2017 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar

2017 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar
Burnt down house in northern Rakhine State (Moe Zaw-VOA).jpg
Burnt down houses in northern Rakhine State, September 2017
Date 25 August 2017 (2017-08-25) – present
Location Northern Rakhine State, Myanmar
Type Ethnic and religious persecution
Theme Military crackdown by Myanmar's army and police on Rohingya Muslims
Cause
  • Historical mistreatment of the Rohingya by the government and Buddhist population
  • Initial attack on border posts in Myanmar by the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army on 25 August 2017
Outcome
  • Thousands of Rohingya people killed
  • 690,000 refugees fled abroad (since 25 August 2017)[1][2]
  • Destruction of many Rohingya villages
  • Wide-scale human rights violations by the Myanmar security forces and local Buddhist militants
  • Gang rapes and other forms of sexual violence against Rohingya women
Deaths 10,000+[3]
Publication bans Media access in northern Rakhine State heavily restricted by the Myanmar government.

The 2017 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar began on 25 August of that year when the Myanmar military forces and local Buddhist extremists started attacking the Rohingya people and committing atrocities against them in the country's north-west Rakhine state. The atrocities included attacks on Rohingya people and locations, looting and burning down Rohingya villages, mass killing of Rohingya civilians, gang rapes, and other sexual violence.

Using statistical extrapolations (based on six pooled surveys conducted with a total of 2,434 Rohingya refugee households in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh,) Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) estimated in December 2017 that during the persecution, the military and the local Buddhists killed at least 10,000 Rohingya people.[3][4] 354 Rohingya villages in Rakhine state were reported as burned down and destroyed,[5] as well as the looting of many Rohingya houses,[6] and widespread gang rapes and other forms of sexual violence against the Rohingya Muslim women and girls.[7][8][9] The military drive also displaced a large number of Rohingya people and made them refugees. According to the United Nations reports, as of January 2018, nearly 690,000 Rohingya people had fled or had been driven out of Rakhine state who then took shelter in the neighboring Bangladesh as refugees. In December, two Reuters journalists who had been covering the Inn Din massacre event were arrested and imprisoned.

The 2017 persecution against the Rohingya Muslims and non-Muslims has been termed as ethnic cleansing and genocide by various United Nations agencies, International Criminal Court officials, human rights groups, and governments.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] British prime minister Theresa May and United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called it "ethnic cleansing" while the French President Emanuel Macron described the situation as "genocide".[17][18][19] The United Nations described the persecution as "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing". In late September that year, a seven-member panel of the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal found the Myanmar military and the Myanmar authority guilty of the crime of genocide against the Rohingya and the Kachin minority groups.[20][21] The Myanmar leader and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi was again criticized for her silence over the issue and for supporting the military actions.[22] Subsequently, in November 2017, the governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar signed a deal to facilitate the return of Rohingya refugees to their native Rakhine state within two months, drawing a mixed response from international onlookers.[23]

Background[]

Location of Rakhine State in Myanmar

As early as 2015, the Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic at Yale Law School found "strong evidence that genocide is being committed against Rohingya."[24][25] After eight months of analyzing whether the persecution of the Rohingya in Rakhine State satisfy the criteria for genocide, the study found that Burmese government with the help of extremist Buddhist monks were responsible for ethnic cleansing and genocide against the Rohingya.

The government announced on 25 August 2017 that 71 people (one soldier, one immigration officer, 10 policemen and 59 insurgents) had been killed overnight during coordinated attacks by up to 150 insurgents on 24 police posts and the 552nd Light Infantry Battalion army base in Rakhine State.[26][27][28] The Myanmar Army stated that the attack began at around 1:00 AM, when insurgents armed with bombs, small arms weapons and machetes blew up a bridge. The army further stated that a majority of the attacks occurred around 3:00 AM to 4:00 AM.[29] The ARSA claimed they were taking "defensive actions" in 25 different locations and accused government soldiers of raping and killing civilians. The group also claimed that Rathedaung had been under a blockade for more than two weeks, starving the Rohingya, and that the government forces were preparing to do the same in Maungdaw.[30] According to Yanghee Lee, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights for Myanmar, at least 1,000 people had been killed in the violence since 25 August. She added that the figure is "very likely an underestimate".[31] She also downplayed the chance that Myanmar generals will ever see the inside of the International Criminal Court due to ''powerful international defenders.''[32]

Persecution and crackdown[]

Soon after the attack on security forces, the Myanmar military responded with “heavy counter-offensive”, and supported by Buddhist militia, started “clearance operations” against the Rohingya people. In the first week, at least 130 Rohingya people were killed.[33] To save lives, the Rohingya people started fleeing Myanmar in large numbers, and tried to take shelter in the neighboring Bangladesh. The Myanmar military often opened fire with mortar shells and machine-guns on the fleeing Rohingya women and children,[34] and dead bodies of many Rohingya people began to be washed ashore from the drowned boats as they attempted to cross the Naf River to enter Bangladesh.[35] By the second week, at least 1000 Rohingya were killed.[36] During the military operations, the Myanmar military burnt down and destroyed hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya civilians, raped and sexually abused Rohingya women, and committed other crimes against humanity.

Massacre and killings[]

In August 2017, A Rohingya armed group brandishing guns and swords potentially massacre of up to 99 Hindu women, men, and children and unlawful killings and abductions of Hindu villagers[37]

Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh after being driven out of Myanmar, 2017

In December 2017, Médecins Sans Frontières estimated that more than 10,000 Rohingya people were killed by the Myanmar military since the "clearance operations" started on 25 August 2017.[3] Earlier, it was also reported that at least 6,700 to 7,000 Rohingya people including 730 children were killed in the first month alone since the crackdown started.[38][39][40] The majority of them died from gunshot while others were burned to death in their homes. The sources described their killings as "violent deaths".[38][3] There were also reports of mass killings of Rohingyas by the military and Buddhist vigilantes in Chut Pyin village near Rathedaung. Lewa stated that they had received reports of 130 being killed in the village.[33] On September 7, 2017, The Guardian reported a mass killing of Rohingyas at the Tula Toli village, referred as Tula Toli Massacre.[41] According to AP reporting, evidence has been uncovered of likely mass graves which includes time stamped mobile phone metadata indicating an August 27th date.[42]

In February 2018, news agency Reuters uncovered a massacre event that took place in the Rakhine state's Inn Din village on 2 September 2017. It is known as Inn Din massacre. Ten Rohingya men, who were captured from the Rohingya villagers of Inn Din, were massacred by the members of Myanmar army and the Buddhist villagers who formed an "informal militia" to attack the Rohingya villages.[6] The victims were taken from the hundreds of Rohingya villagers who gathered near a beach to seek safety.[2] Reuters was able to identify all the ten victims: five of the men were fishermen, two were shopkeepers, one was an Islamic teacher, and the last two were high school students.

Village burning and looting[]

Aerial view of a burned Rohingya village in Rakhine state, Myanmar, September 2017

Human Rights Watch in December 2017 said it had found that 354 Rohingya villages in Rakhine state were burnt down and destroyed by the Myanmar military since 25 August 2017.[5] Earlier, HRW in October said that new satellite images confirmed the destruction of at least 288 Rohingya villages.[16] These destructions included thousands of structures, mainly homes used by the Rohingya Muslims. Chris Lewa, director of The Arakan Project, has blamed the security forces of burning village after village in a systematic way while also blaming Rohingya arsonists of burning the Buddhist village of Pyu Ma.[33] A video provided to ABC News by a human rights monitor purportedly shows the village burning and in another clip of freshly dug earth mound, allegedly graves of those killed.[43]

Before the Inn Din massacre in early September 2017, members of Myanmar military and the Buddhist villagers of Inn Din looted the Rohingya hamlets in the Inn Din village and then burned down the Rohingya houses.[6] Several Buddhist villagers later confessed to Reuters that they set fire to the Rohingya houses with kerosene, and also took part in the massacre on 2 September. The 33rd Light Infantry Division of Myanmar Army, the 8th Security Police Battalion, and the Buddhist villagers took part in the looting which included Rohingya property, goats, cows, cattle, and motorcycles. Thant Zin Oo, the commander of the 8th Battalion, later sold the cows and the cattle in exchange for money.[6]

Gang rapes and sexual violence[]

In November 2017, both the UN officials and the Human Rights Watch reported that the Armed Forces of Myanmar were committing widespread gang rapes and other forms of sexual violence against the Rohingya Muslim women and girls for the last three months.[7][8][9] Alongside the Armed Forces, the Myanmar Border Guard Police and Buddhist militias of Rakhine were also involved in these atrocities. HRW stated that these gang rapes and sexual violence were committed as part of the military’s ethnic cleansing campaign while the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary General on Sexual Violence in Conflict Pramila Patten stated that the Rohingya women and girls were made the "systematic" target of rapes and sexual violence because of their ethnic identity and religion. Other forms of sexual violence included sexual slavery in military captivity, forced public nudity, and humiliation. [44][8] Some women and girls were raped to death while others were found carrying raw wounds and being traumatized after they had arrived in refugee camps in Bangladesh.[8] Human Rights Watch reported of a 15-year-old girl who was ruthlessly dragged on the ground for over 50 feet and then was raped by 10 Myanmar soldiers.[45][7]

Destruction of crime evidence[]

In February, it was reported that the Myanmar authority was bulldozing and flattening the burnt Rohingya villages and mass graves in order to destroy the evidence of atrocities committed by the Myanmar military.[46][47] These villages had been inhabited by the Rohingya people before they were burnt down by the Myanmar military during the 2017 crackdown. Some intact villages which had been emptied of their Rohingya inhabitants because of the military crackdown were also bulldozed.[48]

Attack on media[]

Since the 25 August incident, Myanmar has blocked media access and the visits of international bodies to the Rakhine state.[3] Near Rangoon on 12 December 2017, two Reuters journalists who had been covering the refugee story were charged and imprisoned by the police for violating a 1923 colonial law related to secrecy.[49] On 1 February 2018, a Myanmar court denied bail for the two Reuters journalists.[1] Upon this, the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres expressed his concern and called for the release of the two journalists.

Clearance operations[]

Myanmar security forces member near burnt down houses

According to the Mission report of OHCHR (released on 11 October 2017 by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights), the Myanmar military in early August 2017 began a "systematic" process of driving hundreds of thousands of Rohingya from Myanmar. The report noted that "prior to the incidents and crackdown of 25 August, a strategy was pursued to:[50][51]

Refugee crisis[]

Rohingya refugees in refugee camp in Bangladesh, 2017

Since 25 August 2017, a large number of Rohingya people was displaced and became refugees as a result of the military crackdown. According to the United Nations reports, as of January 2018, nearly 690,000 Rohingya people had fled or had been driven out of Rakhine state who then took shelter in the neighboring Bangladesh as refugees.[1][2] Earlier, it was estimated that around 650,000 Rohingya Muslims had fled Myanmar, as of November 2017.[52][53][54][55] In November 2017, the government of Bangladesh signed a pact with their Myanmar counterparts to return the Rohingya refugees to their homes in the Rakhine territory.[23] The deal arose following a diplomatic meeting on the matter between Aung San Suu Kyi and Abul Hassan Mahmud Ali, the foreign minister of Bangladesh.[56] The accord was viewed by international commentators as a conscious effort by the Myanmar leader to address criticism over her lack of action in the conflict.[57] This decision, coming after both the United Nations and Rex Tillerson, US Secretary of State, declared that the actions undertaken by the Burmese army against the Rohingya refugees constituted ethnic cleansing, was met with hesitation and criticism by aid groups.[58] In August 2017, Thailand announced that it was 'preparing to receive' Rohingya refugees fleeing Myanmar.[59] In September 2017, Nepal increased surveillance at its border with India to prevent more Rohingya refugees from entering the country. A small community of Rohingya refugees live in the capital, Kathmandu.[60]

Criticism[]

The 2017 persecution against the Rohingya people garnered strong criticism from all across the world, and created grave concern about the human rights issues. International communities and human rights officials have described the violence as ethnic cleansing and genocide. Soon after the security forces and Buddhist militia started "clearance operations", the world leaders warned the Myanmar authority to avoid civilian casualties.[33] In late September, a seven-member panel of the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal accused Myanmar of conducting genocide against the Rohingya and the Kachin minority groups.[20][21] The verdict came after a five-day trial, held at the law faculty of the University of Malaya, which examined various documentaries, expert views, and the testimony of the victims of atrocities. The tribunal also made 17 recommendations including demilitarization of the Rakhine state and the end of the discriminatory citizenship law.[20][21] The United Nations' human rights chief Zeid bin Ra'ad described the persecution as "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing". Later, on 5 December 2017, he announced that the Rohingya persecution may constitute genocide under international human rights laws.[61] In November, British prime minister Theresa May and United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson described the situation as "ethnic cleansing"[17][18] while the French President Emanuel Macron called it genocide.[19]

After a two-year investigation into the plight of the Rohingya ethnic minority, the human rights group Amnesty International in their report described the restricted situation of the Rohingya people as "an open-air prison" as they are under a "vicious system of institutionalised discrimination and segregation" which is limiting their human rights, their freedom of movement, and their access to food, healthcare, and education.[62][63] In the report, Amnesty International mentions that the Rohingya minority are confined to their villages, to townships, and to shabby camps which are cut off from the rest of Myanmar, and travel between their own villages is seriously restricted. Travel between townships is subject to a complicated process of obtaining permission, and even then those permitted to travel are routinely harassed, physically tortured or arrested. All these "systematic" discrimination and persecution amount to apartheid, the rights group said. [62][63]

As in the 2016 incident of Rohingya persecution, the Myanmar leader and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi was again criticized her silence over the issue and for supporting the military actions.[22] She has been stripped of her 1997 Freedom of Oxford award over "inaction" in handling the raging violence.[64] Others argue that since the military retains significant autonomy and power in the government, she may be powerless to control them. Her inaction, on behalf of the Rohingya, brought a plea for action from fellow Nobel Peace Prize laureate Malala Yousafzai.[22] Numerous people have called for Suu Kyi's Nobel Prize to be revoked. Nobel Peace Prize laureate Desmond Tutu also criticized Suu Kyi's stand to defend the military actions.[65] The Economist criticised Suu Kyi's stance, arguing: "the violence in Rakhine has reached such an unconscionable level that there can be no justifying continued passivity."[66]

Direct sanctions against the Myanmar military and penalties for firms that do business with companies linked to it, as were in place by America and other countries in the past, have been suggested as the best response to the violence.[66] According to The Economist, "The Burmese army is not easy to influence, but economic and diplomatic isolation do seem to have played a part in persuading it to surrender power in the first place."[66]

Reactions[]

Nations[]

International protests
Protest rally held in Tehran in support of Muslims in Myanmar
Protesters in Cape Town, South Africa calling for the protection of the Rohingya people.

Holy See[]

At the Vatican, Sunday, August 26, 2017, Pope Francis referred to "sad news about the persecution of the religious minority of our Rohingya brothers," adding that he was praying that they would receive "full rights".[67] The pope undertook a diplomatic visit to the afflicted area in late November 2017, demanding that the international community "take decisive measures to address this grave crisis."[68]

Indonesia[]

Protests erupted against the Myanmar embassy in Jakarta, with a petrol bomb being thrown towards it. Indonesian president Joko Widodo sent foreign minister Retno Marsudi for "intensive communications" in September 2017, mentioning that concrete actions are required.[69] Aid in form of tents, basic food and sanitation supplies were dispatched to refugee camps in Bangladesh through four Indonesian Air Force Lockheed C-130 Hercules.[70]

United States[]

U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, on September 14, 2017, said that Myanmar faces a "defining moment," adding:

"I think it is important that the global community speak out in support of what we all know the expectation is for the treatment of people regardless of their ethnicity... This violence must stop, this persecution must stop."[71][72][73]

China[]

On 17 November 2017, China announced that it is sending its Foreign Minister Wang Yi to Myanmar and Bangladesh in a bid to shore up Beijing’s influence in the region and mediate in the deepening Rohingya refugee crisis .[74]

Supranational bodies[]

United Nations[]

With the renewed genocide and exodus in August 2017, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and Jordanian prince Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein said that what Rohingyas were experiencing in Myanmar "seems a textbook example of ethnic cleansing",[75] supported by condemnation from UN experts such as Yanghee Lee.[76] This is further confirmed by UN High Commissioner for Refugees with the stipulated number of refugees in Bangladesh estimated at 700,000.[77] On 4 October 2017, the Myanmar authorities were asked by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) “to immediately stop violence in northern Rakhine State, and to promptly and effectively investigate and vigorously prosecute cases of violence against women and children.”[78]

ASEAN[]

The ASEAN member states have upheld a principle of non-interference in intra-ASEAN relations. A day before the 30th ASEAN Summit was held on April 26, 2017, Reuters reported on the Myanmar military’s operations on the Rohingya in November 2016. Nonetheless, the Rohingya crisis was not on the official agenda in the Summit.[79]

However, leaders of ASEAN countries have begun concerns on the issue. In a meeting with other ASEAN foreign ministers on December 19, 2016, Malaysian Foreign Minister Anifah Aman called for a collective effort to resolve the crisis. In addition, in the 30th ASEAN Summit, Indonesian President Joko Widodo discussed the issue of the Rohingya crisis with Aung San Suu Kyi, the Myanma de facto leader. He was said to stress the importance of stability in Myanmar for the wider regional security.[80]

The ASEAN states' hesitance to comment on the issue may be explained by a concern that the rise of China and its influence in Myanmar could risk ASEAN's interest in the country. Azeem Ibrahim, the author of The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar's Hidden Genocide, noted, “Myanmar’s interactions with ASEAN are perhaps indicative of its wider approach to international relations.”[81] While ASEAN member states welcome economic opportunities with China’s rise, they fear its growing influence. It has been suggested that ASEAN criticism of Myanmar’s domestic crisis will lead to closer ties between China and Myanmar.[82]

NGOs[]

According to Matthew Smith of the NGO Fortify Rights, “We can now say with a high level of confidence that state-led security forces and local armed residents have committed mass killings.” Smith accused the Burmese military of trying to expel all Rohingyas from the country.[83]

Others[]

Muslim protests were held in various capital cities in Asian countries in late November 2016.[84] Protests were held on September 8, 2017 across Asia in Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia and Pakistan in solidarity of the Rohingya people.[85] Protests were also held by Rohingya people in Melbourne, Australia in early September 2017.[86] Additional protests were held in the same month in Washington DC in the United States, Cape Town in South Africa,[87] and Jammu and Kashmir in India. A protest was also planned in Hong Kong.[88][89][90]

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ a b c Thu Thu Aung & Yimou Lee (1 February 2018). "Reuters reporters arrested under Myanmar Secrets Act denied bail". Reuters. 
  2. ^ a b c "Myanmar: Security forces face 'action' over killings". Al Jazeera News. 12 February 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d e James Bennett (14 Dec 2017). "Rohingya death toll likely above 10,000, MSF says amid exodus". ABC News. 
  4. ^ https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/sites/usa/files/summary_of_findings_-_msf_mortality_surveys_-_coxs_bazar.pdf
  5. ^ a b "New Rohingya Villages Destroyed in Myanmar". VOA News. 18 December 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Wa Lone, Kyaw Soe Oo (8 February 2018). "Massacre in Myanmar: One grave for 10 Rohingya men". Reuters. 
  7. ^ a b c Michelle Nichols (16 November 2017). "Rohingya crisis: Burmese military guilty of widespread rape of fleeing women and girls, Human Rights Watch says". The Independent. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Rohingya women gang-raped by Myanmar army". The Daily Star. 13 November 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Rick Gladstone (16 November 2017). "Rohingya Were Raped Systematically by Myanmar's Military". The New York Times. 
  10. ^ . CBS News https://www.cbsnews.com/news/myanmar-mass-graves-latest-rohingya-slaughter-genocide-ap/. Retrieved 10 April 2018.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ . Los Angeles Times http://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-myanmar-rohingyas-20180313-story.html. Retrieved 10 April 2018.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ . CNN https://www.cnn.com/2018/03/12/asia/myanmar-rohingya-un-violence-genocide-intl/index.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ . Amnesty International https://www.amnestyusa.org/press-releases/un-security-council-end-disgraceful-inaction-on-myanmars-rohingya-crisis/. Retrieved 10 April 2018.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ . CNN https://www.cnn.com/2017/11/22/politics/tillerson-myanmar-ethnic-cleansing/index.html. Retrieved 10 April 2018.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ . Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/10/rohingya-crisis-icc-prosecutor-seeks-power-to-investigate-crimes-against-humanity. Retrieved 10 April 2018.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ a b "Burma: New Satellite Images Confirm Mass Destruction". Human Rights Watch. 17 October 2017. 
  17. ^ a b Joe Watts, Caroline Mortimer (13 November 2017). "Downing Street says Burma's treatment of Rohingya Muslims looks like 'ethnic cleansing'". The Independent. 
  18. ^ a b Rex W. Tillerson (22 November 2017). "Efforts To Address Burma's Rakhine State Crisis". U.S. State Department. 
  19. ^ a b "French President labels attacks on Rohingya minority as 'genocide'". SBS News. 20 September 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c Bernama (22 September 2017). "Permanent Peoples Tribunal finds Myanmar guilty of genocide". New Straits Times. 
  21. ^ a b c "Myanmar found guilty of genocide". The Daily Star. 23 September 2017. 
  22. ^ a b c Ramzy, Austin, "270,000 Rohingya Have Fled Myanmar, U.N. Says", September 8, 2017, New York Times retrieved September 9, 2017
  23. ^ a b "Myanmar Rohingya crisis: Deal to allow return of Muslim refugees". BBC. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017. 
  24. ^ "Persecution of the Rohingya Muslims: Is Genocide Occurring in Myanmar's Rakhine State?" (PDF). Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic at Yale Law School. Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  25. ^ Yale Law School https://law.yale.edu/yls-today/news/clinic-study-finds-evidence-genocide-myanmar. Retrieved 10 April 2018.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ "Myanmar tensions: Dozens dead in Rakhine militant attack". BBC News. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 
  27. ^ Htusan, Esther (25 August 2017). "Myanmar: 71 die in militant attacks on police, border posts". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 
  28. ^ Lone, Wa; Slodkowski, Antoni (24 August 2017). "At least 12 dead in Muslim insurgent attacks in northwest Myanmar". Reuters. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 
  29. ^ "At least 71 dead in Myanmar Rakhine fighting: Govt". The Straits Times. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  30. ^ "Deadly clashes erupt in Myanmar's restive Rakhine state". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  31. ^ Rebecca Wright, Ben Westcott (8 September 2017). "At least 270,000 Rohingya flee Myanmar violence in 2 weeks, UN says". CNN. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  32. ^ "UN Rapporteur Says Little Chance Myanmar Will be Tried at ICC Over Rohingya". The Globe Post. 2018-07-08. Retrieved 2018-07-08. 
  33. ^ a b c d "Fears mount of Myanmar atrocities as fleeing Rohingya families drown". The Guardian. 1 September 2017. 
  34. ^ "Myanmar troops open fire on civilians fleeing attacks". Al Jazeera. 26 Aug 2017. 
  35. ^ "Rohingya refugees drown as exodus mounts". BBC. 31 August 2017. 
  36. ^ Rebecca Ratcliffe (6 September 2017). "Who are the Rohingya and what is happening in Myanmar?". The Guardian. 
  37. ^ Myanmar: New evidence reveals Rohingya armed group massacred scores in Rakhine State
  38. ^ a b Hannah Beech (14 December 2017). "At Least 6,700 Rohingya Died in Myanmar Crackdown, Aid Group Says". The New York Times. 
  39. ^ "Report: Nearly 7,000 Rohingya Muslims Killed in First Month of Army Crackdown". VOA News. 14 December 2017. 
  40. ^ McPherson, Poppy (2017-12-14). "6,700 Rohingya Muslims killed in one month in Myanmar, MSF says". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-14. 
  41. ^ "Myanmar: satellite imagery confirms Rohingya village of Tula Toli razed". The Guardian. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  42. ^ Al Jaazera News. (1 February 2018). "Evidence of Rohingya mass graves uncovered in Myanmar." Al Jazeera website Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  43. ^ "Villagers slaughtered in Myanmar 'massacre', reports of women and children among more than 100 dead". ABC News. 1 September 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017. 
  44. ^ Serajul Quadir (12 November 2017). "U.N. official says will raise sexual violence against Rohingya with ICC". Reuters. 
  45. ^ Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein (3 January 2017). "5 reasons the U.N. Security Council should care about the Burmese military's sexual assaults on the Rohingya". The Washington Post. 
  46. ^ "Rohingya villages destroyed 'to erase evidence'". BBC. 23 February 2018. 
  47. ^ Emanuel Stoakes (19 February 2018). "Myanmar government 'bulldozing Rohingya mass grave to hide evidence'". The Guardian. 
  48. ^ Shoon Naing & Thu Thu Aung (23 February 2018). "Myanmar bulldozes Rohingya villages after 'cleansing' campaign". Reuters. 
  49. ^ Eltagouri, Marwa. (13 December 2017). "Two journalists covering Rohingya crisis in Burma arrested for possessing ‘secret papers’". Washington Post website Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  50. ^ a b Mission report of OHCHR rapid response mission to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, 13-24 September 2017, released 11 October 2017, U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, retrieved October 12, 2017
  51. ^ a b "UN report details brutal Myanmar effort to drive out half a million Rohingya," October 11, 2017, Reuters at the United Nations, in The Guardian (newspaper), retrieved October 12, 2017
  52. ^ Tom Miles (20 December 2017). "Myanmar bars U.N. rights investigator before visit". Reuters. Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  53. ^ "China and Russia oppose UN resolution on Rohingya". The Guardian. 24 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  54. ^ "Myanmar Military Investigating a Mass Grave in Rakhine". Time. Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  55. ^ "100,000 Rohingya on first repatriation list | Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com. Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  56. ^ Holmes, Oliver; agencies (23 November 2017). "Myanmar signs pact with Bangladesh over Rohingya repatriation" – via www.theguardian.com. 
  57. ^ "Myanmar, Bangladesh Announce Tentative Deal To Repatriate Rohingya Refugees". 
  58. ^ "Human rights group says repatriating Rohingya to Myanmar is "Unthinkable" while Rohingya remain unsafe". 
  59. ^ "Thailand 'preparing to receive' those fleeing Myanmar violence". Reuters. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  60. ^ "Rohingya crisis: The Myanmar military crackdown explained". thenewdaily.com.au. Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
  61. ^ "Yanghee Lee: Rohingya Crimes in Myanmar Bear Hallmarks of Genocide". The Globe Post. 2018-03-12. Retrieved 2018-07-08. 
  62. ^ a b "'Caged Without A Roof': Apartheid In Myanmar's Rakhine State". Amnesty International. 
  63. ^ a b Jesselyn Cook (11 November 2017). "Apartheid In Myanmar: Rohingya Muslims Trapped In 'Open-Air Prison,' Amnesty Says". Huffington Post. 
  64. ^ "Aung San Suu Kyi stripped of Freedom of Oxford". BBC.com. 27 Nov 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  65. ^ Naaman Zhou and Michael Safi. "Desmond Tutu condemns Aung San Suu Kyi: 'Silence is too high a price' | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  66. ^ a b c "Aung San Suu Kyi and her foreign admirers must help the Rohingyas". The Economist. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  67. ^ Associated Press, "Pope laments "persecutions" of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar," August 27, 2017, Fox News, retrieved September 11, 2017
  68. ^ Winfield, Nicole. "Pope Francis demands 'decisive measures' to resolve Rohingya exodus". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30. 
  69. ^ Da Costa, Agustinus (3 September 2017). "Indonesian envoy to urge Myanmar to halt violence against Rohingya Mus". Reuters. Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  70. ^ "Indonesian President Joko Widodo dispatches aid to Rohingya refugees". The Straits Times. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  71. ^ "Myanmar faces 'defining moment', must stop the violence: U.S.," September 14, 2017, Reuters News Service, retrieved September 14, 2017
  72. ^ "Secretaries Tillerson, Johnson Condemn Ethnic Violence in Burma," September 14, 2017, C-SPAN (Congressional TV) video, with transcripts, retrieved September 14, 2017
  73. ^ "Rex Tillerson says violence against Myanmar's Rohingya must stop; supports Aung San Suu Kyi," September 14, 2017, CBS News, retrieved September 14, 2017
  74. ^ "China to mediate on Rohingya crisis". theindependent.in. 11 November 2017. 
  75. ^ Associated Press, "U_N_ Rights Chief Rohingya Face Ethnic Cleansing in Myanmar", September 11, 2017, Time retrieved September 12, 2017,
  76. ^ "OHCHR | Myanmar: UN experts condemn ongoing persecution of Rohingya in Rakhine State". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 27 September 2017. 
  77. ^ Section, United Nations News Service (22 September 2017). "UN News - UN scales up response as number of Rohingya refugees fleeing Myanmar nears 500,000". UN News Service Section. Retrieved 27 September 2017. 
  78. ^ "OHCHR - Myanmar Rohingya abuses may be crimes against humanity, UN rights experts warn". www.ohchr.org. 
  79. ^ "Why ASEAN Can't Ignore the Rohingya Crisis" (https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/why-asean-cant-ignore-the-rohingya-crisis/). The Diplomat. 17 May 2017.
  80. ^ "Why ASEAN Can't Ignore the Rohingya Crisis" (https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/why-asean-cant-ignore-the-rohingya-crisis/). The Diplomat. 17 May 2017.
  81. ^ Ibrahim, Azeem. "The Return to Democracy (2008-2015)." The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar's Hidden Genocide. London, England: Hurst, 2016. 75. Print.
  82. ^ Chachavalpongpun, P. 2012. 'The Vexing Strategic Tug-of-War over Naypyidaw: ASEAN's View of the Sino-Burmese Ties.' Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 31:1 97-114.
  83. ^ "A state-led massacre triggers an exodus of Rohingyas from Myanmar". The Economist. 9 September 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  84. ^ "Rohingya crisis sparks Muslim protests in Asian capitals". Channel NewsAsia. 2016-11-25. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  85. ^ Ahmed, Farid. "Protests across Asia over Myanmar's treatment of Rohingya Muslims - CNN". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  86. ^ Payne, Sacha (2015-04-29). "Rohingya in Australia hold protest to call for action over Myanmar violence | SBS News". Sbs.com.au. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  87. ^ Fisher, Shamiela. "MJC to lead march in protest against Myanmar violence". Retrieved 2017-09-13. 
  88. ^ "People gather in Washington to protest persecution of Rohingya Muslims – Middle East Monitor". Middleeastmonitor.com. 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  89. ^ "Pro-Rohingya protests in Jammu and Kashmir: Protesters in Anantnag torch police vehicle, two cops injured". Firstpost.com. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  90. ^ Post Magazine (2017-09-08). "Hong Kong protest against Rohingya persecution to urge help for Myanmar Muslim minority | South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. Retrieved 2017-09-12.