2010 Tongan general election

2010 Tongan general election

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19 of the 26 seats in the Legislative Assembly
  First party Second party
  Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō 2014.jpg Akilisi Pohiva April 2015.jpg
Leader Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō ʻAkilisi Pohiva
Party Independents DPFI
Last election 54.09%, 12 seats[1]
Seats won 14 12
Seat change Increase 2 New
Popular vote 25,873 10,953
Percentage 67.30% 28.49%
Swing Decrease9.79pp New

Prime Minister before election

Feleti Sevele
HRDM

Elected Prime Minister

Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō
Independent

Early general elections under a new electoral law were held in Tonga on 25 November 2010.[2] They determined the composition of the 2010 Tongan Legislative Assembly.

The early elections were announced by the new King George Tupou V in July 2008 shortly before being crowned on 1 August 2008,[3][4] and were preceded by a programme of constitutional reform.[5] For the first time, a majority of the seats (17 out of 26) in the Tongan parliament were elected by universal suffrage, with the remaining nine seats being reserved for members of Tonga's nobility. This marked a major progression away from the 165-year rule of the monarchy towards a fully representative democracy.[6] The Taimi Media Network described it as "Tonga’s first democratically elected Parliament".[7]

The Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands, founded in September 2010 specifically to fight the election and led by veteran pro-democracy campaigner 'Akilisi Pohiva, secured the largest number of seats, with 12 out of the seventeen "people's representative" seats.[8]

Background[]

Heading to political reforms[]

Prior to these elections, members of Tonga's Legislative Assembly (the Fale Alea) were primarily appointed by the monarch, who also selected the prime minister and the cabinet.[6][9] Only nine of the 30 seats were popularly elected, and another nine were held by members of the aristocracy.

In April 2010 the Legislative Assembly enacted a package of political reforms, increasing the number of people's representatives from nine to seventeen,[10] with ten seats for Tongatapu, three for Vavaʻu, two for Haʻapai and one each for Niuas and ʻEua.[11] All of the seats are single-seat constituencies, as opposed to the multi-member constituencies used before. These changes mean that now 17 of 26 representatives (65.4%) will be directly elected, up from 9 of 30 (30.0%).[12][13] The noble aristocracy will still select its nine representatives, while all remaining seats, which were previously appointed by the monarch, will be abolished.[13]

While the cabinet and the prime minister were previously selected by the monarch, this time, the elected parliamentarians will vote for a prime minister.[6]

The changes come in the wake of violent pro-democracy demonstrations in November 2006,[13][14] in which eight people were killed and much of the business district of Tongatapu destroyed as people protested against the slow movement toward political reform.[15] The changes have been fully supported by the king.[16][17] One of the candidates, Sione Fonua, said, "The king saw the signs that people wanted change and, to his cr, he has allowed that to happen".[9]

Impact on the monarchy[]

Tonga is a very traditional society, and the role of the monarchy is extremely important.[16]

In response to the question of the impact the new legislation would have on his role, the King stated that while not officially reducing his powers, the reforms meant that he was now limited in his capacity to exercise these powers:

"Officially, the sovereign's powers remain unchanged, because we are a monarchy, we have a unity of power as opposed to a separation of power. The difference in future is that I shall not be able to exercise any of my powers at will, but all the sovereign's powers must be exercised solely on the advice of the Prime Minister in most things, and in traditional matters the law lords who advise exercise of power. In that case, I suppose we are different from other nominal monarchies which retain the trappings of monarchy, but actually govern themselves as republics."

— King George Tupou V[16]

Analysts, however, have said they are not yet certain what effective changes the political shift would bring.[6] The king retains the power of veto over certain laws, as well as the power to dismiss the government.[18]

Election[]

People's representatives[]

Voter registration closed on 31 August, with approximately 42,000 voters registering.[9][19] In November 2010, the Women's and Children's Crisis Centre expressed concern that up to 40% of eligible voters could have failed to register.[20]

Candidates were registered on 21 and 22 October, with 147 candidates contesting the 17 constituencies.[21] The Tongatapu 6 and 9 constituencies were the most heavily contested, with 15 candidates each, while Ha'apai 13, 'Eua 11 and Niuas 17 had only three candidates each.[21] Ten candidates were women.[22] Only three of the incumbent Cabinet contested the elections.[23]

Candidates were required to pay a P400 (Tonga-pa'anga) registration fee (equivalent to $215 US or €165) and present the signatures of 50 eligible voters in support of their candidacy.[24] The suffering economy was seen as the most significant priority for the campaigners.[14] According to the World Bank, up to 40% of Tongans live on or below the poverty line.[14] In addition, the International Monetary Fund claims that Tonga's national debt is substantial and that the island nation is at high risk of not being able to pay them.[18]

In an address to the nation before polling stations opened, the King described the vote as "the greatest and most historic day for our kingdom".[25] He went on to say, "You will choose your representative to the parliament and, thus, the first elected government in our country's long history."[14]

Nobles' representatives[]

Elections to the nobles' seats was reformed, through the Representatives Electoral Regulations Act 2010. Each member of the nobility was henceforth only allowed to cast a vote in the constituency containing lands to which his title of nobility was attached. The four constituencies were:

There were two nobles who held two titles each: Prince ʻAhoʻeitu ʻUnuakiʻotonga Tukuʻaho held the titles of Tupoutoʻa (in Haʻapai) and Lavaka (in Tongatapu), while Lord Kalaniuvalu of Tongatapu was jointly Lord Fotofili of the Niuas. It is not clear whether this enabled these two men to cast two ballots. In addition, there were three unattributed titles: Maʻatu in the Niuas, and ʻAhomeʻe and Fohe in Tongatapu. Also, King Tupou V had, since 2008, instituted the unprecedented title of "Law Lords" for three men (Ramsay Robertson Dalgety, Tevita Poasi Tupou and Taniela Tufui), conferring upon them a non-herary life title which entitled them to vote in a nobles' constituency of their choosing, but not to be elected. Dalgety and Tupou chose to vote in Tongatapu, and Tufui in Haʻapai. Consequently, there were twelve to fourteen potential voters in Tongatapu (depending on where Prince Tukuʻaho and Lord Kalaniuvalu chose to vote), eight in Vavaʻu, seven or eight in Haʻapai, and two or three in the Niuas.[26][27]

Results[]

According to election officials, approximately 89% of the 42,000 registered voters cast ballots.[6] A delegation of fourteen observers from Australia and New Zealand were in Tonga to observe the election.[14] Reports said they were pleased at the way the election had been managed.[18]

The outcome of the election resulted in a plurality of seats for the Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands, who won 12 out of the 17 "people's representative" seats,[28][29] with only some 29% of the votes (because of the First Past the Post voting system being used).

Once the results were finalised, the newly elected representatives selected a prime minister. Tongans, who have traditionally looked to the nobility for leadership, had widely expected it to be a nobleman.[9] After their election, however, the nobles' representatives announced that they would support a commoner for prime minister but ultimately decided to support Lord Tu'ivakano.[30]

Tonga Assemblée législative 2010.svg
PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands10,95328.4912New
People's Democratic Party9342.430–2
Sustainable Nation-Building Party5191.350New
Tongan Democratic Labor Party1680.440New
Independents25,87367.305+2
Nobles' representatives90
Total38,447100.0026–4
Valid votes38,44799.83
Invalid/blank votes660.17
Total votes38,513100.00
Registered voters/turnout42,39590.84
Source: IFES

People's representatives[]

Constituency Candidate Party Votes % Notes
Tongatapu 1 ʻAkilisi Pōhiva Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 1657 62.5 Elected
Taniela Talifolau Palu Independent 567 21.4
Poutele Kaho Tu’ihalamaka Independent 270 10.2
'Inoke Fotu Hu’akau Independent 105 4.0
'Eliesa Fifita Independent 38 1.4
Siosifa Moala Taumoepeau Independent 13 0.5
Tongatapu 2 Semisi Sika Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 849 37.9 Elected
Viliami Tangi Independent 641 28.6
Malia Viviena 'Alisi Numia Taumoepeau Independent 306 13.7
Sione Tu’itavake Fonua Sustainable Nation-Building Party 181 8.1
Siale 'Ataongo Puloka Independent 111 5.0
Mele Teusivi 'Amanaki Tongan Democratic Labor Party 65 2.9
Tevita Kaitu’u Fotu Independent 49 2.2
Sitafooti 'Aho Independent 26 1.2
Semisi 'Ulu’ave Mila Independent 12 0.5
Tongatapu 3 Sitiveni Halapua Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 1047 38.5 Elected
Clive Edwards People's Democratic Party 681 25.0
Viliami Takau Independent 289 10.6
Penisimani Vea Independent 257 9.4
David Kaveinga Vaka Independent 191 7.0
Betty Blake Tongan Democratic Labor Party 103 3.8
Sione 'Uhilamoelangi Liava’a Independent 83 3.1
Falakiko Karl Taufaeteau Independent 35 1.3
Pesalili Kailahi Independent 23 0.8
Semisi Nauto Tuapasi 'Ata’ata Independent 12 0.4
Tongatapu 4 ʻIsileli Pulu Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 1274 58.3 Elected
'Etika Koka Independent 302 13.8
'Ahongalu Fusimalohi Independent 223 10.2
'Etuate 'Eniti Sakalia Independent 215 9.8
Tupou M. Loto’aniu Independent 74 3.4
Mele Tonga Savea Linda Ma’u Independent 71 3.2
Christopher Mafi Independent 24 1.1
Tongatapu 5 ʻAisake Eke Independent 679 24.1 Elected
Maliu Moeao Takai Independent 616 21.9
Siale Napa’a Fihaki Independent 302 10.7
Hekisou Fifita Independent 285 10.1
Sione V. Loseli Independent 238 8.5
Semisi Tongia Independent 233 8.3
Lopeti Senituli Independent 155 5.5
Sione Tu’alau Mangisi Independent 116 4.1
Sione Langi Vailanu Independent 98 3.5
Sitiveni Takaetali Finau Independent 46 1.6
'Ofa Tautuiaki Independent 24 0.9
Pita Ikata’ane Finaulahi Independent 19 0.7
Sateki Finau Independent 4 0.1
Tongatapu 6 Siosifa Tuʻitupou Tuʻutafaiva Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 735 26.5 Elected
Siosaia Moehau Independent 731 26.4
Posesi Fanua Bloomfield Independent 389 14.0
Sione Fifita Maumau Independent 279 10.1
Viliami Moimoi Vaea Independent 169 6.1
Siosiua Holitei Fonua Independent 163 5.9
Lesieli Hu’availiku Niu Independent 61 2.2
Melino He Mapu’atonga Tangi Independent 50 1.8
Sione Tu’alau Vimahi Independent 47 1.7
Hemaloto Tatafu Independent 40 1.4
Sitiveni Finau Independent 30 1.1
Sepeti Vakameilalo Independent 24 0.9
Fale’aisi Vaea Tangitau Independent 18 0.7
Latu Timote Tu’i’asoa Independent 17 0.6
'Ofakitokelau Fakalata Sustainable Nation-Building Party 16 0.6
Tongatapu 7 Sione Sangster Saulala Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 847 32.6 Elected
Giulio Masasso Tu’ikolongahau Paunga Independent 621 23.9
Sione Vuna Fa’otusia Independent 429 16.5
Mavaetangi Manavahetau Independent 240 9.2
Siosifa Filini Sikuea Independent 160 6.2
Peato Tauholoaki Takai Independent 117 4.5
'Anau Ki Lifuka 'Anau Independent 89 3.4
'Amanaki Paea Molitika Independent 59 2.3
Finau Lea’aetalafo’ou Independent 23 0.9
Hoatatau Tenisi Independent 15 0.6
Tongatapu 8 Sione Taione Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 901 34.1 Elected
Lui 'Aho Independent 770 29.1
Fataimoemanu Lafaele Vaihu Independent 474 17.9
Siaosi 'Etika Moleni Independent 177 6.7
Sioape Tu’iono Sustainable Nation-Building Party 118 4.5
Mosese Senituli Manu Independent 83 3.1
Simote Po’uliva’ati Independent 66 2.5
Simione Kau Silapelu Independent 32 1.2
Nakita Talanoa Independent 20 0.8
Solo Fefioloi Solomone La’akulu Independent 5 0.2
Tongatapu 9 Kaveinga Faʻanunu Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 908 34.0 Elected
Sevenitini Toumo’ua Independent 414 15.5
Viliami Fukofuka Independent 262 9.8
Filimone Fifita Independent 241 9.0
'Aisake 'Etimoni Tu’iono Independent 229 8.6
Siaosi 'Enosi Tu’ipulotu Independent 147 5.5
Semisi Kailahi Independent 136 5.1
Tonga Tongilava Lemoto Independent 110 4.1
'Epeli Taufa Kalemani Independent 51 1.9
Konisitutone Simana Kami Independent 50 1.9
Falati Papani Independent 49 1.8
Mosese Latu Independent 22 0.8
Sione 'Umeahola Faeamani Independent 21 0.8
'Ofa Fatai Independent 18 0.7
Samisoni Lotaki Kanongata’a Independent 15 0.6
Tongatapu 10 Semisi Tapueluelu Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 792 26.6 Elected
Pohiva Tuʻiʻonetoa Independent 613 20.6
Faka’osilea Kaufusi Independent 608 20.5
Faka’osi 'Akapulu Maama Independent 277 9.3
Semisi Kaifoto Pale Independent 170 5.7
Daniel Kimball Fale Independent 109 3.7
ZCO Ongosia 'Uhatafe Independent 104 3.5
Soane Vaka’uta Melekiola Independent 77 2.6
Fifita Sili Independent 71 2.4
Latanoa Pikula Independent 64 2.2
Kitione Pomaama Independent 61 2.1
Malia Peata Sioko Noa Independent 27 0.9
ʻEua 11 Sunia Fili Independent 772 37.2 Elected
Sione Sengililala Moala Independent 667 32.1
Tevita Lavemaau Independent 637 30.7
Haʻapai 12 Moʻale Finau Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 470 31.9 Elected
Viliami Hingano Independent 306 20.8
Paula Vi Independent 280 19.0
Latiume Kaufusi Independent 174 11.8
Tevita 'Ova Independent 71 4.8
Mosese Moimoi Fakahua Independent 70 4.8
Sione Tu’itupou Fotu Independent 39 2.6
Sione Fekau Mafile’o Independent 38 2.6
Langilangi Vimahi Independent 16 1.1
Penisimani Tavalu Fatafehi Independent 8 0.5
Haʻapai 13 ʻUliti Uata Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 1090 70.5 Elected
Sione Teisina Fuko People's Democratic Party 253 16.4
Lopeti Kamipeli Tofa Sustainable Nation-Building Party 204 13.2
Vavaʻu 14 Lisiate ʻAkolo Independent 665 28.0 Elected
ʻEtuate Lavulavu Independent 540 22.7
Paula Piveni Piukala Independent 502 21.1
Tu’amelie He Lotu Faaitu’a Kemoe’atu Independent 380 16.0
Peauafi Pifeleti Independent 209 8.8
Siale Fifita Independent 51 2.1
Pita Vi Hala’api’api Independent 32 1.3
Vavaʻu 15 Samiu Vaipulu Independent 618 33.1 Elected
Ualingi Salesi Paea Independent 362 19.4
Keuli Pasina Lavaki Independent 305 16.3
Viliami Kaufusi Helu Independent 235 12.6
Semisi Lavaka Independent 208 11.1
Viliami Pasikala Independent 138 7.4
Vavaʻu 16 Viliami Latu Independent 881 43.7 Elected
Tevita Hala Palefau Independent 347 17.2
Tevita Kaafi Tukofuka Independent 298 14.8
'Aisea Silivenusi Independent 289 14.3
'Atalasa Misilemoti Pouvalu Independent 203 10.1
Ongo Niua 17 Sosefo Feʻaomoeata Vakata Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands 383 46.8 Elected
Sione Feingatau ʻIloa Independent 228 27.8
Petelo Taukei Fuaevalu 'Ahomana Independent 208 25.4
Source: Psephos

Noble representatives[]

The nobles' representatives are:[31]

Tongan general election, 2010: Tongatapu (3 members)
Candidate Votes % ±
Lord Tu'ivakano 13
Lord Ma'afu 10
Lord Vaea 8
Tongan general election, 2010: Vavaʻu (2 members)
Candidate Votes % ±
Lord Tu'ilakepa 4
Lord Tu'i'afitu 4
Tongan general election, 2010: ʻEua (1 member)
Candidate Votes % ±
Lord Lasike 6
Tongan general election, 2010: Niuas (1 member)
Candidate Votes % ±
Lord Fusitu'a 1
Tongan general election, 2010: Haʻapai (2 members)
Candidate Votes % ±
Lord Tu'iha'teiho 4
Lord Fakafanua 4

Government formation[]

Following the election, the DPFI secured the support of one independent and was seeking the support of two others – 'Aisake Valu Eke and Sunia Fili – by offering them cabinet posts.[32] Following concerns the noble representatives would support one of the independents for Prime Minister,[33] the DPFI decided to hold a public rally to build public support.[34]

The formal process of electing a Prime Minister will begin after the final election results are formally notified, with the appointment of an interim Speaker and a call for nominations.[35] MPs will then vote by secret ballot in one or more rounds, until a candidate is elected.[35]

On 3 December 2010 the King appointed Lord Tupou as interim Speaker.[36]

The three MPs from Vava'u are considered to be pro-monarchy.[37]

Sosefo Fe’aomoeata Vakata reportedly left the DPFI and became an independent, and was likely to support the nobles together with the five independent MPs, resulting in a noble-led government.[38] He joined a bloc of 15 members, including all nine noble representatives and five other people's representatives, to jointly nominate a Prime Minister.[39]

The DPFI rejected these claims and stated it still expects to form the government.[40] A vote was scheduled for 17 December, but then delayed to 20 December.[37]

On 15 December 2010, DPFI MP 'Isileli Pulu claimed that the DPFI had the support of 14 of the 17 popularly elected MPs and of a few nobles, 18 MPs in total.[41]

On 20 December 2010 Samuela 'Akilisi Pohiva and Siale'ataonga Tu'ivakano were nominated for Prime Minister.[42] The election was postponed to 21 December 2010.[43] Tu'ivakano was elected by 14 votes to 12.[44]

On 31 December Tu'ivakano named his cabinet, which included six people's representatives, three nobles, and two commoners appointed from outside Parliament.[45]

References[]

  1. ^ Includes nobles and peer members who were appointed by the King of Tonga.
  2. ^ "Civics education vital ahead of Tonga election, says advocate". Radio New Zealand International. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  3. ^ "Tonga's king to cede key powers". BBC. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  4. ^ "His Majesty King George Tupou V- A Monarch for a time of change". Fiji Daily Post. 28 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  5. ^ "Commission pessimistic over ability of Assembly to meet 2010 election deadline". Matangi Tonga. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Strong showing for Tonga democrats in election". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  7. ^ "Absence of PM from opening of Parliament questioned" Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Taimi Media Network, 9 June 2011
  8. ^ Malkin, Bonnie (27 November 2010). "King prepares to hand over powers after election in Tonga". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d Agence France-Presse (24 November 2010). "Tonga set for landmark vote". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  10. ^ "Tonga Parliament enacts political reforms". Radio New Zealand International. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  11. ^ "Tonga parliament votes on amended boundaries". Radio New Zealand International. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  12. ^ "Tonga's pro-democracy movement hails assembly reform". Radio New Zealand International. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  13. ^ a b c Dorney, Sean (24 November 2010). "Tonga prepares for historic poll". Australia Network News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Tonga Democrats 'leading' in polls". Al Jazeera. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  15. ^ Agence France-Presse (26 November 2010). "No clear winner in Tonga's first election". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  16. ^ a b c Hill, Bruce (25 November 2010). "Tongan monarch gives electoral changes his full backing". Radio Australia. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  17. ^ Hill, Bruce (22 November 2010). "Tongan monarch voices support for elections". Radio Australia; Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  18. ^ a b c "Tonga's people vote in droves for change". TV New Zealand. 26 November 2010.
  19. ^ "Registration closes with over 40,000 Tongan voters". Matangi Tonga. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  20. ^ "Huge numbers failed to register for Tonga election, says woman advocate". Radio New Zealand International. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  21. ^ a b "147 candidates for November Election". Matangi Tonga. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  22. ^ "Ten women contesting Tonga poll". Radio New Zealand International. 25 October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  23. ^ "Tonga health minister standing in elections to ensure continuity". Radio New Zealand International. 25 October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  24. ^ "Parliamentary candidates to register in October". Matangi Tonga. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  25. ^ The Associated Press (25 November 2010). "Tongans vote for majority of parliamentarians". CTV News. CTV Globe Media. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  26. ^ "Nobles prepare for Elections of district electoral representatives" Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Tongan Ministry of Information, 17 November 2010
  27. ^ "Nobles" Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, government of Tonga
  28. ^ "Pro-democracy party in Tonga big winner in general elections". Radio New Zealand International. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2020..
  29. ^ "KINGDOM OF TONGA LEGISLATIVE ELECTIONS OF 25 NOVEMBER 2010". Adam Carr. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  30. ^ "Tu'ivakano becomes Prime Minister Designate". 21 January 2012.
  31. ^ "Vaea and Tu'ilakepa to enter House in Nobles seats". Matangi Tonga. 25 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012.
  32. ^ "Tonga election winners plan to co-opt two independents". Radio New Zealand International. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  33. ^ "Two main camps emerge in talks over formation of new Tonga government". Radio New Zealand International. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  34. ^ "Tonga Democratic Party to hold rally amid post-election lobbying". Radio New Zealand International. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  35. ^ a b "Prime Minister for Christmas or New Year". Matangi Tonga. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  36. ^ "King appoints Lord Tupou as Interim Speaker". Matangi Tonga. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
  37. ^ a b "Election of Tongan PM delayed". Radio Australia News. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012.
  38. ^ "Nobles now more likely to form next Tonga government". Radio New Zealand International. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  39. ^ "15 members form bloc to nominate PM". Matangi Tonga. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  40. ^ "Tonga's Democrats confident they'll govern despite rival's claim of numbers". Radio New Zealand International. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  41. ^ "New majority claim by Tonga Democrats". Radio New Zealand International. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  42. ^ "Two names for Prime Minister before Legislature today". Matangi Tonga. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  43. ^ "Day's delay before Tonga's MPs select new prime minister". Radio New Zealand International. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  44. ^ "Tu'ivakano becomes Prime Minister Designate". Matangi Tonga. 21 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  45. ^ "Tonga's prime minister names his cabinet". Radio New Zealand International. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.

External links[]