1993 Venezuelan presidential election

1993 Venezuelan presidential election

← 1988 5 December 1993 1998 →
Turnout60.2%
  Rafa Caldera 1983 (headshot).png Claudio Fermín.jpg
Nominee Rafael Caldera Claudio Fermín
Party CVGC Democratic Action
Home state Yaracuy Barinas
States carried 9 7
Popular vote 1,710,722 1,326,287
Percentage 30.5% 23.6%

  Oswaldo Alvares Paz Gobernador Zulia.JPG
Nominee Oswaldo Álvarez Paz Andrés Velásquez
Party COPEI LCR
Home state Zulia Bolívar
States carried 4
Popular vote 1,276,506 1,232,653
Percentage 22.7% 22.0%

President before election

Ramón José Velásquez

Elected President

Rafael Caldera
CVGC

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General elections were held in Venezuela on 5 December 1993.[1] The presidential elections were won by Rafael Caldera of National Convergence, who received 30.5% of the vote.[2] Democratic Action remained the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies and Senate, which were elected on separate ballots for the first time.[3] Voter turnout was 60.2%, the lowest since World War II.[4]

Background[]

The election campaign was dominated by the corruption charges brought against sitting President Carlos Andrés Pérez, which led to his impeachment on 20 May 1993. He was replaced by Octavio Lepage as Acting President until Ramón José Velásquez was elected by Congress as interim President on 5 June. An atmosphere of economic and political crisis prevailed, with general economic problems compounded by a banking crisis, and a declining legitimacy of the traditional main parties, Democratic Action and Copei. The previous year had seen two coup attempts in February and November, reflecting widespread popular discontent with the political establishment.

Rafael Caldera, founder of Copei, rejected his old party and led a "National Convergence" of 17 smaller parties - including the Movement for Socialism, the Democratic Republican Union, the People's Electoral Movement and the Communist Party of Venezuela. His campaign promises included pardoning the 1992 coup plotters, including Hugo Chávez.

The Congressional elections were the first held under a mixed member proportional representation system,[5] modelled on the German system, with some variations.[6] The traditionally dominant Democratic Action and Copei "supported it because it looked the most like the system under which they had prospered".[5] The MMP system continued to use the old formula of assigning seats to states based on multiplying the total population by 0.55%, with a minimum of three deputies from each state (thus over-representing sparsely populated states).[5] Half each state's seats were then elected in single seat districts, and the remainder by closed party list. Parties could receive up to five additional seats based on their national vote total, to provide greater proportionality.[7]

Results[]

President[]

Candidate Party Votes %
Rafael Caldera National Convergence 1,710,722 30.5
Claudio Fermín Democratic Action 1,326,287 23.6
Oswaldo Álvarez Paz Copei 1,276,506 22.7
Andrés Velásquez Radical Cause 1,232,653 21.9
Modesto Rivero Authentic Renewal Organisation 20,814 0.4
Nelso Ojeda Valenzuela FPI 18,690 0.3
Luis Alberto Machado RDLI 6,851 0.1
Fernando Bianco CEM 5,590 0.1
José Antonio Cova New Democratic Generation 4,937 0.1
Gabriel Puerta Aponte Movement for Popular Democracy 3,746 0.1
Rhona Otolina Formula 1 3,633 0.1
Romuló Abreu Duarte FEVO 1,554 0.0
Jesús Tang National Party 1,251 0.0
Blas García Núñez PEV 1,198 0.0
Juán Chacín PODIN 981 0.0
Carmen de González Nationalist Civic Crusade 866 0.0
Felix Díaz Ortega New Order 780 0.0
Temistocles Fernández IT 640 0.0
Invalid/blank votes 212,517
Total 5,829,216 100
Registered voters/turnout 9,688,795 60.2
Source: Nohlen

Senate[]

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Democratic Action 1,165,322 24.1 16 –6
Copei 1,103,896 22.8 14 –6
Radical Cause 1,005,816 20.8 9 +9
National Convergence 650,352 13.4 6 New
Movement for Socialism 526,197 10.9 5
Authentic Renewal Organisation 41,157 0.9 0 0
People's Electoral Movement 26,545 0.5 0 0
Democratic Republican Union 25,732 0.5 0 0
National Integration Movement 23,459 0.5 0 New
Communist Party of Venezuela 14,159 0.3 0 0
Emerging People 10,709 0.2 0 New
147 Other parties 242,000 5.0 0
Invalid/blank votes 989,169
Total 5,829,216 100 50 +4
Registered voters/turnout 9,688,795 46.3
Source: Nohlen

Chamber of Deputies[]

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Democratic Action 1,099,728 23.3 55 –42
Copei 1,065,512 22.6 53 –14
Radical Cause 974,190 20.7 40 +37
National Convergence 651,918 13.8 26 New
Movement for Socialism 509,068 10.8 24
Authentic Renewal Organisation 41,085 0.9 1 –1
National Integration Movement 29,433 0.6 1 New
People's Electoral Movement 27,635 0.6 1 –1
Democratic Republican Union 26,299 0.6 1 –1
Communist Party of Venezuela 21,180 0.4 0 –1
Emerging People 12,525 0.3 0 New
New Democratic Generation 252,471 5.4 1 –5
154 other parties 0
Invalid/blank votes 1,117,998
Total 5,829,216 100 203 +2
Registered voters/turnout 9,688,795 60.2
Source: Nohlen
Popular vote
AD
23.34%
COPEI
22.62%
LCR
20.68%
CVGV
13.84%
MAS
10.81%
Others
8.72%
Seats
AD
27.09%
COPEI
26.11%
LCR
19.70%
CVGV
12.81%
MAS
11.82%
Others
2.46%

Aftermath[]

Andrés Velásquez of Radical Cause gained 22%, and "filed complaints of irregularities, saying that officials from his party were prevented from witnessing vote counting."[8]

References[]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume II, p555 ISBN 978-0-19-928358-3
  2. ^ Nohlen, p582
  3. ^ Nohlen, p575
  4. ^ Nohlen, p556
  5. ^ a b c Crisp, BF % Rey, JC (2003) "The Sources of Electoral Reform in Venezuela", in Shugart, Matthew Soberg, and Martin P. Wattenberg, Mixed-Member Electoral Systems - The Best of Both Worlds?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. pp. 173-194(22)
  6. ^ Crisp and Rey(2003:189)
  7. ^ Crisp and Rey (2003:188)
  8. ^ Venezuela Apparently Returns Former President to Power Los Angeles Times, 6 December 1993