Abd Allah ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab

Abd Allah ibn Umar
Abdullah bin Umar Masjid an-Nabawi Calligraphy.png
Abd Allah ibn Umar's name in Arabic calligraphy
Personal
Bornc. 610 CE
Diedc. 693 (aged 82–83)
Mecca, Umayyad Caliphate (present-day KSA)
ReligionIslam
ChildrenSalim
Parents
EraEarly Islamic Period
RegionIslamic scholar
Main interest(s)Hadith and Fiqh
Relations

ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (Arabic: عبد الله بن عمر ابن الخطاب; c.610 – 693) was companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and son of the second Caliph Umar. He was a prominent authority in hadith and law. He remained neutral during the events of the first Fitna (656–661).[1]

Muhammad's era — 610 to 632[]

Abd Allah ibn Umar, kunya Abu Abd al-Rahman,[2] : 156  was born 610 in Mecca,[3]: 207  three years after the beginning of Muhammad's message.[2]: 156  He was the son of Umar ibn al-Khattab and Zaynab bint Maz'un.[3]: 203–204  His full siblings were Hafsa and Abd al-Rahman. His paternal brothers, born to his stepmother Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal, were Zayd and Ubayd Allah. He had another stepmother, Qurayba bint Abi Umayya, but she had no children of her own.[3]: 204 

The young Abd Allah had vivid memories of his father's conversion to Islam. It is believed he accepted Islam together with his father, although some sources disagree about the year of his acceptance.[4]: 950  He remembered following his father around the town as Umar declared his conversion to the neighbours and on the steps of the Kaaba. Ibn Umar asserted, "Although I was very young at the time, I understood everything I saw."[5]: 138  His mother Zaynab also became a Muslim, but his two stepmothers did not.[5]: 510 [6]

The family emigrated to Medina in 622.[5]: 218  Although he may have emigrated to Medina before his father.[4]: 950  Before the Battle of Uhud in March 625, Muhammad called Ibn Umar, who was then fourteen years old, to present himself. But when Ibn Umar appeared, Muhammad would not allow him to fight in the battle. Two years later, as the Battle of the Trench approached, Muhammad again called Ibn Umar, and this time he decreed that he was old enough because he was mature and reached puberty. He was also present at the Battle of Al-Muraysi in 628.[7]

He was enlisted in the last army prepared by Muhammad during the expion of Usama bin Zayd.[8]: 229 

Family[]

After his father became Caliph in 634, Ibn Umar married Safiya bint Abu Ubayd, and they had six children: Abu Bakr, Abu Ubayda, Waqid, Umar, Hafsa and Sawda.[9]: 305 

Ibn Umar's sister Hafsa married Muhammad in 625.[9]: 152  Muhammad once told her: "Abd Allah is a good man. I wish he prayed the night prayers." After that, every night Abd Allah would pray much and sleep but a little.[10]

Political interests[]

During his caliphate, Umar created a council and took his son Abd Allah as his advisor, but did not permit him to introduce himself as a caliphate candidate after his father.[8]: 229 

At the Arbitration of Siffin, some sources report that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari nominated Ibn Umar for the caliphate, but Amr ibn al-As objected.[11]: 452 

Ibn Umar participated in battles in Iraq, Persia and Egypt, but he remained neutral throughout the first Fitna.[12]: 30  In 656, he prevented his sister Hafsa from following Aisha to the Battle of the Camel.[13]

While in Medina during the Second Fitna of the 680s, Ibn Umar, together with Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and Abd Allah ibn Abbas, advised Husayn ibn Ali to remain at Mecca. Husayn did not take this advice but chose Kufa.[14]

Death[]

Abd Allah ibn Umar died in Mecca in 693 (74 AH).[12]: 30 

Legacy[]

Abd Allah ibn Umar was the second most prolific narrator of ahadith, with a total of 2,630 narrations.[12]: 27  It was said that he was extremely careful about what he narrated and that he narrated with his eyes full of tears.[12]: 30–31  He was very cautious in life and thus was cautious in judgment too.[4] : 951 

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, al-Imāma wa al-Sīyāsa, vol. 1, p. 73.
  2. ^ a b Ahmad b. Ali ibn Hajar. Al Isaba fi tamyiz al sahaba vol. 4. Edited by Adil Ahmad ʿAbd al-Mawjud & Ali Muhammad Muʿawwad. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya.1415 AH
  3. ^ a b c Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  4. ^ a b c Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Yusuf b. Abd Allah.Al-Istiab fi ma'rifat al-ashab vol. 3. Edited by Ali Muhammad al-Bajawi. Beirut: Dar al-Adwa, 1411 AH
  5. ^ a b c Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Bukhari 3:50:891.
  7. ^ Muslim 19:4292.
  8. ^ a b Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. Tarikh al-umam wa l-muluk. Edited by Muhammad Abu l-Fadl Ibrahim. vol. 4. Second ion. Beirut: Dar al-Turath, 1387 AH.
  9. ^ a b Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  10. ^ Bukhari 2:21:222.
  11. ^ Muzahim, Nasr. Waq'at Siffin. Qom: Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Library, 1982.
  12. ^ a b c d Siddiqi, M. Z. (1961, 2006). Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development, Special Features and Criticism. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust.
  13. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Brockett, A. (1997). Volume 16: The Community Divided, pp. 41-42. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  14. ^ Balyuzi, H. M. (1976). Muhammad and the course of Islam, p. 193. Oxford: George Ronald.