the hands of his nephew.[34][35]

In one account by the historian Al-Mada'ini, one of two men states, "I wish that Abu Talib had embraced Islam, for the Apostle of God would have been delighted at that. But he was an unbeliever."[36]: 218  Along the same lines, there is a similar account where Ali informs Muhammad of Abu Talib's death by saying, "Your uncle, the erring old man, has died."[36]: 219 

Shia[]

Shia believe that Abu Talib was an upright supporter of Muhammad. In addition, when Muhammad married Khadija, Abu Talib recited the sermon of the marriage. This fact has also been used to prove Abu Talib's monotheism. Abu Talib, according to the Shia, was a Muslim and died a Muslim.[37]

Shia claim that the Sunni scholars in the recent centuries also support Shia arguments about Abu Talib.[38]


Family[]

Abu Talib & Fatima bint Asad

Abu Talib was married to Fatimah bint Asad. They had four sons:

and three daughters:

Education to his children[]

Family tree[]


Kilab ibn MurrahFatimah bint Sa'd
Zuhrah ibn Kilab
(progenitor of Banu Zuhrah)
maternal great-great-grandfather
Qusai ibn Kilab
paternal great-great-great-grandfather
Hubba bint Hulail
paternal great-great-great-grandmother
`Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah
maternal great-grandfather
`Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
paternal great-great-grandfather
Atikah bint Murrah
paternal great-great-grandmother
Wahb ibn `Abd Manaf
maternal grandfather
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf
(progenitor of Banu Hashim)
paternal great-grandfather
Salma bint `Amr
paternal great-grandmother
Fatimah bint `Amr
paternal grandmother
`Abdul-Muttalib
paternal grandfather
Halah bint Wuhayb
paternal step-grandmother
Aminah
mother
`Abdullah
father
Az-Zubayr
paternal uncle
Harith
paternal half-uncle
Hamza
paternal half-uncle
Thuwaybah
first nurse
Halimah
second nurse
Abu Talib
paternal uncle
`Abbas
paternal half-uncle
Abu Lahab
paternal half-uncle
6 other sons
and 6 daughters
MuhammadKhadija
first wife
`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas
paternal cousin
Fatimah
daughter
Ali
paternal cousin and son-in-law
family tree, descendants
Qasim
son
`Abd-Allah
son
Zainab
daughter
Ruqayyah
daughter
Uthman
second cousin and son-in-law
family tree
Umm Kulthum
daughter
Zayd
adopted son
Ali ibn Zainab
grandson
Umamah bint Zainab
granddaughter
`Abd-Allah ibn Uthman
grandson
Rayhana bint Zayd
wife
Usama ibn Zayd
adoptive grandson
Muhsin ibn Ali
grandson
Hasan ibn Ali
grandson
Husayn ibn Ali
grandson
family tree
Umm Kulthum bint Ali
granddaughter
Zaynab bint Ali
granddaughter
Safiyya
tenth wife
Abu Bakr
father-in-law
family tree
Sawda
third wife
Umar
father-in-law
family tree
Umm Salama
sixth wife
Juwayriya
eighth wife
Maymuna
eleventh wife
Aisha
third wife
Family tree
Zaynab
fifth wife
Hafsa
fourth wife
Zaynab
seventh wife
Umm Habiba
ninth wife
Maria al-Qibtiyya
twelfth wife
Ibrahim
son

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ a b "Abu-Talib (a.s.) The Greatest Guardian of Islam". duas.org. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e Rubin, Uri (2013). Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.
  3. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1992). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 77.
  4. ^ Hinds 1991, pp. 137–138.
  5. ^ Ibn Sa'd, Al-Tabaqat al-Kobra, Vol. 1, P. 93
  6. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 54.
  7. ^ A’yan ash-Shia: vol.3 p.7: vol.39 p.125: Omdat at-Talib: p.6: al-Manaqib: vol.1: p.21 :Biharul Anwar: vol.6: p.47 : Mo’jamul Quboor: vol.1: p.183
  8. ^ Abdullah Al Khunayzi (4 June 2015), "The Route of Life", Abu Talib, the Faithful of Quraysh
  9. ^ Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 93.
  10. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 33.
  11. ^ The History of al-Tabari. Albany: State University of New York Press. 1988. p. 44.
  12. ^ Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah, Vol. I, p.162.
  13. ^ Tārīkh Al-Tabarī (vol 2 p.63), Tārīkh ibn Al-Athīr (vol 2 p.24), Musnad of Aḥmed ibn Ḥanbal (vol 1 p.159), Al-Sīrat al-Nabawīyah by ibn Kathīr (vol 1 p.457-459).
  14. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhī (vol 2 p.301), Al-Ṭabaqāt Al-Kubrā - ibn Sa'd (vol 3 kklkp.12), Usd Al-Ghābah (vol 4 p.17), Kanz al-'Ummāl (vol 6 p.400), Tārīkh Al-Ṭabarī (vol 2 p.55), Tārīkh Baghdād (vol 2 p.18)
  15. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 81.
  16. ^ The History of al-Tabari. Albany: State University Press. 1985. p. 83.
  17. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2000). Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library. p. 13.
  18. ^ a b Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 150.
  19. ^ a b The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. 95.
  20. ^ The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. 97.
  21. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 88.
  22. ^ a b c d Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 129.
  23. ^ The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. xliv.
  24. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 90.
  25. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 52.
  26. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 89.
  27. ^ The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University Press. 1985. p. 96.
  28. ^ a b Donner, Fred McGraw (1987). "The Death of Abu Talib". In John H. Marks; Robert M. Good (eds.). Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters. p. 245.
  29. ^ Lings, Martin (2006). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. p. 99.
  30. ^ Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 152.
  31. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1976). The Life of Muhammad. North American Trust Publications. p. 136.
  32. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 135.
  33. ^ Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder. Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin Press, Inc. p. 149.
  34. ^ Diane Morgan (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 114. ISBN 9780313360251.
  35. ^ Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009). The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 7). MSA Publication Limited. p. 202. ISBN 9781861796615.
  36. ^ a b Donner, Fred McGraw (1987). "The Death of Abu Talib". In John H. Marks; Robert M. Good (eds.). Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters. pp. 238–239.
  37. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 40.
  38. ^ Husain, Nabil.E; Fakhrabad, Mostafa Gohari (December 2021). "Abu Talib's Treatises of Faith".
  39. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Tabir. Translated by Haq, S. M. (1967). Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. I Parts I & II, pp. 135-136. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
  40. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Tabir, vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 35. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
Preceded by Head of Banū Hāshim
?–619
Succeeded by

Bibliography[]