In August 2015, both sides signed a peace agreement to end the South Sudanese Civil War. Machar was later reappointed as Vice-President in April 2016.
A soldier loyal to Machar, Lt.Colonel George Gismala was killed by government security personnel. The killing led to a rise in tensions within some security forces in Juba. 
Soldiers loyal to Machar were attacked at a government checkpoint. The incident left 5 government soldiers dead and 2 soldiers of unspecified affiliation injured.
Fighting started near the state house where peace talks between President Salva Kiir and Riek Machar were being held. The initial engagement was between the bodyguards of Kiir and Machar. There were also clashes near the army barracks. Shooting occurred outside a UN base, where one death was reported. After the clashes, there was a heavy military presence in Juba. Fighting on 8 July left 35 SPLM-IO soldiers and 80 government soldiers dead.
After a day of relative calmness, combat broke out again in Juba. Fighting was concentrated in Jebel and Gudele, where rebel bases are located, as well as in a UN base. Loud explosions and gunfire were also heard near the airport. A Chinese UN peacekeeper was killed, and 2 more were critically wounded. In Jebel, rebel camps were bombed by government helicopters. The fighting ended when a thunderstorm began.
272 people, including 33 civilians, were killed during the fighting on 8 July.
Fighting resumed in Juba. Gudele and Jebel remained hotspots of violence. Explosions hit Tomping, where the airport, embassies, and a UN base are located. Mortars were heard in the downtown area. The UN confirmed that 2 Chinese peacekeepers were killed and 8 others were wounded on 10 July. 8 people in a UN refugee camp were killed and 67 were injured from gunfire. A ceasefire was announced; however, reports of gunfire continued. By the morning of 12 July, it appeared that the ceasefire was holding.
Approximately 50 to 100 soldiers looted the Terrain Hotel, where they proceeded to murder journalist John Gatluak and rape five women. 10 soldiers were sentenced to jail for the crimes in August 2018.
Overall 300 people were killed in the fighting, including at least 33 civilians and 2 Chinese U.N. peacekeepers. 11 Ugandans were also among the dead.
Approximately 36,000 civilians fled parts of the city due to the clashes. Many stores had been looted during the conflict.
There were around 600 Indians in South Sudan; around 450 in Juba and others elsewhere in the country at the time of conflict. Two C-17 Globemasters of the Indian Air Force were deployed to evacuate Indians and other foreign nationals. The first flight left Juba on 15 July (South Sudan Time) carrying 143 individuals including 10 women and 3 infants. It landed in Kerala on 16 July. The operation was codenamed Operation Sankat Mochan (lit. Saviour).
Both Kiir and Machar have condemned the clashes. They have repeatedly called for their forces to stop fighting; Kiir and Machar called for a ceasefire on 11 July.
Ban Ki-Moon: "I am shocked and appalled by the heavy fighting that is currently taking place in Juba. I strongly urge President Kiir and First Vice-President Riek Machar to do everything within their power to de-escalate the hostilities immediately and to order their respective forces to disengage and withdraw to their bases. This senseless violence is unacceptable and has the potential of reversing the progress made so far in the peace process..."
The UNSC, after an emergency meeting on the crisis, issued a statement calling for an immediate cessation to the fighting and for both Kiir and Machar to do their utmost to control their respective forces. The United Nations Mission in South Sudan has increased patrols near its base.
Sudan condemned the conflict, and the Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir urged Kiir and Machar in telephone calls to use self-restraint.
The United States condemned the violence and called for the parties to "immediately restrain their forces from further fighting, return them to barracks, and prevent additional violence and bloodshed."