|2018 Nicaraguan protests|
Part of 2013–2018 Nicaraguan protests|
Top to bottom:
A woman holding a Nicaraguan flag near a burning barricade.
Large crowds demonstrating in Managua.
A candlelight vigil held in respect to those killed.
18 April 2018 – ongoing|
Social security reform and corruption|
- Cancellation of social reform
- Cancellation of Nicaragua Canal
- Release of detained protestors
- End of police violence
- Restoration of free speech in media outlets
- Reformation of the Supreme Electoral Council (including the resignation of all magistrates in duty)
- Resignation of Daniel Ortega and Rosario Murillo
- Cancellation of social reforms
- Release of 200 prisoners
- Investigation into deaths during protests
- Truth commission
- Resignation of the president of the Supreme Electoral Council
- Resignation of National Police chief
|Parties to the civil conflict|
Hundreds of thousands
- 250,000+ (23 April)
- 150,000+ (28 April)
On 18 April 2018, demonstrators in several cities of Nicaragua began protests against President Daniel Ortega's decree of social security reforms that increased taxes and decreased benefits. After five days of unrest in which nearly thirty people were killed, Ortega announced the cancellation of the reforms. However, the opposition has grown - also through years of repressed protests - to denounce Ortega and demand his resignation, becoming one of the largest protests in his government's history and the deadliest civil conflict since the end of the Nicaraguan Revolution.
As a result of the unrest, the Nicaraguan public and international governments alike have called for the next presidential elections to be moved ahead, with the European Union supporting this move.
Pensions for small contributors
The protests initiated in June 2013, when elder people, with little contribution (less than 750 weeks) demanded from the Nicaraguan Social Security Institute a reduced pension. Soon, students and young people joined their protests. After a week of demonstration, the peaceful protesters were violently beaten up by paramilitary government mobs, associated with the Sandinista Youth, while police had moved back only moments before. Later, to calm down the protests, concessions to the pensioners were made by president Daniel Ortega to supply a reduced pension.
Over a year later protests started again, this time opposing the construction of a proposed Chinese-funded inter-oceanic canal through Nicaragua, with environmental impact, land use, and indigenous rights, as well as Nicaraguan sovereignty among the chief concerns of demonstrators. By February 2018, the project was widely viewed as defunct, though a 60% absent vote to revoke the 2013 legislation creating the project, the Chinese company (HKND) granted the concession to develop the canal maintains legal rights to it as well as to ancillary infrastructure projects.
In early April 2018, demonstrators marched in Managua, the country's capital, to protest what they regarded as an insufficient government response to forest fires that burned 13,500 acres (5,500 hectares) of the Indio Maiz Biological Reserve, a tropical nature preserve that is home to Rama and Kriol indigenous people, as well as significant biodiversity and endangered species. There were suspicions that the government had an interest in the fire, as it is the largest natural reserve through which the Nicaraguan Canal is planned to make. Counterprotests also occurred at the time in support of the Sandinista Front government.
In 2013, the Instituto Nicaraguense de Seguridad Social (INSS) entered in a deficit situation that has grown annually, reaching 2,371 million córdobas by end of 2017. This deficit has increased by over 50% annually for the last two years. The IMF alerted Nicaragua in 2017 that in the absence of the reform, the cash reserves would be depleted by 2019. The government of Daniel Ortega prepared a reform plan for the INSS based on the IMF's report. The government rejected some of the proposed remedies, such as increasing the retirement age, arguing that older people have fewer possibilities of finding employment, and that the urgency of the reform required fast results to ensure the INSS's viability, as some measures suggested by the IMF would not yield results for three or four years.
In early April 2018, the Superior Council for Private Enterprise (COSEP) announced they started negotiations with the government to reform the INSS, declaring that the solution must include an increase to the contribution of the employers and employees, as well as fiscal reform. These negotiations excluded small and medium-sized enterprises.
The reforms were announced on 16 April 2018, and published by presidential decree on March 2018 in La Gaceta (official government record) on 18 April 2018. The reform included an incremental increase of 0.75% (from 6.25% to 7%) on the employee contribution and 2% (from 19% to 21%) on the employers, starting July 2018. The employers' contribution would increase annually until reaching 22.5% in 2020. Pensions would also be taxed 5%. The 5% tax has been criticized as unconstitutional, since only the National Assembly has the power of taxation, and Law 160, signed by Ortega, indicates that pensions are not subject to any retentions.
The government-aligned unions Workers' National Front and the Employees National Union supported the reform, while the COSEP rejected it, indicating it did not have consensus and filed a recurso de amparo in an attempt to reverse it.
Timeline of events
- 18 April – Citizens already angered by the handling of the fires expanded their protests in response to the Ortega administration's announcement of social security reforms that raised income and payroll taxes while reducing pension benefits by 5%. Demonstrations involving mostly elderly individuals, university students, and other activists broke out in Managua and six other cities, which were met with a heavy response from the authorities ordered by President Ortega. Authorities were seen using live ammunition on protesters while also arming Sandinista Youth mobs with weapons. At least 26 people were killed, including journalist Ángel Gahona of the news program Meridiano, with Gahona being shot to death outside of the city hall in Bluefields while streaming on Facebook Live. Various forms of independent media were censored during the protests.
- 19 April – Vice President and first lady Rosario Murillo made a speech mocking the demonstrators and labeling them of "small groups, small souls, toxic, full of hate", bent on the destruction of the country, attempting against peace and development. She also labeled the demonstrators that had been attacked as "aggressors" and the attack by pro-Ortega groups and police as "legitimate defense".
There were major protests and confrontations in León, Managua, Granada, Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Rivas, Matagalpa and Masaya. TELCOR ordered the suspension of transmissions of four independent TV channels that were reporting the news: channels 12, 23, 51, and 100% Noticias. Also the Catholic Episcopal Conference's TV channel. The suspension lasted several hours, except for 100% Noticias, who was out of the air until 25 April. Murillo accused the protesters of being manipulated and trying to "destabilize" and "destroy" Nicaragua.
- 21 April – Ortega makes his first public appearance and announced he would hold negotiations for possible revision of the reforms, planned to take effect on 1 July; however, he said he would only meet with business leaders and alleged that demonstrators were being manipulated by gangs and other political interests. Demonstrations increased in response, with protestors objecting to the repression of demonstrations and the exclusion of other sectors from the negotiations, as well as the reforms themselves. The business chamber COSEP announced it would only participate in the negotiation if police violence ceased, detained protestors were released and free speech was restored. Nicaragua's Roman Catholic Conference of Bishops also called for an end to the police violence and criticized unilateral reforms; Pope Francis subsequently added his call for peace in the country.
- 22 April – As press described the unrest as the biggest crisis of Ortega's presidency, Ortega announced the cancellation of the social security reforms, acknowledging they were not viable and had created a "dramatic situation". He again proposed negotiations on the issue, this time to include Catholic Cardinal Leopoldo Brenes as well as the business community.
- 23 April – Marches of citizens, businessmen and students were held in Managua demanding the end of violence in the country, the release of students arrested by the police, the cessation of censorship of television media, and a response from the government about the students who died during the protests. The protests were the largest seen during the Ortega administration, with tens to hundreds of thousands of demonstrators participating and calling for the president's resignation.
- 24 April – Over 200 detainees got released by Nicaraguan authorities. This was the result of dialogue between the government and other organizations. Leaders of the campesino (peasant) movement released a statement in support of youth and self-organized grassroots protestors and called for a national strike until negotiations included all sectors of society. Peasant rights leader Francisca Ramírez called for Ortega's resignation.
- 26 April – Nicaraguan Attorney General Inés Miranda announced a formal investigation into the deaths during the protests.
- 27 April – President of the National Assembly Gustavo Porras announced a truth commission to examine the deaths and violence during the unrest. Head of the National Police Aminta Granera announced her resignation in face of the criticism of her handling of the unrest and alleged police repression of protests.
- 28 April – Hundreds of thousands participated in marches for "peace and justice" organized by the Catholic churches in Nicaragua in the cities of Managua, Matagalpa and León, León. At the events, "bishops, feminists, homosexuals, family members of those killed in the repression... and thousands of peasants" gathered in unity to demonstrate. Peasants who lived in rural areas traveled to Managua by a caravan of trucks, arriving to protest against the Nicaragua Canal proposal by Chinese businessmen and the Ortega government.
- 29 April – Anonymous attacked the websites belonging to the Government of Nicaragua.
- 30 April – Tens of thousands of Ortega's supporters participated in a rally showing him support. The rally consisted mostly of singing and dancing to music of the 1960s and 1970s, popular to the former Sandinista guerrillas. There were some reports of government workers being forced to join the pro-Ortega rally.
- 1 May – The Government of Nicaragua rejects the Inter-American Human Rights Commission's request to investigate the violence surrounding the weeks of protest.
- 2 May – Student groups created a deadline for the Nicaraguan government to allow the Inter-American Human Rights Commission and the United Nations Human Rights Office to send in personnel to investigate the killings of protesters. Police in riot gear blocked a student march from Central American University (UCA) to the National Assembly, with students instead marching to the Polytechnic University of Nicaragua (UPOLI) to show solidarity with other groups entrenched there. After pro-Ortega groups appeared on their route, cancelled another planned march, so students reinforced barricades surrounding UPOLI under the watch of authorities. Anonymous Nicaragua hacked the website of the National Police of Nicaragua, calling for their support of anti-Ortega protesters.
- 3 May – Shock troops of the Nicaraguan armed forces and police assaulted UPOLI in the early morning at about 01:00 CT, dispersing students stationed at the university. The incident left six students injured, one seriously. Student group Movimiento 19 de Abril responded to the incident stating that they would not participate in a dialogue with Ortega after he sent forces to attack them, placing peace talks in jeopardy.
- 4 May – Paramilitary groups, reportedly supervised by Sandinista mayor of Masaya Orlando Noguera Vega, attacked protestors at the entrance to the Niquinohomo municipality, birthplace of Augusto César Sandino. The protesters were surrounding a statue of Sandino painted blue and white, the colors of the Nicaraguan flag that had become a symbol of the protests.
- 6 May – University groups of Alianza Universitaria Nicaragüense, Movimiento Estudiantil 19 de Abril and Movimiento Universitario 19 de Abril created a coalition to participate in dialogue and condemned the pro-Ortega National Assembly's move to create a truth commission which they deemed to be biased.
- 8 May – The National Coalition of Nicaraguan University Students announced that it was ready for dialogue with the Nicaraguan government. Students of the National Agrarian University (UNA) and the Catholic University (Unica, private), have added to the protests in Nicaragua, manifesting their discomfort in the streets, and more Nicaraguans joined the protests throughout the day.
- 9 May – Members of the Independent Press of Nicaragua condemned the massacre, censorship and repression of the Government of Nicaragua. The Apostolic Network of Nicaragua, which brings together some 1,500 evangelical churches throughout the pine-tree country, called for the resignation of Ortega and Murillo, and joined the clamor of the majority of the Nicaraguan people. The capital of Nicaragua, Managua, was the living reflection of the existing division in Nicaraguan society around the Government of Ortega, in the framework of a sociopolitical crisis that has already lasted 22 days and left at least 47 dead. Thousands of people marched in a multitudinous way through the streets under the slogan "For Justice and the Democratization of Nicaragua". In a new show of popular force, the third in three weeks, the crowd dressed in t-shirts and flags of Nicaragua. Meanwhile, in another sector of Managua, people sympathetic to the government met in Avenida Bolivar to give support to the ruler and his wife. It is reported that there were 4 police officers injured during the demonstrations.
- 10 May – Dozens of peasants carry out a sit-in at the intersection of Lóvago, jurisdiction of the municipality of San Pedro de Lóvago, in the Chontales Department, demanding that the government of Nicaragua accelerate the installation of a dialogue involving all sectors. The march of the buses, trucks, among others, that covered the route from Managua to Nueva Guinea, from Managua to San Carlos, and vice versa, remained paralyzed in that place because of the traffic jams. The National Autonomous University of Nicaragua (UNAN-Managua) demanded the delivery of the Rubén Darío campus, where since Monday, 7 May, a group of students has been entrenched in demand for the dismissal of the student leadership and expressing their support for the citizen protests. The Truth Commission indicated that it will contact the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH), as part of the investigations it will make about the April protests, which left at least 47 people dead. In a statement issued on 10 May, the five members of the Truth Commission promised to clarify the deaths, wounded, imprisoned, disappeared and the destruction of infrastructure during the April protests. The Catholic Church will define when dialogues begin to address the crisis, the Nicaraguan government said. Murillo said that Ortega awaits the call of the bishops. An armed attack on students entrenched in a university in Managua left one dead and 11 injured, said Víctor Cuadras, spokesperson for the Student Movement 19 April (M19A); the student died in the hospital where he had been carried by after being shot during the attack UPOLI.
- 11 May – The Government of Nicaragua, through its official website, El 19, recognized the death of three people during the clashes that occurred in the early hours in UPOLI in Managua, which would increase the death toll in the protests. Additional protests occurred nationwide against the Sandinista National Liberation Front and Ortega, in solidarity with the university students who died in the early hours of 11 May in UPOLI, Managua. The Catholic Church and the private sector of Nicaragua, main interlocutors of the next national dialogue with the government, rejected the attacks that occurred in the early morning. The First Lady and Vice President of Nicaragua Rosario Murillo indicated that the Government is prepared to attend the dialogue when the bishops deem it convenient. The university students and the private sector of Nicaragua stated that they are also open to the dialogue.
- 12 May – More than 10 cities were the scene of heavy fighting in at least eight departments in the north, center, and pacific areas of Nicaragua. The biggest clashes took place in Chinandega, Granada, León, Managua, Masaya, and Rivas in the pacific, as well as Estelí and Matagalpa in the north. In Masaya, the clashes lasted for more than 12 hours between demonstrators, anti-riot police and youth shock groups of the ruling Sandinista party.
The Catholic Church of Nicaragua gave the government of Daniel Ortega 72 hours to provide conditions to start a dialogue amid the protests calling for the resignation of the president. The ultimatum of the bishops came after three people died on Friday in a new day of protests in the country. The four conditions that the president of Nicaragua must fulfill according to the Catholic Church are:
- Allow the entry of a delegation of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH).
- Suppress paramilitary bodies and order the withdrawal of civilians in favor of the president.
- Stop all kinds of police repression against protesting civil groups.
- Willingness of dialogue on the part of the government.
- 13 May – President Ortega called for a cessation of violence, reading a short statement, in which he called for "an end to death and destruction, that does not continue to shed blood of Nicaraguan brothers". The Military of Nicaragua assured that it will not engage in acts of repression against citizens who are protesting and advocated a dialogue to help resolve the crisis in the country, according to statements made by spokesman Colonel Manuel Guevara. In a demonstration, thousands of people arrived on 13 May from Managua to Masaya in caravan, to support that city for the loss of at least one life and 150 wounded in the past days. The caravan left at 10:00 am from the Jean Paul Genie roundabout in Managua, where citizens gathered early to the sound of bubucelas and the fluttering of blue and white flags.
- 14 May – The Government of Nicaragua accepted the entry of a mission from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights visit (IACHR) to "observe the human rights situation" in the country, informed the Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS) Luis Almagro. The student representatives, civil society, and private sector were invited to participate in the national dialogue by the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua, confirmed their consent to go to the dialogue table that will start on Wednesday 16 May 2018 despite the repression of the National Police of Nicaragua and groups of Clashes of the FSLN. The strong disputes this Monday 14 May between riot police, together with members of the Sandinista Youth, and civilians protesting against the government in Sébaco, Matagalpa, left at least 16 injured, including four minors. The leader of the anti-Nicaraguan canal movement, Francisca Ramírez, announced that she had been excluded from the national dialogue as representative of the peasantry in Nicaragua.
- 15 May – Clashes continues in Matagalpa.
National Dialogue (16–23 May)
- 16 May – When Ortega and Murillo arrived at the Seminary of Our Lady of Fatima, site of the national dialogue, the presidential couple was greeted with shouts of "assassins, murderers" by people on the outskirts of the event. Guatemalan filmmaker, Eduardo Jessi Espigar Szejmer, died in the night when a metal tree sculpture fell and landed on him. The sculpture was taken down during a demonstration that took place in the Metrocentro sector, Managua. Protests in the capital during the development of the first day of dialogue.
- 17 May – A delegation from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) arrived in Nicaragua to observe in loco the situation of human rights in the country. The IACHR visit occurs with Nicaraguan human rights organizations were reporting between 61 and 67 people dead and more than 500 injured in the repression exercised against protesters. The delegation is headed by Antonia Urrejola, rapporteur for Nicaragua at the IACHR.
- 18 May – On 18 May, the IACHR called on the State of Nicaragua to immediately cease the repression, said Commissioner Antonia Urrejola, rapporteur of the IACHR for Nicaragua, in a statement. The IACHR informed that they will meet with the victims of the repression. "We call on the State of Nicaragua to immediately cease the repression of the protest, the commission also calls on the State to guarantee the independence and functioning of the media in the country", the rapporteur also indicated that the mission of the IACHR in the country will be the observation in the field in accordance with human rights. She indicated that she would meet with all sectors.  Mothers of young people who died in the protests filed a complaint with the IACHR.158 There were clashes, protests, and the entrance of "several armed hooded men" to the San José parish in Matiguás, Matagalpa and closure of streets in Nueva Guinea, Jinotega and other Nicaraguan departments. León, Carazo, Matagalpa and Jinotega are under strikes for lack of products, due to the crisis. The dialogue continues on his second day. 164 There was friction between university students and members of the official press before the dialogue. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights arrived at the national dialogue. The government and the Nicaraguan opposition agreed to a truce over the weekend, a month after having started demonstrations and protests. Several people have appeared before the Inter-American Commission to lodge complaints against the violations carried out by the police forces and supporters of the Daniel Ortega government.
- 19 May – The university students announce that they will continue the marches and the protests in a peaceful way. On 19 May, there were marches in several cities of Nicaragua in commemoration of those killed in the protests that have affected the Central American country for a month. On the night of 19 May 2018, there was an attack on students of the National Agrarian University (UNA) who protested near the university grounds – whose rector accused the National Police, who in turn denied it – and who left the eight injured. Students who are entrenched in the UNA and residents of surrounding neighborhoods reported a police and members of youth sandinistas attack on the campus, located near the Augusto C. Sandino International Airport.  The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights has received thousands of complaints from the population and is making inquiries in Matagalpa and other places where there was excessive repression against anti-government protests.
- 20 May – There were peaceful protests in several cities of Nicaragua, and the violation of the truce by the Nicaraguan Police was denounced. The attack perpetrated Saturday night against the students who remain entrenched in the National Agrarian University (UNA) left at least eight wounded, two of them seriously, as confirmed by students from that campus, who this Sunday collected evidence of the aggression that was documented by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH). The university students point to supporters of the Government under the direction of police commanders as those responsible for the aggression, however, the institution, through an official note, reported that it had no presence in the area. Six injured were treated at the medical post of the campus in charge of the students and two other young people, wounded by bullet wounds, were transferred to a hospital. Nicaraguan demonstrators demolished more metal trees called the tree of life that are symbols of the government of Ortega.
- 21 May – The national dialogue continues on its third day where the resignation of Ortega and his wife and the Nicaraguan government was requested, requesting the return to normality. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), today issues a preliminary report on the investigations of what happened in the protests in Nicaragua. The IACHR recorded at least 76 people killed by the protests in Nicaragua, more than 800 injured and denouncing serious events and violations of human rights by the Government of Nicaragua. It includes the official visit of the IACHR to Nicaragua. The representatives of the organization were in Managua, Masaya, León and Matagalpa.
- 23 May – The National Dialogue between the government of Nicaragua and students, the private sector and civil society that began a week ago was suspended indefinitely. The leader of the Nicaraguan Catholic Church, Bishop Leopoldo Brenes who has acted as a mediator of this dialogue, explained that the lack of agreement on an agenda of issues to be discussed prevents negotiations from continuing.
- 30 May – On 30 May, the day in which the Nicaraguan mothers are celebrated, a march was held in honor of the victims killed during the protests. It was brutally repressed by the national police in the company of paramilitary groups and government-like mobs, leaving a balance of approximately 15 dead. Most of the victims resulted in fatal and accurate shots to the head, neck and chest. The march was led by the Mothers of April Movement, the Student Movement 19 April, Civil Society and Private Enterprise.  
- 1 June – In the early hours of 1 June, Masaya reported that there had been a new wave of looting and robberies against businesses and stores in the city. The UN urged the Nicaraguan government to allow them access to the country to gather information about the violence and deaths recorded during the protests and to be able to verify the reports of violations of rights, disappearances, torture and arbitrary detentions. The spokeswoman for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights said at the UN biweekly press conference in Geneva that the agency is "dismayed" by the ongoing violence in Nicaragua, which this week has left at least 16 dead and more than a hundred injured. Movements, associations of professionals and Nicaraguan social groups called for a civic-citizen national strike and civil disobedience since 1 June, as a means of pressure for President Daniel Ortega and his wife, Vice President Rosario Murillo, to leave power. Five banks have closed in Masaya for lootings. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) condemned the deaths and new acts of violence that occurred in Nicaragua and urged the state to stop the repression of the protests. The IACHR also urges the government to investigate and punish the use of force by parapolitical actors, dismantle these groups, and seek a peaceful, constitutional and democratic solution to the current political crisis affecting the country.
- 2 June – Heavy clashes between government forces and riot police against demonstrators and citizens of La Concepcion sector. It is indicated that there are two citizens killed and several people injured. Other clashes ocurred in Masaya, Carazo, and Matagalpa. They reported attacks from paramilitary and anti-riot groups since dawn.   The US Embassy in Managua confirmed the death of the US citizen who was found this morning in the Rubenia sector in Managua. "The United States Government expresses its condolences to the family of the deceased US citizen last night and to all the families who recently visited legal medicine. The death of a US citizen is of great concern to the embassy", Ambassador Laura Dogu wrote in her twitter account. Resident citizens of the place indicate Sandinista youth shock groups as the culprits of the homicide. A group of children with their parents marched through the streets of Managua against repression and solidarity to university students who died in the protests.
- 8 July – At least 38 were killed during skirmishes between protesters, authorities and pro-Sandinista paramilitary groups. This left more than 300 Nicaraguans killed since the beginning of protests.
Attack on Bishops and nuncio in Diriamba
- 9 July- Mobs, some hooded and armed, surrounded and verbally and physically offended the bishops today, including Cardinal Leopoldo Brenes and the ambassador of the pope in Nicaragua Waldemar Stanislaw Sommertag, after arriving in Diriamba, Carazo. Men in plain clothes, hooded and some armed, first verbally offended the religious and then attacked them physically, wounding some of them, while the journalists robbed and beat.
- 10 July-Nicaraguan businessmen, the United States, international organizations and European governments condemned the fact and the Catholic Church suspended for indefinite time the working groups of the national dialogue. The Churches of Costa Rica and Panama, in separate messages, in addition to various dioceses of the country, manifested their solidarity with the bishops and their repudiation of violence. The Episcopal Conference of Costa Rica also urged the international community to collaborate with the solution to this conflict, to find the path that leads to peaceVice President of Nicaragua, Rosario Murillo, said that the government presiding over her husband, Daniel Ortega, is "indestructible" and that the opposition "could not" defeat him in the context of the sociopolitical crisis that this country is suffering and that has claimed at least 351 lives, according to humanitarian organizations and I justify the actions of violence against the Nicaraguan bishops and the apostolic Nuncio in Diriamba.
- 11 july- The Nicaraguan opposition and academic Félix Maradiaga was attacked in the city of León (northwest Nicaragua) by a group of Sandinista sympathizers of the government of President Daniel Ortega.
- 12 july- The Civic Alliance for Justice and Democracy and Opposition Demonostors begins unrest amid a government crackdown continues to affect various Nicaraguan towns and cities. Three days of demonstrations are set to take place from Thursday, 12 July 13 July through Saturday, 14 July. The March called “Together We are a Volcano” will be held in the capital Managua, where demonstrators will leave from the Rotonda Cristo Rey (roundabout; a.k.a. Rotonda Santo Domingo) at 10:00 (local time) and march to the Rotonda Jean Paul Genie, passing through the Autolote El Chele intersection and the Alexis Argüello monument. The march "Together we are a volcano" in Morrito, Rio San Juan, ended in clashes between armed protesters and the police of the place. Different sources in the place say that there are four policemen dead and a self-called. The National Police, in a statement, confirmed on the night of Thursday, 12 July 2018, about the five people killed among them. The head of the local police, commissioner Luis Bustos, is one of the deceased.
- 13 July – Nicaragua awoke under a 24-hour national strike, the second in less than a month, convened by the Civic Alliance for Justice and Democracy to demand from President Daniel Ortega a response on the proposal to advance the general elections for March 2019, as an exit to the socio-political crisis that the country faces since last 18 April.In Managua most of the streets are empty, private businesses such as convenience stores, supermarkets and businesses did not open their doors. Medardo Mairena and Pedro Mena, members of the Nicaraguan Peasant Movement, were held at the Augusto C. Sandino International Airport in Managua. According to people accompanying them, Migration personnel detained them and do not know of their whereabouts. "They were detained, we do not know for what reason, we do not know if they were removed on the other hand or if they are still detained," said Alfredo Mairena, a member of the Peasant MovementOn the same day in the afternoon, police and paramilitaries attacked the Rubén Darío University Campus (RURD) of the UNAN Managua. After hours under attack the students took refuge in the nearby Church of Divine Mercy where they were attacked by police and paramilitaries, after the youths left the facilities the paramilitaries set fire to the university campus setting fire to a CDI and one of the pavilions of the college
- 14 July –A caravan was organized by the Civic Alliance which was held around midnight and in the early hours of 14 July arrived at the vicinity of the temple, blocked by a police checkpoint located at the traffic lights of Club Terraza towards the west. . The parish of Divine Mercy was attacked and besieged throughout the night of Friday the 13th and the early morning of Saturday the 14th, leaving a result of 2 students dead. The bullet holes in the walls, windows and religious objects in addition to the bloodstains were still visible in the days following the attack. The peasant leaders Mairena and Mena are accused of terrorism and involved in the Morrito incident, where several policemen died.263 President Daniel Ortega made the tactical retreat to Masaya (to be held on the last Friday of June) on Friday, 13 July, but instead of the usual walk a vehicular caravan was made to Masaya. The president headed the caravan amid a strong presence of police and paramilitaries. Unlike other years, they did not arrive until the indigenous town of Monimbo but the caravan culminated in the police station of Masaya, where the president called for peace and accused the demonstrators of terrorists in a speech of less than 10 minutes. Among other differences to previous years in 2018, there were no folk dances, nor cultural acts, nor was there the support of the mayor of varas (Monimbo). After the small act, the city of Masaya and especially the indigenous people of Monimbo were strongly attacked by police and paramilitary forces. In the end the paramilitaries were withdrawn by the same population. In Diriamba it was learned of the homicide of an ecologist activist citizen of Costa Rica residing in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan youth group takes refuge in Costa Rica after the bloody incidents of Carazo. On 14 July, clashes were reported in Granada, Masaya and Managua. Leaving two students killed by Nicaraguan police and pro-government paramilitary forces had to go with the presence of Cardinal Brenes, the apostolic Nuncio accompanied by members of the national and international organizations to rescue the wounded and besieged.268 those rescued were received at the Cathedral of Managua, where they were received by ecclesiastical authorities and national and international human rights organizations. In the cathedral were also dozens of people waving flags of Nicaragua and UNAN to receive the students. In Chontales, there were strong confrontations between peasants and members of the paramilitary and government police forces where they raised the blockades and closures. of streets; In this repressive action, Gabriel Mareira, brother of the peasant leader Alfredo Marinera, came out severely wounded.
White and Blue Caravan
- 14 July- the blue and white caravan was made, where thousands of citizens in their cars and adorned with the Nicaraguan flag expressed their dissatisfaction and opposition to the government of Daniel Ortega. The gigantic caravan was developed in Managua and had replicas in almost all the departments of the country. In several cities of the departments of Nicaragua there were marches and protests to request the departure of the Nicaraguan presidential couple. In Granada attacks have been reported against the blue and white caravan where there were several wounded.
- 15 July-At least 10 people, including a young girl, were killed in Nicaragua after pro-government forces launched an operation in the country's south, a rights group has said. The Nicaraguan Association for Human Rights (ANPDH) said that six civilians and four riot police officers died on Sunday in the city of Masaya, as well as in the nearby Niquinohomo and Catarina communities and the Monimbo neighbourhood.Among the dead was a 10-year-old girl who was shot in the stomach and died due to a lack of medical attention, ANPDH head Alvaro Leiva said  Amid great secrecy and under a wide police deployment in the Central Judicial Complex Managua, a preliminary hearing was held behind closed doors for three young people accused of the arrests in Managua, Nindirí, Ticuantepe and Masaya, and for having burned the facilities of the Radio Ya.The police deployment generated an atmosphere of confusion, because it was supposed to be presented before the judge the peasant leader Medardo Mairena Sequeira, arrested Friday at the airport and accused of the death of four officers and a civilian in Morrito, last Thursday.The judge Sixth Criminal District Hearing of the capital, Henry Morales, scheduled the initial hearing for next 8 August at 9:00 a.m.A group of supporters of the Sandinista government attacked in the trade on Sunday, 15 July 2018, the vehicle in which Monsignor Abelardo Mata, bishop of the Diocese of Estelí and spokesperson for the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua (CEN), was being transported.Mata was intercepted by a group of people who damaged the vehicle and shouted "murderer", "coup" and "criminal", and he took refuge in a nearby house, witnesses said.The official media justified the aggression in their social networks, arguing that it was a sign of the repudiation "of those accused of promoting the terrorist acts sponsored by the coup leaders throughout Nicaragua."Jairo Velásquez, a priest from Catarina, suffered an assault by para-policemen at the Santa Catalina Church today, his brother José Alberto Velásquez confirmed to El Nuevo Diario. In the hours of this afternoon, armed individuals entered the house with surprise and violence. of the Santa Catalina parish, which is under the administration of Father Jairo Velásquez, in Catarina, and they beat him.The offices of Caritas Internationalis in the municipality of Sébaco, Matagalpa, were looted and later set on fire by unknown persons.
International pressure and Anti-Terrorism Law
- 16 July -The international community has intensified pressure on the Government of Nicaragua to stop the repression and disarm the paramilitaries after nearly 300 deaths during three months of protests demanding the ouster of President Daniel Ortega. The United States, 13 Latin American countries and the Secretary General of the UN, Antonio Guterres, asked the Executive of Daniel Ortega the end of the repression of the demonstrations that since last 18 April flood the streets of the Central American country. Guterres called for an immediate cessation of violence and dared to point out the responsibility of the president, at least indirectly.
- 16 July- The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights denounced that the Law on terrorism recently approved by the Parliament of Nicaragua can be used to criminalize peaceful protest. Nueva Guinea takes to the streets to protest against the Government of Nicaragua. The National Police presented two doctors who had participated as volunteers in the seizure of the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua (UNAN-Managua), accusing them of transporting firearms that supposedly had been hidden in the Divine Mercy Church, where more than One hundred people took refuge and were besieged by para-police forces on Friday night and early Saturday morning.The doctors, identified as Irving Escobar, 29, and Blanca Cajina Urbina, 25, were presented Monday at a press conference at the Directorate of Judicial Assistance (DAJ), also known as El Chipote, along with 22 other defendants. of terrorism and other crimes.
- 17 July-The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nicaragua raised its "strongest protest" for the "biased declarations" of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, which denounced that the law on terrorism approved by Parliament can be used to criminalize the protest. 
- 17 July –There are attacks by Sandinista paramilitary forces and members of the National Police of Nicaragua in the city of Masaya, specifically in the Moninbo neighborhood. This city, located 35 kilometers southeast of Managua, has endured almost two months of siege by the government since last April a wave of violence broke out in this country that has already claimed more than 350 deaths.The National police of Nicaragua and Sandinista paramilitary forces have started an attack on the Monimbó neighborhood, in Masaya, at 6:00 in the morning , after having entered through different parts of the city. Church bells rang to alert the population. The Government of Nicaragua carried out a new armed attack against a population of the Central American country, this time in the city of Masaya, rebel fief against the government of President Daniel Ortega, despite national and international repudiation, with a balance of at least 3 deaths, that they join a list of more than 350 people killed in a crisis that lasts more than three months. The Sandinista government took control of Masaya, 29 kilometers southeast of Managua, after an intense bombing, of more than 7 hours , with emphasis on the indigenous community of Monimbó with support to policie an masked persons.  The representative of the Campesino Movement in the national dialogue, Medardo Mairena, was accused along with nine other persons of the crimes of terrorism, organized crime, murder, simple kidnapping, aggravated robbery, obstruction of public services (transportation) and injuries to the detriment of 23 people and the State of Nicaragua. In the preliminary hearing held on Tuesday behind closed doors in the Sixth Penal Court District of Hearing, in charge of Judge Henry Morales, was also accused the peasant leader Pedro Mena Amador, imprisoned next to Mairena last Friday at the international airport of Managua.The other defendants are Juan Calderón, Carlos Zamora, Luis Marenco, Silvio Pineda, Mario Jiménez, Danilo García, Arlen Lanuza and José Hernández. For all, Judge Henry Morales issued arrest warrant.
- 18 July- Citizens of Juigalpa denounced that Ortega's mobs came to attack the people who were in the sit-down that they demonstrators carried out.
- 19 July - Irelanda Jerez, one of the leaders of the movement of self-appointed women who participate in the protests against the government of Daniel Ortega. The relatives of the dentist and merchant of the Oriental market, Ireland Jérez, have confirmed that their relative is in El Chipote prison, in Managua. Dollma Jérez said that at 6:45 in the morning they confirmed that her sister is in El Chipote and hopes that his physical integrity is respected.Moninbo neighborhood is occupation for gubernamental sandinistas forces.Samuel Geovanny Martinez Duarte, member of the Movement April 19 in Granada, has been remanded in custody, after being taken to a preliminary hearing, under a strong police guard, to repsonder for the crime of threat.Martinez is accused for the crimes of threat to the detriment of Yaroslava Muñoz Maltez, departmental delegate of the MTI in Granada.
The National Dialogue began on 16 May. Ortega kicked off the "dialogue for peace Wednesday" saying, "We all suffer the death of our loved ones, but we have the obligation not to respond to violence with more violence, because otherwise we have scales that end in wars, and the people are tired of that." Students led with a strong demand. "We have decided to be at this table to demand them right now to order the immediate cessation of the attacks that are happening in the country," said student leader Lesther Alemán, as protests continued throughout the country. After hearing the student, Ortega questioned the wave of protests, calling it "irrational violence". Monseñor Mata made three requests to Ortega.
On 23 May, the National Dialogue was suspended. Archbishop Brenes suggested to create mixed commission of three representatives by each part to discuss an action plan to restore the table of the National Dialogue. The Nicaraguan Foreign Minister, Dennis Moncada Colindres, objected that the agenda of the National Dialogue involves 40 points that all lead to a single point; an agenda for a coup d'état for a change of government outside the constitution and violating the laws of the country. On the other hand, the university students, businessmen and civil society asked that a Framework Law be debated, which would allow to advance the elections, prohibit the presidential re-election and change the Supreme Electoral Council (CSE).
Following the repression and over a dozen deaths in the 30 May protests, the Nicaraguan archbishops cancelled the National Dialogue and protests continued.
The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights adopted precautionary measures of protection for the entire leadership that make up the University Coalition in Nicaragua and that have led the civic protests against the government since 18 April.The US government urged Nicaragua to fully implement the recommendations of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) to prevent further violence in the protests against the government of President Daniel Ortega.
Police responding to protests
At least 42 people were killed in the first week of protests in April, with most injured by bullet wounds. Nicaraguan authorities used live ammunition to fire upon demonstrators resulting in hundreds of injured. Government forces were also reported to have armed pro-Sandinista groups with weapons to use against protesters. Following the government crackdown, rioting and looting ensued. On 2 May 2018, The Miami Herald reported a total dead of "At least 63 people, almost all of the student protesters" since the start of the demonstrations. By the end of May, over 105 people killed.
The United Nations Human Rights Council condemned what they said may have been possible "illegal executions" performed by the Nicaraguan government.
Individuals detained during protests alleged torture by the Nicaraguan authorities, with hundreds of prisoners later released by the roadside in the outskirts of Managua with shaved heads and bare feet.
The Inter-American Human Rights Commission received allegations about some families being forced by the government not to file complaints about the deaths of their family members, mistreatment of detainees and threats against human rights defenders in the Central American country.
A protester holds a sign saying "No to censorship", 26 April 2018.
There were reports of censored media organizations during the protests. Miguel Mora, the director of 100% Noticias de Nicaragua, stated that the Nicaraguan government censored his channel on cable networks in the country. The censorship of 100% Noticias was not lifted until 25 April. One journalist, Ángel Gahona, was shot and killed while reporting on the protests on Facebook Live. Radio Darío, a radio station known for being critical of the Ortega government, was said to be attacked and burned down on 20 April 2018 by pro-Ortega groups, leaving the facility at a total loss.
The United Nations Human Rights Council criticized the attacks on media and censorship performed by the Ortega government. The Inter-American Press Association also called on the Ortega administration to stop its efforts of censorship, with its president Gustavo Mohme Seminario stating that its actions toward the media "unmasks the authoritarianism of a government that in its eleven years in power has only sought to dismantle the State for its benefit and that of his family members".
Alleged foreign support
Many protesters tortured have reported hearing to Cuban and Venezuelan accents in the cladestine prisons.
Several protests abroad accompanied the development of the demonstrations against INSS reform in Nicaragua. There were protests held in San José (Costa Rica) Nicaraguan Embassy, Miami and Houston Consulates, and other cities like Cuidad de Guatemala, Madrid or Barcelona. A group of Nicaraguans residing in Panamá demonstrated at the Cinta Costera of Panama's capital. In Spain, there have been at least eight concentrations of the Nicaraguan community in the country. Of the most active cities in this sense, it is worth highlighting the Andalusian Granada, where hundreds of Nicaraguans and Spanish citizens have concentrated to ask for peace, freedom, and democracy in Nicaragua by reading poems of Nicaraguan writers and a manifesto, demanding that the Ortega-Murillo family abandon the power in Nicaragua. There have also been protests in Berlin, Copenhague, London, Australia, Vienna, Finland, Paris, San Francisco, California, New York, Washington, and Toronto, Canada.
Anonymous Nicaragua, a group of the Anonymous movement, joined the protests against the government and launched Operación Nicaragua, or #OpNicaragua. The operation consists of a campaign of cyber attacks against Nicaragua's government web pages or accused to be related to it. The campaign started on 26 April with an attack that left the National Assembly website out of service. The attacks continued against the websites of Juventud Presidente, Canal 2, and the Office of the Attorney General of the Republic, the Nicaraguan Institute of Civil Aeronautics, Nicaraguan Institute of Culture, El 19 Digital or Canal 6.
The state agency Nicaraguan Institute of Telecommunications and Postal Services (TELCOR) cited the corporations that provide the internet service to see what actions to take to form a unity against hackers. TELCOR summoned these providers to a meeting to address security measures to take around the cyber attacks executed by the international hackers against web portals of the government and private corporations.
- Nicaragua – Vice President and First Lady of Nicaragua Rosario Murillo characterized the protesters as "criminals", "vampires in search of blood" and "minuscule and toxic groups." Following his return to public view after being absent for the first 72 hours of protests, President Ortega quickly reversed the social security reform and agreed to a Catholic church-mediated dialogue.
Protesters generally were spread across the political spectrum, and Murillo's statements angered the left-wing sector, which responded by destroying her metal "Trees of Life" public art pieces in Managua. The majority of those demonstrating do not see any negotiation without the results being Ortega's removal.
The NGO Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (CENIDH) stated that President Ortega and his wife "encouraged and directed" the repression against protesters and that "the demonstrations are legitimized by a social rejection of the authoritarian way of governing by President Ortega and his wife, Rosario Murillo" and called for dialogue monitored by the United Nations and the Organization of American States.
- European Union – On 20 April 2018, the Delegation of the European Union in Nicaragua and the Heads of Mission of the Embassies of the Member States released a statement lamenting the recent violence, sending condolences to those affected, and calling for dialogue and "social peace". On 31 May 2018, the European Parliament condemned the repression used by the Nicaraguan government and called for elections.
- Organization of American States – Secretary General Luis Almagro condemned "all kinds of violence", calling for peace and stating that citizen have a "legitimate right" to protest. The OAS voted on 18 July 2018 a resolution condemning the Sandinista regime and asks him to hold elections for two years, to March 2019. With 21 votes in favor, three against and the same number of absentees and seven abstentions, the Nicaraguan regime received a harsh attention call.
- United Nations – Liz Throssell, spokesperson for the United Nations Human Rights Council, called on the Ortega government to "comply with its international obligations to ensure that people can freely exercise their rights to freedom of expression and the freedom of peaceful assembly and association", condemned attacks on journalists, and expressed concern "that several television channels that were covering the events have been closed by the Government". Following continued repression, the Human Rights Council demanded the Nicaraguan government to allow entry in order to "gather first-hand information about the incidents arising from the public demonstrations" of April and May. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres condemned the ongoing violence in Nicaragua, particularly the killing of a protestor during demonstrations in Managua on Wednesday 30 May. 
- Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Paraguay Peru – In a joint statement, the Latin American countries shared "concern and regret the acts of violence", making an "urgent call" for all sides to cease hostilities, particularly that "security forces exercise their powers with the utmost prudence to avoid excessive use of force and an escalation of the crisis, allowing the generation of a climate that restores both peace and dialogue, essential to overcome this serious situation".
- Canada – Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland of Global Affairs Canada stated that she was "concerned about reports of several deaths and injuries in the demonstrations that are taking place in Nicaragua" and called for dialogue.
- Costa Rica – Minister of Foreign Affairs Christian Guillermet condemned the censorship of media by the Ortega administration.
- Cuba – The Cuban government defended Ortega, criticizing what it called "attempts that aim to destabilize the Republic of Nicaragua, a country that lives in peace and where remarkable social, economic, and security advances have been made in favor of its people".
- Germany – The Federal Foreign Office called on "all factions to immediately renounce the use of force", asked the government of Nicaragua to "promptly and fully clarify the cases of fatalities", criticizing the government's use of force and demanded "free journalistic coverage", stating that "restrictions on press freedom by the Government are unacceptable".
- Mexico – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mexico called for "the cessation of violence" and supported the idea of dialogue.
- Panama–The Government of the Republic of Panama spoke in relation to the acts of violence recorded in Nicaragua, before which it makes a firm appeal to those responsible for the armed attacks, arson and crimes, to stop these acts and the most strict respect for life, human rights, security, and peace. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Panama of Panama requested that shipments be suspended, by land, of merchandise to Nicaragua while the political conflict in the Central American country is maintained. In a statement, the Foreign Ministry notes that the ambassador of Panama in Nicaragua, Eddy Davis, keeps in touch with the truckers who are stranded in Nicaragua, as a result of which they have not been able to leave that country due to the constant protests and closure of the street that the Nicaraguans maintain against the government of Daniel Ortega. Some have already been released. Panama withdraws the sentence violence acts of the last days where journalists, sarcedotes, university students and Nicaraguan citizens have been affected.
- Puerto Rico – Governor of Puerto Rico Ricardo Rosselló said, "In Nicaragua there is an attack against human rights by the Government of Daniel Ortega".
- Spain – The Government of Spain demanded the "maximum containment" of Nicaragua's security forces and supported dialogue.
- United States – Ambassador Michael G. Kozak, of the United States Department of State's Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor stated that "Nicaragua ... is going the wrong direction on many fronts", stating that the Ortega government had a "long litany of torture, extrajudicial killing". Kozak criticized censorship, called for the support of NGOs and suggested future targeted sanctions against the Ortega administration, saying that the governments of Cuba and Venezuela are the "same camp as Nicaragua".
- Uruguay – The Ministry of Foreign Relations released a statement supporting "calls for reflection and dialogue", denouncing violence and demanding "respect for the law and individual rights".
- Vatican City – Pope Francis expressed concern about the violence in Nicaragua, asking that "unnecessary bloodshed be avoided and that open questions be resolved peacefully and with a sense of responsibility".
- Venezuela – President Nicolás Maduro supported Ortega and Murillo, stating "they are facing a violent ambush", describing protesters as "violent groups". He also indicated that the government of Daniel Ortega defeated a "terrorist and coup" plan, saying: "Today, before the imperial aggressions, the government of Nicaragua has defeated the terrorist and coup plan. We will win! "Maduro wrote on the social network Twitter a day after the Organization of American States (OAS) approved a critical resolution against Sandinista Goverment.
- Amnesty International – Director of the Americas Erika Guevara Rosas condemned "brutal attacks against peaceful demonstrators and journalists covering the protest", saying it "represents a flagrant and disturbing attempt to restrict their rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly" while also stating that the government "must put an immediate end to all acts of aggression against the public and the press, and conduct an expious investigation, impartial and independent to bring to justice all those responsible for these sinister attacks".
- Sao Paulo Forum meeting in Havana and in the voice of the Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Ralph Gonsalves said that they should support Venezuela, Brazil and Nicaragua.The Forum expressed its support for the government of Daniel Ortega.
- Libération-The French newspaper of center left or of European left par excellence in its cover put to Daniel Ortega and his bleeding wife and writes a hard article criticizing the Nicaraguan government and its president.
- José MujicaThe ex-president of Uruguay and senator for the political party Frente Amplio, joined the criticism of the violence in Nicaragua. "Those who were revolutionaries yesterday lost the meaning of life, there are times when you have to say, 'I'm leaving,'" he said in the Senate on Tuesday.
The Uruguayan Senate on Tuesday approved a declaration that "requires the Government of Nicaragua to immediately cease violence against the Nicaraguan people." In addition, he expressed "his strong condemnation of all acts of violence and violations of human rights.But these statements did not fall well in some sectors of the Latin American left and generated the reaction of Chavez leader Diosdado Cabello who criticized him on Thursday in a television audition. "Do not you realize Pepe what is happening in Nicaragua at this time? It's the same thing that they did to Venezuela?" Said Cabello.
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Convened by the Catholic Church, hundreds of thousands of Nicaraguans take to the streets of the country demanding peace and the end of the regime. The bishops warn Ortega that there can be no dialogue without guarantees
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When the protests heated up, Ortega cracked down. The army was called in to help quell disturbances, and independent media were squeezed.
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