AD 70 (LXX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Vespasian and Titus (or, less frequently, year 823 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 70 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Emperor Vespasian and his son Caesar Vespasian (the future emperor Titus) become Roman consuls.
- Panic strikes Rome as adverse winds delay grain shipments from Africa and Egypt, producing a bread shortage. Ships laden with wheat from North Africa sail 300 miles to Rome's port of Ostia in 3 days, and the 1,000 mile voyage from Alexandria averages 13 days. The vessels often carry 1,000 tons each to provide the city with the 8,000 tons per week it normally consumes.
- Sextus Julius Frontinus is praetor of Rome. Legio II Adiutrix is created from marines of Classis Ravennatis.
- Pliny the Elder serves as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis.
- 14th of Xanthikos (14th of Nisan, about April 14) – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus surrounds the Jewish capital, with three legions (V Macedonica, XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris) on the western side and a fourth (X Fretensis) on the Mount of Olives to the east. He puts pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover and then refusing them egress.
- About April 21 – Titus opens a full-scale assault on Jerusalem, concentrating his attack on the city's Third Wall (HaHoma HaShlishit) to the northwest. The Roman army begins trying to breach the wall using testudos, mantlets, siege towers, and battering rams.
- 7th of Artemisios(7th of Iyar, about May 6) – The Third Wall of Jerusalem collapses and the Jews withdraw from Bezetha to the Second Wall, where the defences are unorganized.
- 12th of Artemisios (12th of Iyar, about May 11) – Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. The Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans start building a circumvallation; all trees within 90 stadia (ca. fifteen kilometres) of the city are cut down.
- 21st of Artemisios (about May 20 or 21) – A "certain prodigious and incredible phenomenon", "chariots and troops" seen running in the clouds around Jerusalem
- Pentecost (Shavuot, 6th of Sivan, about June 4) – Priests in the Temple in Jerusalem feel a quaking and hear "a sound as of a great multitude saying, Let us remove hence".
- 17th of Panemos (17th of Tammuz), about July 14) – Sacrifices cease in the temple.
- 24th of Panemos (about July 20) – Romans set fire to a cloister after the capture of the Fortress of Antonia, north of the Temple Mount. The Romans are drawn into street fighting with the Zealots.
- 10th of Loios (9th or 10th of Av, about August 4) – Titus destroys the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Roman troops are stationed in Jerusalem and abolish the Jewish high priesthood and Sanhedrin. This becomes known as the Fall of Jerusalem, a conclusive event in the First Jewish–Roman War (the Jewish Revolt), which began in 66 AD. Following this event, the Jewish religious leadership moves from Jerusalem to Jamnia (present day Yavne), and this date is mourned annually as the Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av.
- August – Titus lays siege to the Upper City of Jerusalem.
- 8th of Gorpiaios (8th of Elul, about September 2) – Romans gain control of all of Jerusalem and proceed to burn it and kill its remaining residents, except for some who are taken captive to be killed later or enslaved.
- Neapolis (present day Nablus) is founded in Iudaea Province.
- Naval clashes on the Rhine during the Batavian Revolt; the crew of a captured Roman flagship is imprisoned at Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier).
- Roman legions V Alaudae and XV Primigenia are destroyed by the Batavi. Later, Quintus Petillius Cerialis puts down the Batavian rebellion of Gaius Julius Civilis.
- Vespasian disbands four Rhine legions (I Germanica, IV Macedonica, XV Primigenia and XVI Gallica), disgraced for having surrendered or lost their eagles during the revolt of Julius Civilis.
- Later Roman emperor Domitian marries Domitia Longina.
- Romans make a punitive expion against the Garamantes – they are forced to have an official relationship with the Roman Empire.
- Annexation of the island of Samothrace by the Empire under Vespasian.
- Expion by the Roman Septimius Flaccus to southern Egypt. He probably reaches Sudan.
- Ze-Hakèlé (Zoskales in Greek) becomes king of Aksum.
- ^ War of the Jews Book V, sect. 99 (Ch. 3, paragraph 1 in Whiston's translation)
- ^ War of the Jews Book V, sect. 302 (Ch. 7, par. 2)
- ^ War of the Jews Book V, sect. 466 (Ch. 11, par. 4)
- ^ a b War of the Jews Book VI, sect. 296 (Ch. 5, par. 3). In Greek, "φάσμα τι δαιμόνιον ὤφθη μεῖζον πίστεως", a phrase that is often translated on UFO sites as "On the 21st of May a demonic phantom of incredible size...".
- ^ War of the Jews Book VI, sect. 94 (Ch. 2, par. 1)
- ^ War of the Jews Book VI, sect. 166 (Ch. 2, par. 9)
- ^ War of the Jews Book VI, sect. 220 (Ch. 4, par. 1)
- ^ War of the Jews Book VI, sect. 407 (Ch. 8, par. 5; Ch. 9, par. 2)