2016 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes

Four-Day War
Part of Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Location Artsakh en.png
  Territory claimed by the Republic of Artsakh but controlled by Azerbaijan
Date1–5 April 2016
(4 days)
LocationNagorno-Karabakh line of contact
Result See Analysis section
Territorial
changes
Azerbaijan takes 800–2,000 hectares (8-20 km2) of land in the conflict area.[1][2] The line of contact shifted for the first time since 1994.[3]
Belligerents
 Nagorno-Karabakh
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
Commanders and leaders
Republic of Artsakh Bako Sahakyan (President of NKR, Commander-in-Chief)
Republic of Artsakh Levon Mnatsakanyan (Defense Minister of NKR)
Armenia Serzh Sargsyan (President of Armenia, Commander-in-Chief)
Armenia Seyran Ohanyan (Defense Minister of Armenia)
Armenia Yuri Khatchaturov (Chief of the General Staff of Armenia)
Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev
(President of Azerbaijan, Commander-in-Chief)
Azerbaijan Zakir Hasanov (Defense Minister of Azerbaijan)
Azerbaijan Najmaddin Sadigov (Chief of the General Staff of Azerbaijan)
Units involved
Artsakh Defense Army
Armed Forces of Armenia[4]
Azerbaijani Armed Forces
Casualties and losses

Per Armenian sources:

  • 91 troops killed (11 non-combat), 123 wounded[5][6][7][8][9]
  • 9 civilians killed, 6 wounded[10]
  • 14 tanks destroyed[11]

Azerbaijani claim:[12]

  • 320 soldiers killed, 500 wounded
  • 30 tanks and armoured vehicles, 25 artillery pieces destroyed

Per Azerbaijani sources:

  • 94 soldiers killed, 2 missing, 39 wounded
    [13]
  • 6 civilians killed, 26 wounded[14]
  • 1 Mi-24 helicopter and 1 drone lost[11][15]
  • 1 tank destroyed[16]

Armenian claim:[11][17]

  • 500–1,500 soldiers killed, 2,000–2,700 wounded
  • 2 helicopters, 14 drones shot down
  • 26 tanks, 4 IFVs, 1 AEV, 1 MRL destroyed

The Four-Day War[a] or April War,[b] began along the Nagorno-Karabakh line of contact on 1 April 2016 with the Artsakh Defense Army, backed by the Armenian Armed Forces, on one side and the Azerbaijani Armed Forces on the other. The clashes occurred in a region that is disputed between the de facto Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan. The region includes Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas. Azerbaijani forces sought to regain territory formerly within the Soviet-era Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. The clashes have been defined as "the worst" since the 1994 ceasefire.[27]

A ceasefire was reached on 5 April, however, both sides accused each other of violations. Azerbaijan claimed to have regained 2,000 hectares of land,[2] while Armenian officials suggested a loss of 800 hectares of land of no strategic importance.[1]

The US State Department estimated that a total of 350 people—military and civilian—died.[28] Official sources of the warring parties put those estimates either much higher or much lower, depending on the source.

Background[]

The Nagorno-Karabakh War ended with a ceasefire agreement between the warring parties that came into effect on 12 May 1994. Since then, both Azerbaijan and Armenia have reported over 7,000 breaches of the ceasefire;[29][30] more than 100 breaches of the ceasefire were reported and 12 Azerbaijani soldiers had been killed in 2015 alone.[22] The April 2016 clashes have been the most serious breach of the 1994 ceasefire to date.[31]

Among the possible reasons behind the conflict escalation is Azerbaijan's worsening economy. The collapse of oil prices in 2015–16 has been frequently cited, with clashes being used to distract the Azerbaijani population from rising prices and unemployment.[22][32] Alternatively, some Armenian sources blame Turkey for provoking violence.[32] Some Turkish commentators have suggested a Russian strategy to destabilize the region.[22]

Clashes[]

Each side blamed the other for the outbreak of clashes around the towns of Aghdara, Tartar, Agdam, Khojavend, and Fuzuli.[33] According to Armenian sources, on the night of 1 April and early morning of 2 April, the Azerbaijani side launched large-scale attacks along the contact line between Karabakh and Azerbaijan. On 2 April, a 12-year-old Armenian boy was killed as a result of missile artillery attack from a BM-21 Grad near the border with Martuni.[34] Two other children were wounded as well.[35] According to Azerbaijani sources, on 2 April, Azerbaijani positions and inhabited places near the front line came under fire from Armenian military, armed with mortars and high caliber grenade launchers,[4] that killed 2 people and wounded 10 civilians.[36]Armenian Armed Forces violated ceasefire 127 times during the day, using 82 and 120-millimeter mortars and huge machine guns in different directions of the frontline.[37] According to the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense, during a rapid counter-offensive, the Armenian side's front defense line was broken in multiple places and several strategic heights and inhabited places were retaken (including the strategically important hill of Lalatapa).[33][36] An AFP journalist confirmed that the Lalatapa heights were also under Azerbaijani control.[38] The Azerbaijani side claimed that they had captured some areas, including heights near the village of Talysh, as well as the village of Seysulan.[39] However, the Ministry of Defence of Nagorno-Karabakh says this claim is untrue.[40] On 8 May the Armenia's First Channel release footage from military positions near Seysulan.[41] 14,400 people living in villages were affected by clashes, but no internal displacement or immediate humanitarian need was reported.[31] Armenian Defense Ministry spokesman Artsrun Hovhannisyan sharply accused Azerbaijan of "launching an unprovoked coordinated ground offensive against Armenia’s forces", saying the Azerbaijani military used warplanes, tanks and artillery to try to make inroads into Nagorno-Karabakh.[4] During the first day of fighting, Armenian forces claimed to have destroyed at least three Azerbaijani tanks, two military helicopters (including an Mi-24G and at least one armed Mil Mi-8/17) and two unmanned drones, photographs and videos of which surfaced on the internet.[42] Armenian frontline positions were reinforced, heavy artillery was brought forward, and in the NKR capital Stepanakert reservists were called up.

On 3 April, Armenian military authorities announced that NKR forces had recaptured positions around Talysh,[43] which the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense claimed was untrue.[44] On 6 April, news footage shown on Armenia's First Channel revealed Armenian journalists and NKR troops freely mingling on the streets of Talysh and Madagiz.[45] On 8 April, news footage shown on an Azerbaijani TV channel showed the Azerbaijan military installations purported to be near the Talysh heights.[46][47][48] On 11 April, news footage from Armenia's First channel showed the Talysh heights under the control of NKR troops.[49] Again on 8 May, news footage from Civilnet showed journalist Tatul Hakobyan with some NKR soldiers at Talysh heights near Naftalan.[50] Later, Defense Minister Zakir Hasanov stated that if shelling of Azerbaijani settlements by Armenian forces did not cease, Azerbaijan would consider launching an artillery bombardment on Stepanakert.[51] On the same day, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense announced a unilateral end to hostilities. The Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense stated that should Armenian shelling pursue, Azerbaijan would continue its offensive.[52]

On 4 April, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense reported that an Armenian command and control center had been destroyed and released a video which captured footage of the attack. The Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense claimed that along with numerous military personnel, two high-ranking Armenian officers were killed as a result.[53] The three deceased[citation needed] Armenian lieutenant colonels, were identified as Roman V. Poghosyan, Alexan G. Arakelyan, and Gregorian K. Onik, along with one unidentified colonel.[citation needed] The same day, the Armenian defense ministry announced that an Azerbaijani drone, identified as an Israeli-made IAI Harop, attacked a bus carrying Armenian volunteers enlisting in military service to the Nagorno-Karabakh town of Martakert by slamming itself against it, killing seven people aboard including the heads of two rural communities within the NKR. It is believed to be the first ever combat use of the drone anywhere.[54][55] An Israeli-made ThunderB surveillance drone was shot down on 2 April according to the NK defense force.[56] Armenian officials later protested Israel's supply of weaponry to Azerbaijan.[57][58] Some Azerbaijani sources claimed that Mataghis was under Azerbaijani control, citing Azerbaijan Ministry of Defense [59] but Armenian side says this is not true because they repelled an Azerbaijani offensive allegedly backed by Turkey.[60] Later Armenian side published video to prove that Mataghis remain in their control.[61][62]

On 5 April, Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense announced that the mutual ceasefire agreement was breached by Armenian forces which shelled Azerbaijani positions near Tap Qaraqoyunlu with 60, 82 and 120 mm mortars.[63]

Damaged houses in Makhrizli village, Agdam District. 1 May 2016

According to Azerbaijani claims Armenian Armed Forces directed high caliber artillery fire at a mosque (in Əhmədağalı, one civilian dead),[64] schools (in Seydimli, one schoolboy injured)[65] and residential buildings as well as civilian infrastructure.[66][67] Damage to houses in Azerbaijan by Armenian artillery fire was reported in the Russian press.[68] According to Azerbaijan, on 7 April,[69] Armenian armed forces shelled an ambulance evacuating injured Azerbaijani civilians near Aghdara-Goranboy.[70]. Also, on 7 April, Armenian "X-55" style drone, that tried to realize flights in the battle-field,was become harmless by Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense with special ways.[71] The Ministry of Defence of Nagorno-Karabakh published some aerial photos to prove that Azerbaijan deploys military units near populated areas and violated the Article 52 of Geneva Convention.[72] During a BBC visit to Azerbaijan's side of frontline, a team of BBC journalists asked to see and ensure where the alleged military objects are placed but the Azerbaijani Defense Ministry refused for "safety reasons".[73][74] On 8 April, artillery fire was exchanged between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces, with the Armenians reporting two soldiers killed.[75] A temporary ceasefire agreement mediated by the International Committee of the Red Cross and field assistants of the OSCE, allowed for both sides to collect dead and missing soldiers.[76][77] On 14 April, the Azerbaijani government reported that one of its soldiers had been killed by Armenian forces on the line of contact.[78] On 15 April, Nagorno-Karabakh reported one of its soldiers had been killed in action with Azerbaijani forces.[79] A soldier of the Nagorno Karabakh military was reported killed in action with Azerbaijani forces on 19 April.[80] Further skirmishes occurred on 21 April, killing another Nagorno-Karabakh soldier.[81]

In the course of the clashes, mortar shells fired from the conflict area hit a village in the northwestern Iranian province of East Azerbaijan, but no casualties or damages were reported.[82]

Claims of atrocities and usage of prohibited munitions[]

According to Armenian officials, residents of Talysh and Madagiz had been evacuated and provided with shelter in other parts of the region.[83] Armenian and international reporters announced that after Talysh was retaken by Armenian troops, an elderly Armenian couple had been found shot in their home and their corpses had been mutilated. According to these reports, Azerbaijani soldiers also killed another elderly woman.[84][85][86][87] Photographs of corpses with ears cut off revived memories of the atrocities of the 1988–1994 war observed a Le Monde reporter.[88] According to the Russia's leading human rights lawyer,[89] the head of the International Protection Centre Karinna Moskalenko, complaints about these facts of violence against the civilian population are already prepared to be sent to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR).[90] Azerbaijan's Ministry of Defense denied these reports.[91][92]

On 4 April, it was reported that Azerbaijani forces decapitated the body of a Yazidi-Armenian soldier, Kyaram Sloyan, who had been killed in action,[93][94][95] with videos and pictures of his severed head posted on social networks.[96][97][98][99] According to The Sunday Times, it included "shocking souvenir photos of uniformed Azerbaijani soldiers posing with the severed head".[95] Azerbaijani sources rejected this claim as false.[100] On 3 May Azerbaijani Defense Ministry denied this information and claimed that all the bodies of the Armenian soldiers were handed over in the presence of international observers, and no traces of violence were detected on the bodies.[101] Sloyan's body was buried without its head on 5 April 2016, in his native village of Artashavan. On 8 April, through the mediation of the Red Cross, the Azerbaijani side returned Sloyan's head.[102] Sloyan was interred for a second time the following day, to lay his head with his body.[102][103][104][105] According to Regnum News Agency and KavNews Russian agency, during his visit to Terter, Agdam and Barda districts, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev awarded the Azerbaijani soldier who had posed with the severed head of Sloyan.[106] Armenian Deputy Foreign Minister Shavarsh Kocharyan condemned the encouragement of the Azerbaijani serviceman who was depicted on another photo where the mutilated head of Sloyan was manifestly shown.[107]

On 8 April, Artak Beglaryan, a spokesperson for the NKR Prime Minister, posted a photo on his Twitter account showing the beheaded corpse of an Armenian soldier. He called the beheading in a Tweet a "barbaric act & Daesh/ISIS style war crime."[108] According to the public report of the Human Right's defender (ombudsman) of NKR, "the facts of beheading Hayk Toroyan, Kyaram Sloyan, and Hrant Gharibyan by the Azerbaijani troops, as well as the torturing and mutilation of 18 NKR army members constitute grave breaches of customary international law".[109] Azerbaijan's Ministry of Defense denied these reports.[110]

Relatives of three Armenian soldiers killed and beheaded during the escalation filed a complaint against Azerbaijan to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The plaintiffs demand to recognize the case of inhuman treatment with regard to the bodies, lack of respect for their privacy, and discrimination based on nationality.[111]

In April 2016 the European Ombudsman Institute (EOI) issued a statement that condemns any violation of human rights regarding civilians and attacks on civilian objects in Nagorno-Karabakh. According to EOI, "civilian citizens of Nagorno-Karabakh were inhumanly treated without any respect and by that offended in their dignity". "We are concerned by the information received, that peaceful civilians were killed in the Nagorno-Karabakh settlements through partly cruel and inhuman methods of execution. All these operations constitute gross violations of human rights; they are opposed to European human rights and human values; they significantly endanger the European system for the protection and promotion of human rights".[112]

Representatives of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) have stated their intentions to report the beheadings and other human rights violations allegedly conducted by Azerbaijan to the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights. The co-rapporteurs said: "We are going to submit a report to the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights on the fact of murdering and beheading of a conscript, and then publicizing it."[113][114]

HALO Trust reported that Azerbaijan had dropped rocket-dispensed cluster bombs around civilian settlements in NKR.[115]

On 17 May 2016 Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that on 11 May the Armenian military had used 122-mm calibre white phosphorus munitions prohibited by the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons against Azerbaijani civilians and civilian objects.[116] On 11 May military attaches from 13 countries reviewed the territory in the Askipara village where the white phosphorus munition had been fired.[117] The usage of phosphorus munition by the Armenian military was also reported by Al Jazeera.[118] Azerbaijani Military Prosecutor's Office initiated a criminal case upon the finding.[116] However NKR foreign ministry and Armenia defense ministry says this is a falsification and distortion of the reality.[119][120][121]

Transfer of bodies[]

On 10 April, the State Commission on Prisoners of War, Hostages and Missing Persons of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic said that of the 18 bodies of Armenian soldiers transferred that same day by Azerbaijan, all showed signs of torture or mutilation.[citation needed] The Commission called these acts "a flagrant manifestation of inhumanity, run counter to the laws and customs of war and are in grave violation of the international humanitarian law", adding that the Karabakh side will ensure that "such behavior of the Azerbaijani side is condemned in strongest terms by the international community and the specialized agencies".[122][123] Azerbaijan's Ministry of Defense denied the accusations and claimed that the transferred bodies of Azerbaijani servicemen had been mutilated by the Armenian side.[124] The NKR State Commission on Prisoners of War, Hostages and Missing Persons called this claim by Azerbaijan a cynical attempt to mislead the international community, observing that before the start of the exchange procedure, all the bodies of the dead soldiers had been examined in the presence of representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and no traces of abuse or ill-treatment had been discovered or registered on Azerbaijani soldiers.[125]

Aftermath[]

Casualty estimates[]

According to the US State Department, Azerbaijan "took a huge number of casualties, including comparatively", although the number was not specified. Overall, a senior member of the US State Department estimated 350 casualties on both sides, including civilians.[28] According to the Russian analytical center Ostkraft the Azerbaijan army stopped its offensive against Karabakh because 800 Azerbaijani soldiers died during the clashes.[126][127]

Official estimates of the warring parties are far apart from each other. According to official statements of the involved sides, 90 Armenian[5][6][7] and 31 Azerbaijani soldiers were killed during the clashes,[13] and several pieces of military equipment from both sides were destroyed. Also according to official statements, ten civilians (6 Azerbaijani and 4 Armenian) were killed in the conflict.[5][14]

Various non-official Azerbaijani sources, per research of social networks, put the actual number of Azerbaijani soldiers killed at 94, while two remain missing.[13][128]

According to Christoph Bierwirth, UNHCR representative in Armenia, more than 2,000 people left Nagorno-Karabakh for Armenia amid the clashes.[129]

Analysis[]

In the aftermath, there was no conclusive assessment on the outcome of the clashes.[130] Neil Melvin, director of the armed conflict and conflict management programme at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, stated that "Azerbaijan suffered heavy losses for relatively minor territorial gains, this is nonetheless seen as a victory, after 25 years of a sense of having been defeated".[131]

Several analysts noted that the clashes did not result in significant changes.[132] Matthew Bodner wrote in The Moscow Times on 6 April that "the previous status quo has been more-or-less preserved."[133] Independent Armenian journalist Tatul Hakobyan, who visited the fighting scene during the clashes, remarked that the death of scores of soldiers of both sides was "senseless" as no real change occurred. He stated: "Azerbaijan did not win and Armenia did not lose."[134] Russian military expert Vladimir Yevseyev said that the Azerbaijani offensive, despite initial victory, was not a success because the Azerbaijani side has numerous killed soldiers and destroyed tanks.[135]

The International Crisis Group assessment stated that Azerbaijan gained "small but strategically important pieces of land".[136] Russian military analyst Pavel Felgenhauer believes that Azerbaijan "won the first round of fighting".[137] Former minister of defense of Nagorno-Karabakh Samvel Babayan stated that the territories gained by Azerbaijan have strategic importance, and they were lost by Armenians within one hour.[138] Karabakh and Armenia government rejected his criticism.[139]

Chatham House fellow Zaur Shiriyev, suggested that Azerbaijan prompted a "carefully controlled escalation [that] served to raise international awareness of the fragility of a status quo which Azerbaijan regards as unfavourable, in order to galvanize the international mediators and put pressure on Yerevan to be constructive at the negotiating table."[140] British journalist Thomas de Waal, senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and author of Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War, does not believe that the Azerbaijani offensive was meant as a full-scale military operation but rather as a limited attempt to bring the conflict back on the international agenda and put Armenia under pressure. He believes that after the April violence, the conflict is unlikely to return to its semi-quiet state and that a new round of fighting would be harder to contain than previous conflicts.[141]

Christine Philippe-Blumauer noted, "Russian official reactions suggest that Russian troops would not actually decide to intervene in favor of the Armenian side, should the conflict scale-up to a fully-fledged war yet again."[142]

Official statements[]

Armenian

Armenian Defense Ministry Spokesman Artsrun Hovhannisyan stated that the Azerbaijani attempted to take part of northern Karabakh with a "blitzkrieg", which failed.[143] After a ceasefire was reached NKR Defense Army Colonel Victor Arustamyan said that one military position was left under Azerbaijani control, which was of no strategic significance.[144]

On 24 April President Serzh Sargsyan acknowledged that Azerbaijani troops had taken very small pieces of land in the north and south of the contact line, which he said had no strategic importance for Armenian forces, who had not attempted to reclaim them to avoid additional loss of life.[145] On 17 May Sargsyan stated that the Armenian side had lost control of "800 hectares of land having neither tactical not strategic importance",[1][146][147]

On 26 April 2016 Sargsyan fired 3 senior Armenian army officials, including the chiefs of the Logistics, the Intelligence and the Communications Departments, a move which was apparently influenced by the public criticism of the high death toll among the Armenian soldiers.[148]

President Sargsyan stated that Armenia would formally recognize the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh "if the military operations continue and acquire a large scale."[149] On 5 May 2016 the Government of Armenia approved the bill on recognition of the independence of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (Artsakh). It was announced, that the recognition of the independence of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is "due to the results of discussions between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, [and] considering further developments, including external factors."[150]

Azerbaijani

Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev initially claimed the clashes were a "great victory" for Azerbaijan.[151]

Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense claimed that the Azerbaijani armed forces remain in control of strategic heights near the village of Talysh.[152] Responding to Sargsyan's claim on the Armenian troops' loss of 800 ha of territory, Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense stated that the Azerbaijani military took control of 2000 hectares of territory.[153] In the opinion of analyst Rizvan Huseynov, posted at the state oil company owned media CBC, "Nearly 5% of occupied territories returned" (nearly 57 290 hectares of territory)[154]

Azerbaijani opposition websites say Azerbaijan long-serving chief of general staff Najmaddin Sadigov may be replaced over 4-day war by the First Corps Commander and deputy Nizami Osmanov, but this was refuted by the Ministry of Defense spokesman.[155][156]

Military awards[]

Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev gives awards to the serviceman of the military unit in Tartar district. 1 May 2016

A number of Armenian military servicemen were awarded by orders and medals of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.[157] Junior sergeant Robert Abajyan was posthumously awarded with Hero of Artsakh which is the highest honorary title of NKR. He became the youngest person ever to hold the title at 19 years old.[158]

19 April 2016 Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev signed orders on awarding honorary titles, orders and medals to a group of Azerbaijani military servicemen.[159] Among them Lieutenant Colonel Shukur Hamidov,[160] Lieutenant Colonel Murad Mirzayev[161] and Major Samid Imanov[162] were awarded with the medal of National Hero of Azerbaijan. Colonel Mais Barkhudarov was awarded with the rank of general-major by the Azerbaijani President because of his personally participation in the military operation over Lalatapa height.[163]

Political harassment[]

Ali Karimli, the leader of Azerbaijani Popular Front party, who criticized the Azerbaijani government over its actions during the clashes, became a subject of a series of protests (the latest one held on 12 April in front of Karimli’s house), organized by the authorities. The protesters also demanded to exile him from the country. According to the human rights lawyer Intigam Aliyev, attacks against Karimli are simply diverting attention from truly important issues and testing technologies to distract people’s justified anger caused by the serious consequences of wrong decisions.[164][165]

Russian TV channel Dozhd reported that the Azerbaijani authorities launched a criminal case against the direction and journalists of the Azerbaijani independent channel Meydan TV because of the publication of the list of Azerbaijani soldiers killed during the clashes in Nagorno-Karabakh. Their list consisted of 94 names, while the Defense Ministry of Azerbaijan confirmed only 31 deaths. According to the Meydan TV chief or Emin Milli, each person on their list really died in the clashes, and he stated that the Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan could not deny this information.[166]

International reactions[]

Supranational bodies[]

OSCE Minsk Group and co-chair countries[]

Other states[]

Partially recognized non-UN member states
Other reactions

See also[]

References[]

Notes

  1. ^ Armenian: Քառօրյա պատերազմ, tr. K’ařorya paterazm, IPA: [kʰɑroɾjɑ pɑtɛɾɑzm]; Azerbaijani: Dördgünlük müharibə[18][19][20][21][22]
  2. ^ [23][24][25] Armenian: ապրիլյան պատերազմ, aprilyan paterazm[26]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c "Karabakh lost 800 ha of land that played no strategic role: Armenia (video)". PanARMENIAN.Net. 17 May 2016.
  2. ^ a b Silahlı Qüvvələrimiz tərəfindən 2000 hektardan artıq ərazi azad edilib Archived 18 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. // Official site of Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan, 18 May 2016.
  3. ^ Simão, Licínia (June 2016). "The Nagorno-Karabakh redux" (PDF). European Union Institute for Security Studies: 2. doi:10.2815/58373. ISSN 2315-1129. For the first time since the 1990s, Azerbaijani forces managed to regain control of small parts of the territory surrounding Karabakh – the first time the Line of Contact has shifted. Although these changes do not significantly alter the parties’ military predicament on the ground...
  4. ^ a b c "Heavy Fighting Erupts in Nagorny-Karabakh". Georgia Today on the Web.
  5. ^ a b c "Karabakh War Casualty Update: Armenia puts April death toll at 92".
  6. ^ a b "ICRC: Fates of all reported missing in April hostilities in Karabakh clarified". 21 April 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  7. ^ a b "Մահացել է ԱԹՍ-ի հարվածից վիրավորված՝ Սիսիանի ջոկատի կամավորներից մեկը".
  8. ^ "125 wounded soldiers undergo treatment in Armenia and Karabakh hospitals". news.am.
  9. ^ "Armenian Soldier Succumbs to Wounds After Months of Treatment".
  10. ^ "Serj Tankian calls on supporting families of killed Armenian soldiers".
  11. ^ a b c "Azeri surgeon: Number of severely injured soldiers greatly tops the norm". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  12. ^ "Azerbaijan kills over 320 Armenian occupants in April clashes". Trend.Az. 13 May 2016.
  13. ^ a b c "Siyahı: 93 hərbçi şəhid olub, 6 mülki şəxs dünyasını dəyişib (YENİLƏNİR)". Meydan TV.
  14. ^ a b "Baku says Armenia's military dictatorship threats values that civilized world stands for". AZERNEWS.
  15. ^ "18 Armenian, 12 Azerbaijani troops killed in fighting". 2 April 2016.
  16. ^ "Минобороны Азербайджана назвало потери в боях". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  17. ^ "Министерство Обороны Азербайджана признало факты скрытия погибших в Нагорном Карабахе". FMG NEWS - Международная Служба Новостей. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  18. ^ "Four-Day War Fallout: Armenian politicians insist on Karabakh's becoming full party to talks - Karabakh - ArmeniaNow.com". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  19. ^ "The four-day war in Nagorno-Karabakh". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  20. ^ "APA – 'Four-day war': Changed status quo, balance against Armenia". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  21. ^ Helix Consulting LLC. "President Serzh Sargsyan met with first President Levon Ter-Petrosyan to discuss Four Day War". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d "Secrets of the Four-Day Karabakh War". The National Interest. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  23. ^ "Armenia: Divided Within?". Al Jazeera. 27 October 2016. ...the territories lost during the April war were of no tactical or strategic importance...
  24. ^ Souleimanov, Emil (12 May 2016). "What the fighting in Karabakh means for Azerbaijan and Armenia". CACI Analyst. ...the April War of 2016.
  25. ^ Nersisyan, Leonid (24 July 2016). "A Frozen War in Russia's Backyard Heats Up". The National Interest. ...the short but bloody April war.
  26. ^ "Արցախի հյուսիսային սահման. ապրիլյան պատերազմը լուսանկարներում". Hetq (in Armenian). 6 April 2016.
  27. ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh violence: Worst clashes in decades kill dozens". BBC News. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  28. ^ a b "Background Briefing on the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict". U.S. State Department. 16 May 2016. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  29. ^ "В марте армянские вооруженные подразделения нарушили режим прекращения огня 3746 раз" (in Russian). APA. 1 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  30. ^ "Минобороны Азербайджана: новая война за Карабах неизбежна" (in Russian). NEWSru.com. 4 June 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  31. ^ a b "Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Situation Report No. 1 (as of 03 Apr 2016)". ReliefWeb. 3 April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  32. ^ a b "A frozen conflict explodes". The Economist. 9 April 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  33. ^ a b "В боях в зоне карабахского конфликта погибли 12 военнослужащих ВС Азербайджана" (in Russian). TASS. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  34. ^ "12-year-old Vaghinak Grigoryan killed in Azeri shelling". Horizon. 2 April 2016.
  35. ^ "(02/04/16 [10:25]) Press release". NKRmil.am. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  36. ^ a b "Cəbhədə vəziyyətlə bağlı son məlumat" (in Azerbaijani). Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  37. ^ "Düşmən iriçaplı pulemyotlardan da istifadə etməklə mövqelərimizi atəşə tutub". www.1news.az. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  38. ^ AFP. "Fragile truce holds in Karabakh after four days of deadly clashes". Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  39. ^ "Azerbaijan, Armenia forces clash as Putin urges ceasefire".
  40. ^ "NKR Defense Army: Seysulan remains Armenian land, as it used to be before". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  41. ^ Popular on Youtube-Armenia (8 May 2016). "ՄԱՐՏԱԿԱՆ ԴԻՐՔԻ ԿՈՐՈՒՍՏՆ ՈՒ ՎԵՐԱԴԱՐՁԸ". Retrieved 16 November 2016 – via YouTube.
  42. ^ "‘Large-Scale’ Fighting Reported In Karabakh." RFE/RL. 2 April 2016.
  43. ^ "Heavy Fighting Continues In Karabakh." RFE/RL. 3 April 2016.
  44. ^ "Минобороны Азербайджана: "Армяне не отбивали высоту у селения Талыш"". Haqqin.az.
  45. ^ (in Armenian) Մեր սահմաններն անառիկ են" [Our borders are impenetrable]. First Channel. 6 April 2016.
  46. ^ "Qarabagda ermeni postunun ele kecirilmesi 04.04.2016".
  47. ^ "Talış kəndi yüksəkliyindən İLK reportaj ANS TV".
  48. ^ "ANS azad edilən Talış yüksəkliyində".
  49. ^ Popular on Youtube-Armenia (11 April 2016). "ԱՊՐԻԼԻ 8, 2016 ՀՅՈՒՍԻՍԱՐԵՎԵԼՅԱՆ ԱՄԵՆԱԲԱՐԴ ՀԵՆԱԿԵՏԸ". Retrieved 16 November 2016 – via YouTube.
  50. ^ CivilNet TV (8 May 2016). "Թալիշի վերագրավված դիրքերում". Retrieved 16 November 2016 – via YouTube.
  51. ^ "Азербайджан может нанести удар по Степанакерту". Haqqin.az.
  52. ^ "Минобороны: Азербайджан в одностороннем порядке приостановил боевые действия" (in Russian). Haqqin.az. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  53. ^ "Так сегодня уничтожили армянских генералов и полковников" (in Russian). Haqqin.az. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  54. ^ "Karabakh: Five killed as Armenian volunteers' bus comes under Azeri fire – Karabakh | ArmeniaNow.com". armenianow.com. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  55. ^ Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (5 April 2016). "Israeli-made kamikaze drone spotted in Nagorno-Karabakh conflict". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  56. ^ Karabakh Fighting Highlights Azerbaijan's New Israeli Weapons, Eurasianet, 6 April 2016 [1]
  57. ^ "Armenia raps Israel over alleged supply of drones to Azerbaijan: report". i24news. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  58. ^ Ravid, Barak (10 April 2016). "Armenia Protests Azerbaijan's Use of Israeli-made Suicide Drone". Haaretz. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  59. ^ "Armenian-occupied Sugovushan settlement of Azerbaijan liberated". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  60. ^ "Hetq Editor: Mataghis Never Captured; Combatants from Turkey Suffer Heavy Losses - Hetq - News, Articles, Investigations". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  61. ^ Aysor Panarmenian News ATV (5 April 2016). "EXCLUSIVE footage from Mataghis and Martakert by Shamshyan". Retrieved 16 November 2016 – via YouTube.
  62. ^ "Bako Sahakyan in Mataghis - Reportages - Armenian News - SHANT TV". Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  63. ^ "The ceasefire regime is still being violated by the units of the Armenian Armed Forces". Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  64. ^ Армяне разбомбили мечеть, погиб сельский житель Archived 16 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  65. ^ "От вражеского обстрела страдают азербайджанские школы-ФОТО". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  66. ^ AzerNews. "Baku says Armenia's military dictatorship threats values that civilized world stands for". AzerNews. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  67. ^ "1NEWS.AZ – Последние новости Азербайджана". Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  68. ^ "Специальный репортаж "Газеты.Ru" из прифронтовой зоны Нагорного Карабаха". Газета.Ru. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  69. ^ "Armenian side shells ambulance with wounded Azerbaijanis". Archived from the original on 10 April 2016.
  70. ^ "Armenian side shells ambulance with wounded Azerbaijanis". Trend.Az. 7 April 2016.
  71. ^ "Azərbaycan: "Erməni dronu xüsusi üsulla endirilib"". www.azadliq.org. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  72. ^ "Azerbaijan deploys military units in populated areas". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  73. ^ служба, BBC Русская. "Конфликт в Карабахе: жизнь на линии фронта". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  74. ^ LLC, Helix Consulting. "BBC's article shows that Azerbaijan hides fact of placing military objects within civilian settlements". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  75. ^ "Skirmishes Continue in Nagorno-Karabakh Despite Cease-Fire". Associated Press. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016 – via The New York Times.
  76. ^ "ICRC hands Azerbaijani side corpses of eliminated soldiers". armenpress.am. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  77. ^ "Armenian President, OSCE Minsk Group discuss Karabakh in Yerevan". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  78. ^ Zulfugar Agayev, Sara Khojoyan (14 April 2016). "Truce Shaken as Azeris Say Soldier Killed in Armenian Attack". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  79. ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh Says Fighter Killed By Azerbaijani Fire". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  80. ^ "Armenian soldier killed in Azeri firing". Public Radio of Armenia. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  81. ^ "Lavrov Visits Armenia Amid Sporadic Firing Around Nagorno-Karabakh". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  82. ^ "Mortar Shells from Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Hit Northeastern Iran". Tasnim. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  83. ^ Эвакуированные жители сел Нагорного Карабаха обеспечены временным жильем. Caucasian Knot. 3 April 2016.
  84. ^ "UPDATES: New Casualties In Karabakh". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  85. ^ "Azerbaijani Soldiers Execute Elderly Armenian Couple in Artsakh; Then Cut Off Their Ears" (in Armenian). HETQ.am. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  86. ^ "Ադրբեջանական վայրագությունները Թալիշում. Hetq.am (18+) (ֆոտո)" (in Armenian). News.am. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  87. ^ "ՆԱԽԱԳԱՀԸ ՀԱՆԴԻՊՈՒՄ Է ՈՒՆԵՑԵԼ ԵԱՀԿ ԱՆԴԱՄ ԵՐԿՐՆԵՐԻ ԴԵՍՊԱՆՆԵՐԻ ՀԵՏ" (in Armenian). The Office to the President of the Republic of Armenia. Retrieved 4 April 2016. Իրենց տներում վայրագաբար սպանվել են տարեց մարդիկ` խաղաղ բնակիչներ, այդ թվում 92-ամյա բնակչուհի: [Elderly civilians, including 92-year-old resident, were brutally killed in their homes.]
  88. ^ "Dans la guerre sans fin du Haut-Karabakh". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  89. ^ Halpin, Tony (20 June 2007). "Kremlin targets champion of hopeless causes". The Times. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  90. ^ "Кавказский Узел - Москаленко: убийства в Карабахе - военные преступления или преступления против человечности". Кавказский Узел. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  91. ^ "Кавказский Узел – Степанакерт обвинил военнослужащих Азербайджана в убийстве семьи в селе Талиш". Кавказский Узел.
  92. ^ "Минобороны Азербайджана: От мифа об армянской армии не осталось камня на камне".
  93. ^ "Ermənistan cəbhədə öldürülən zabitlərini bir qisminin adını açıqladı – SİYAHI" (in Azerbaijani). MIA (Müstəqil İnformasiya Agentliyi). 4 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  94. ^ "Nagorno Karabakh Defense Ministry releases names of 36 killed soldiers". Armenian News Agency. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  95. ^ a b "Former Russian states on brink of renewing war – The Sunday Times". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  96. ^ "Karabakh conflict: Azerbaijani soldiers behead Ezidi from Armenia – EzidiPress English".
  97. ^ "Iraqi Yezidis express solidarity with Armenians". mediamax.am.
  98. ^ "Azerbaijani soldiers behead Armenian Yazidi Kurd: Karabakh conflict". Ekurd.net.
  99. ^ "ИГИЛ в Карабахе: азербайджанские военные отрезали голову армянскому солдату". ИА REGNUM. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  100. ^ "Армяне организовали в соцсетях тотальную провокацию" (in Russian). ann.az. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  101. ^ Armenian soldiers’ bodies not decapitated or desecrated, says Azerbaijan // azvision.az.
  102. ^ a b "Armenian Soldier Reburied". Radio Liberty Armenia. 11 April 2016.
  103. ^ "The Poor Are the First to Fight in Nagorno-Karabakh". Open Society Foundations. EurasiaNet. 11 May 2016.
  104. ^ "Кавказский Узел - Армения заявила о трех случаях обезглавливания своих солдат в ходе обострения карабахского конфликта". Кавказский Узел. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  105. ^ "Kyaram Sloyan buried for a second time". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  106. ^ "Алиев наградил военного, отрезавшего голову армянскому солдату". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  107. ^ "Armenia MFA: Azerbaijan has adopted policy of carrying out crimes against humanity - AraratNews". AraratNews. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  108. ^ "18+... A barbaric act & #Daesh/#ISIS style war crime by #Azerbaijan army. #KarabakhNow #NKpeace #HumanRights #Peace". Artak_Beglaryan on Twitter (verified account).
  109. ^ "The interim public report of the Human Right's defender (ombudsman) of NKR, European Ombudsman Institute Official Site, April 2016" (PDF). eoi.at. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  110. ^ "Armenian soldiers' bodies not decapitated or desecrated, says Azerbaijan".
  111. ^ "Complaint about beheading of Armenian soldiers filed to ECtHR, advocate reports". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  112. ^ "EUROPÄISCHES OMBUDSMANN INSTITUT -". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  113. ^ "PACE to Present Beheading of Armenian Soldiers to Europe Human Rights Commissioner". Asbarez. 12 May 2016.
  114. ^ "Co-Rapporteurs' Visit: PACE officials address Karabakh escalation on Armenia trip". ArmeniaNow. 13 May 2016.
  115. ^ "HALO begins emergency clearance in Nagorno Karabakh". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  116. ^ a b "Statement on the use of white phosphorus bomb by the armed forces of Armenia against civilians and civilian objects of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  117. ^ "Specialists eliminate white phosphorus shell fired by Armenia on Azerbaijan's Terter". Getty Images / Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  118. ^ "اتهامات أذرية لأرمينيا بقصف مناطق مدنية بالفسفور الأبيض" (in Arabic). Al Jazeera Arabic via YouTube. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  119. ^ "Defense Ministry spokesman responds to Azerbaijani allegations of white phosphorus usage: Azerbaijan is in an ill-mannered delusion". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  120. ^ "NKR MFA: Falsification and distortion of reality is integral part of Azerbaijan's foreign policy". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  121. ^ "Azerbaijan staged a story about white phosphorus". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  122. ^ "All bodies of the deceased transferred by the Azerbaijani side had signs of torture and mutilation". Առավոտ – Նորություններ Հայաստանից. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  123. ^ "Заявление Государственной комиссии НКР по вопросам военнопленных, заложников и без вести пропавших". ԳԱԼԱ. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  124. ^ "Кавказский Узел - Азербайджан опроверг заявления о глумлении над телами убитых". Кавказский Узел. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  125. ^ Karabakh MFA: No traces of abuse or ill-treatment were discovered on bodies of Azerbaijani soldiers", A1+, 15 April 2016 [2]
  126. ^ "OSTKRAFT: потери Азербайджана в Нагорном Карабахе в апреле — 800 человек - ИА REGNUM". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  127. ^ "Стали известны реальные потери Азербайджана в ходе боев в Карабахе - OSTKRAFT". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  128. ^ "Son döyüşlərdəki şəhidlərimizin sayı 93-ə çatdı (Qeyri-rəsmi siyahı)". Azadliq. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  129. ^ More than 2000 people left Karabakh for Armenia amid 2016 NK conflict escalation – UNHCR representative in Armenia. Panorama.am. 20 June 2017.
  130. ^ Akhundov, Sabir (3 August 2016). ""Azerbaijanism"". openDemocracy. The result was inconclusive...
  131. ^ "bne IntelliNews - Nagorno-Karabakh: the slow-motion conflict". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  132. ^ Liakhov, Peter (April 2016). "Behind the Four-Day War". Jacobin. By the fourth day, with at least one hundred and seventy two people killed and negligent territorial gains or losses...
  133. ^ Bodner, Matthew (6 April 2016). "How Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Could Spark Major International Crisis". The Moscow Times. By the time both sides stopped shooting at each other on April 5, it indeed appeared that the previous status quo has been more-or-less preserved.
  134. ^ Hakobyan, Tatul (14 April 2016). "Պատերազմի առաջին զոհը ճշմարտությունն է, եւ լրագրողներս պետք է այն հասցնենք հանրությանը" (in Armenian). ANI Foundation for Armenian Studies. Սա չորսօրյա պատերազմ է, որտեղ ադրբեջանական կողմը չհաղթեց, իսկ հայկական կողմը չպարտվեց: Սա ես համարում եմ ողբերգություն, որովհետեւ անիմաստ սպանվեցին տասնյակ մարդիկ եւ եղան հարյուրավոր վիրավորներ:
  135. ^ "Russian expert: The Armenian side can strike a big blow to Azerbaijan's economy (video)". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  136. ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh: New Opening, or New Peril?". International Crisis Group. 4 July 2016.
  137. ^ Фельгенгауэр, Павел. "Баку побеждает в первом раунде". Новая Газета. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  138. ^ "Самвел Бабаян: "Легко говорить, что вы в Баку будете пить чай. Скорее, наоборот"". Armenianreport.com. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  139. ^ ABRAHAMYAN, GOHAR. "Response to Babayan: Armenian officials downplay criticism from Karabakh's ex-commander - ArmeniaNow.com". www.armenianow.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  140. ^ Shiriyev, Zaur (22 April 2016). "Violence in Nagorny Karabakh a Reflection of Azerbaijan's Security Dilemma". Chatham House.
  141. ^ Thomas de Waal. Prisoners of the Caucasus: Resolving the Karabakh Security Dilemma. Carnegie Europe. 16 June 2016.
  142. ^ Philippe-Blumauer, Christine (5 May 2016). "Nagorno-Karabakh: A Conflict Entrenched in Nationalistic Propaganda". Foreign Policy Research Institute.
  143. ^ Mkrtchyan, Marianna (4 April 2016). "Artsrun Hovhannisyan: Azerbaijan's attempt of blitzkrieg failed". arminfo.info.
  144. ^ Ghazanchyan, Siranush (6 April 2016). "32 Armenian soldiers dead, 121 wounded, 25 missing". Public Radio of Armenia. Colonel Arustamyan gave clarifications about an Armenian military position left under Azerbaijani control. According to him, it’s of no strategic significance, as the area of its peak is 5 meters, and the height is 20 meters as compared to the overall landscape.
  145. ^ Halpin, Anthony; Khojoyan, Sara. "War May Resume at `Any Moment,' Armenian President Warns". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  146. ^ "Serzh Sargsyan: We have lost 800ha of land having neither tactical nor strategic importance". Arminfo. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  147. ^ "No Inch of Land: Armenian hardliners riled by Sargsyan's admission of territorial losses in Karabakh". ArmeniaNow. 18 May 2016.
  148. ^ "Dismissed: Sargsyan relieves three generals of senior army positions". ArmeniaNow. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  149. ^ "Armenia: Azerbaijan gains no high ground in Karabakh". ArmeniaNow. 4 April 2016.
  150. ^ "Armenia government approves bill on recognition of Karabakh independence". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  151. ^ Seddon, Max; Farchy, Jack (3 April 2016). "Azerbaijan and Armenia in worst clashes for decades". Financial Times. On Sunday, Azerbaijan’s president, Ilham Aliyev, called the skirmishes a "great victory" as the country declared a unilateral ceasefire.
  152. ^ "Press release 6/04/2016". Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan Republic. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  153. ^ "Silahlı Qüvvələrimiz tərəfindən 2000 hektardan artıq ərazi azad edilib". Müdafiə Nazirliyi. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  154. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-03.
  155. ^ "Müdafiə Nazirliyində kadr dəyişikliyi GÖZLƏNTİSİ - Jurnalist Araşdırma Mərkəzi". Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  156. ^ "Минобороны опровергает информацию об увольнении начальника Генштаба - Minval.az". 10 May 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  157. ^ "Serzh Sargsyan awards soldiers in Nagorno Karabakh". armenpress.am. 19 April 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  158. ^ "20-летнему Роберту Абаджяну посмертно присвоено звание Героя Арцаха. В НКР наградили защитников родины (фото)". Hetq.am (in Russian). 12 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  159. ^ "APA - Azerbaijan awards military servicemen for distinguished bravery in prevention of Armenian provocations". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  160. ^ 4 günlük müharibənin qəhrəmanı ANS-ə danışdı Archived 24 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. // anspress.com, 22 April 2016
  161. ^ "Полковник Мурад Мирзаев посмертно получил звание Национального героя". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  162. ^ Prezident şəhid mayora Milli Qəhrəman adı verib // azvision.az, 20 April 2016.
  163. ^ Azerbaijani officer received the rank of General // axar.az, 20 April 2016.
  164. ^ Meydan.TV. "Danger of attacks against Ali Karimli". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  165. ^ "Активисты гражданского общества выразили поддержку Али Керимли". Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  166. ^ За что азербайджанских журналистов назвали нацпредателями // tvrain.ru 25 апреля 2016
  167. ^ "Top EU Diplomat Mogherini Calls for End to Fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh". Sputnik News. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  168. ^ "Генсек ООН призвал немедленно прекратить столкновения в Карабахе" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  169. ^ "PACE President calls for respect of cease fire in Nagorno-Karabakh". PACE. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  170. ^ "Nagorny Karabakh clashes continue despite Azerbaijan 'ceasefire'". The Citizen. 3 April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  171. ^ "CSTO Chief Blames Baku For Escalation In Karabakh". Azadutyun. 2 April 2016.
  172. ^ "OSCE Minsk Group Calls for Ending Hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh (VIDEO)". Sputnik News. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  173. ^ "OSCE Minsk Group to Discuss Nagorno-Karabakh Escalated Tensions on April 5". Sputnik International. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  174. ^ "United States Condemns Ceasefire Violations Along Nagorno-Karabakh Line of Contact". U.S. Department of State.
  175. ^ Nathan Hodge (3 April 2016). "U.S., Russia Call for Restraint After Outbreak of Fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh". WSJ.
  176. ^ Reuters Editorial (4 April 2016). "Turkey must stop meddling in other states' affairs, end support of terrorism, Russia says". Reuters.
  177. ^ "Yerevan is dissatisfied with Minsk's support for Azerbaijan's territorial integrity". Vestnik Kavkaza. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  178. ^ "Yerevan bewildered over Belarus position on Karabakh conflict". Arka.am. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  179. ^ "Lukashenko calls for dialogue between Nagorny Karabakh conflict parties". Belarus News. 4 April 2016.
  180. ^ "Bulgaria Concerned about Ceasefire Violations in Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict". Novinite. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  181. ^ "Canada calls for true ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh". armenpress.am. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  182. ^ "Canada calls for restraint in Nagorno-Karabakh". trend.az. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  183. ^ "Chile Condemns 'Azeri Aggression Against the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic' - Asbarez.com". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  184. ^ Senado saluda 98 años de la existencia de la República de Azerbaiyán y reconoce su soberanía e integridad territorial.
  185. ^ DIPUTADOS RESPALDAN GESTIONES INTERNACIONALES PARA RESOLVER CONFLICTO ENTRE AZERBAIYÁN Y ARMENIA.
  186. ^ "Prohlášení MZV k porušování příměří v oblasti konfliktu v Náhorním Karabachu". Ministerstvo zahraničních věcí České republiky. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  187. ^ "The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic denounces the use of force and the loss of life in Nagorno-Karabakh, 04.04.16". Ministry of foreign affairs of the Republic of Cyprus. Archived from the original on 24 March 2013.
  188. ^ "Tbilisi Concerned Over Heavy Fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh". Civil Georgia. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  189. ^ "Georgian President Calls on Armenia, Azerbaijan to Direct Efforts towards Peace". Civil Georgia. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  190. ^ "В Грузии выразили озабоченность в связи с обострением ситуации в Нагорном Карабахе". Rosbalt.
  191. ^ "Conflicting Reports on Number of Casualties in Nagorno-Karabakh Fighting". Haaretz.com.
  192. ^ "Foreign Ministry announcement on the recent incidents in Nagorno-Karabakh".
  193. ^ "PressTV". Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  194. ^ Sputnik. "What's Israel's Role in the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict?". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  195. ^ "Avigdor Lieberman: Azerbaijan's position in Karabakh conflict justified". 6 April 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  196. ^ "Казахстан призвал установить режим прекращения огня в Нагорном Карабахе" (in Russian). Vestnik Kavkaza. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  197. ^ "Eurasian Union Meeting In Yerevan Cancelled". RFE/RL's Armenian Service. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  198. ^ "Kyrgyzstan ready to contribute to Nagorno-Karabakh settlement". TASS Russian News Agency. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  199. ^ "Riga Calls on Baku, Yerevan to Refrain From Conflict Escalation in Karabakh". Sputnik News. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  200. ^ "Глава МИД Норвегии призвал стороны к прекращению огня в Карабахе" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  201. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
  202. ^ "Pakistan always stands by Azerbaijan, says high-ranking official". azernews.az. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  203. ^ "Poland prioritizes stabilization of situation in Nagorno Karabakh conflict zone". armenpress.am. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  204. ^ "Romania urges to resume diplomatic efforts to resolve Nagorno Karabakh conflict". armenpress.am. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  205. ^ "Azerbaijan retakes land occupied by Armenia". Anadolu Agency.
  206. ^ "No: 82, 2 Nisan 2016, Temas Hattında ve Azerbaycan-Ermenistan Sınır Hattında Devam Eden Çatışmalar Hk". T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı.
  207. ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh clash: Turkey backs Azeris 'to the end' against Armenia – BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  208. ^ "Turkey Seeks Muslim Support For Azerbaijan Over Karabakh". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  209. ^ a b Karabakh conflict solution must respect Azerbaijan's territorial integrity – Ukrainian foreign ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (5 April 2016)
    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine comment on the aggravation of Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Foreign Ministry of Ukraine(5 April 2016)
  210. ^ "Ukraine supports Azerbaijan's territorial integrity within intl recognized borders – Poroshenko tells Aliyev". Kyiv Post. 5 April 2016.
  211. ^ "Minister for Europe statement on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict".
  212. ^ "Telephone Conversation between the Foreign Ministers of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic and the Pridnestrovian Moldovian Republic".
  213. ^ "Telephone conversation with NKR Foreign Minister Karen Mirzoyan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  214. ^ "Telephone conversation between Foreign Ministers of Nagorno Karabakh Republic and Republic of Abkhazia". Armenpress. 7 April 2016.
  215. ^ "Telephone Conversation between Foreign Ministers of the NKR and South Ossetia".
  216. ^ "Сообщение пресс-службы Министерства иностранных дел Республики Южная Осетия - Министерство иностранных дел". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  217. ^ "Congressional Leaders Condemn Devastating Azerbaijani Attacks on NKR". Armenian Weekly. 4 April 2016.
  218. ^ "Congressman Jim Costa deplores Azeri attack against Karabakh". Public Radio of Armenia. 5 April 2016.
  219. ^ "Парламент Страны Басков: 2 апреля нападение предпринял Азербайджан". Радио Свобода. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  220. ^ "Demirtaş: Hükümet Karabağ'a körükle gidiyor Paylaş". Agos (in Turkish). 5 April 2016.
  221. ^ "Pro-Kurdish Leader Blames Turkey for Karabakh Re-Escalation". Asbarez. 5 April 2016.
  222. ^ Helix Consulting LLC. "Greek and Latvian parliamentarians visit Artsakh". Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  223. ^ "L'OSCE doit réintégrer la République du Haut-Karabagh dans les négociations de paix". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  224. ^ "La France doit agir pour la paix au Haut-Karabakh". Libération.fr. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  225. ^ "Soutien à l'appel de 30 parlementaires pour une initiative de la France" (in French). Nouvelles d'Arménie Magazine. 12 April 2016.
  226. ^ "Valérie Boyer – Le Haut-Karabagh a été une nouvelle fois... – Facebook".[dead link]
  227. ^ "Valérie Boyer (LR) : "Il faut désormais reconnaître le Haut-Karabagh"". Valeurs Actuelles (in French). 6 April 2016.
  228. ^ "Arminfo: MEP Frank Engel comes out for recognition of Nagorno-Karabakh's independence". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  229. ^ "RI Lawmakers Condemn Azerbaijani Offensive against NKR". Armenian Weekly. 12 April 2016.
  230. ^ "Los Angeles City Hall lit up in Armenian tri-color". PanArmenian. 13 April 2016.
  231. ^ "Vigil at LA City Hall following attack on Armenians in Azerbaijan". KPCC.
  232. ^ "Cetinoglu: Ankara's support for Baku is exporting of genocide policy". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  233. ^ "Rep. Loretta Sanchez Calls for Leahy Law Investigation of Azerbaijani Abuses". Asbarez.com. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  234. ^ Barton, About the Author Senator Bill Barton Senator Bill; Genocide, whose maternal family survived the Armenian; America, was a Republican member of the Utah State Senate for 12 years He is a member of Utah's chapter of the Armenian National Committee of America Senator Lois Tochtrop Senator Lois Tochtrop was a Democratic member of the Colorado General Assembly for 16 years She is a member of Colorado's chapter of the Armenian National Committee of (20 May 2016). "State Lawmakers' support for Azerbaijan Encouraged Last Month's Anti-Armenian War Crimes". Retrieved 16 November 2016.