70 Panopaea

70 Panopaea
Discovered byHermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt
Discovery siteParis Observatory
Discovery date5 May 1861
(70) Panopaea
Named after
main belt[2]
Orbital characteristics[4]
Epoch 30 November 2008
Aphelion3.0903 AU
Perihelion2.1402 AU
2.61526 AU
1544.79 days (4.23 years)
Physical characteristics
Dimensions122.17±2.3 km (mean)[5]
Mass(4.33 ± 1.09) × 1018 kg[6]
Mean density
3.48 ± 1.05[6] g/cm3
15.87 ± 0.04 hours[7]
0.0675 ± 0.003[5]

Panopaea (minor planet designation: 70 Panopaea) is a large main belt asteroid. Its orbit is close to those of the Eunomia asteroid family; however, Panopaea is a dark, primitive carbonaceous C-type asteroid in contrast to the S-type asteroids of the Eunomian asteroids. The spectra of the asteroid displays evidence of aqueous alteration.[10] Photometric studies give a rotation period of 15.797 hours and an amplitude of 0.11±0.01 in magnitude. Previous studies that suggested the rotation period may be twice this amount were rejected based upon further observation.[11]

Panopaea was discovered by Hermann Goldschmidt on 5 May 1861.[1] It was his fourteenth and last asteroid discovery. It is named after Panopea, a nymph in Greek mythology; the name was chosen by Robert Main, President of the Royal Astronomical Society.[12] In 1862, Swedish astronomer Nils Christoffer Dunér gave a doctoral thesis on the orbital elements of this asteroid.[13]

The orbit of 70 Panopaea places it in a mean motion resonance with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. The computed Lyapunov time for this asteroid is 24,000 years, indicating that it occupies a chaotic orbit that will change randomly over time because of gravitational perturbations of the planets.[14]

The asteroid frequently makes close approaches with 16 Psyche, such as on 12 June 2040 when it will make a close approach of 0.00602 AU (2.34 Lunar distances, or approx. 770,000 km, 478,455 mi) to the asteroid, and on 2 June 2095 when it will come only 0.003372 AU (1.31 LD) to the asteroid.[2]


  1. ^ a b "Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (1)-(5000)". IAU: Minor Planet Center. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  2. ^ a b "70 Panopaea". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  3. ^ 'Panopea' in Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
  4. ^ "(70) Panopaea". AstDyS. Italy: University of Pisa. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  5. ^ a b Tedesco; et al. (2004). "Supplemental IRAS Minor Planet Survey (SIMPS)". IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Planetary Data System. Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  6. ^ a b Carry, B. (December 2012), "Density of asteroids", Planetary and Space Science, 73 (1): 98–118, arXiv:1203.4336, Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009. See Table 1.
  7. ^ Schroll & Schober (1983). "Lightcurves and rotation periods for the asteroids 70 Panopaea and 235 Carolina". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series. 53: 77–79. Bibcode:1983A&AS...53...77S.
  8. ^ Neese (2005). "Asteroid Taxonomy". EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V5.0. Planetary Data System. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  9. ^ Tholen (2007). "Asteroid Absolute Magnitudes". EAR-A-5-DDR-ASTERMAG-V11.0. Planetary Data System. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  10. ^ Fornasier, S.; et al. (February 1999), "Spectroscopic comparison of aqueous altered asteroids with CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites", Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement, 135: 65−73, Bibcode:1999A&AS..135...65F, doi:10.1051/aas:1999161.
  11. ^ Marciniak, Anna; et al. (June 2016), "Difficult cases in photometric studies of asteroids", 37th Meeting of the Polish Astronomical Society, held 7-10 September, 2015 at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. Proceedings of the Polish Astronomical Society, 3, pp. 84−87, Bibcode:2016pas..conf...84M.
  12. ^ Schmadel, Lutz (2003). Dictionary of minor planet names (fifth ed.). Germany: Springer. p. 22. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.
  13. ^ Plicht, Christof A. (24 December 2016), "Dunér, Nils Christoffer", Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9917-7_388.
  14. ^ Šidlichovský, M. (1999), Svoren, J.; Pittich, E. M.; Rickman, H. (eds.), "Resonances and chaos in the asteroid belt", Evolution and source regions of asteroids and comets : proceedings of the 173rd colloquium of the International Astronomical Union, held in Tatranska Lomnica, Slovak Republic, August 24–28, 1998, pp. 297–308, Bibcode:1999esra.conf..297S.

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