1972 Summer Olympics

Games of the XX Olympiad
1972 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Munich, West Germany
Motto The Cheerful Games
(German: Glückliche Spiele)
Nations 121
Athletes 7,134 (6,075 men, 1,059 women)
Events 195 in 21 sports (28 disciplines)
Opening 26 August
Closing 10 September
Opened by President Gustav Heinemann
Cauldron Günther Zahn
Stadium Olympiastadion
Summer
Mexico City 1968 Montreal 1976
Winter
Sapporo 1972 Innsbruck 1976

The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.

The sporting nature of the event was largely overshadowed by the Munich massacre in the second week, in which eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and a West German police officer at Olympic village were killed by Black September Palestinian terrorists.

The 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games in Berlin, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. The West German Government had been eager to have the Munich Olympics present a democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "Die Heiteren Spiele",[1] or "the cheerful Games".[2] The logo of the Games was a blue solar logo (the "Bright Sun") by Otl Aicher, the designer and director of the visual conception commission.[3] The Olympic mascot, the dachshund "Waldi", was the first officially named Olympic mascot. The Olympic Fanfare was composed by Herbert Rehbein.[4]

The Olympic Park (Olympiapark) is based on Frei Otto's plans and after the Games became a Munich landmark. The competition sites, designed by architect Günther Behnisch, included the Olympic swimming hall, the Olympics Hall (Olympiahalle, a multipurpose facility) and the Olympic Stadium (Olympiastadion), and an Olympic village very close to the park. The design of the stadium was considered revolutionary, with sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by metal ropes, used on such a large scale for the first time.[5]

Host city selection[]

1972 Summer Olympics bidding results[6]
City Country Round 1 Round 2
Munich  West Germany 29 31
Madrid Francoist Spain Spain 16 16
Montréal  Canada 6 13
Detroit  United States 6

Munich won its Olympic bid on April 26, 1966, at the 64th IOC Session at Rome, Italy, over bids presented by Detroit, Madrid, and Montréal. Montréal would eventually host the following Olympic games in 1976.[7]

Munich massacre[]

The Games were largely overshadowed by what has come to be known as the "Munich massacre". Just before dawn on September 5, a group of eight members of the Black September Palestinian terrorist organization broke into the Olympic Village and took eleven Israeli athletes, coaches and officials hostage in their apartments. Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in; the subsequent standoff in the Olympic Village lasted for almost 18 hours.

Late in the evening of September 5 that same day, the terrorists and their nine remaining hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country. The German authorities planned to ambush them there, but underestimated the numbers of their opposition and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot, then incinerated when one of the terrorists detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting. The 5 remaining hostages were then machine-gunned to death.

"Our worst fears have been realized tonight. They have now said that there were 11 hostages. Two were killed in their rooms, yesterday morning. Nine were killed at the airport, tonight. They’re all gone."

—After a series of conflicting reports and rumours, Jim McKay of ABC brought the news at 3:24 a.m. local time.[8]

All but three of the terrorists were killed as well. Although arrested and imprisoned pending trial, they were released by the West German government on October 29, 1972, in exchange for a hijacked Lufthansa jet. Two of those three were supposedly hunted down and assassinated later by the Mossad.[9] Jamal Al-Gashey, who is believed to be the sole survivor, is still living today in hiding in an unspecified African country with his wife and two children. The Olympic events were suspended several hours after the initial attack, but once the incident was concluded, Avery Brundage, the International Olympic Committee president, declared that "the Games must go on". A memorial ceremony was then held in the Olympic stadium, and the competitions resumed after a stoppage of 24 hours. The attack prompted heightened security at subsequent Olympics beginning with the 1976 Winter Olympics. Security at Olympics was heightened further beginning with the 2002 Winter Olympics, as they were the first to take place after the 2001 September 11 attacks.

The massacre led the German federal government to re-examine its anti-terrorism policies, which at the time were dominated by a pacifist approach adopted after World War II. This led to the creation of the elite counter-terrorist unit GSG 9, similar to the British SAS. It also led Israel to launch a campaign known as Operation Wrath of God, in which those suspected of involvement were systematically tracked down and assassinated.

The events of the Munich massacre were chronicled in the Oscar-winning documentary, One Day in September.[10] An account of the aftermath is also dramatized in three films: the 1976 made-for-TV movie 21 Hours at Munich, the 1986 made-for-TV movie Sword of Gideon[11] and Steven Spielberg's 2005 film Munich.[12] In her film 1972, Artist Sarah Morris interviews Dr. Georg Sieber, a former police psychiatrist who advised the Olympics' security team, about the events and aftermath of Black September.[13]

Highlights[]

Otl Aicher's signage pictograms designed for the Munich Olympic Games
Procession of athletes in the Olympic Stadium- 1972 Summer Olympics, Munich, Germany
Munich Olympics commemorative 10-mark coin, 1972

Venues[]

Aerial view of the Olympiapark.

Cost[]

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Munich 1972 Summer Olympics at USD 1.0 billion in 2015-dollars.[16] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Munich 1972 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 15 billion for London 2012 (the most costly Summer Olympics to date) and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014 — the most expensive Olympic Games in history.[17] Average cost for Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion.

Sports[]

The 1972 Summer Olympic programme featured 195 events in the following 21 sports:

Demonstration sports[]

Participating National Olympic Committees[]

Participants
Number of competitors per nation.

Eleven nations made their first Olympic appearance in Munich: Albania, Dahomey (now Benin), Gabon, North Korea, Lesotho, Malawi, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Swaziland, Togo, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso).

The Parade of Nations was organised according to the German alphabet, with the first country following Greece being Egypt, whilst East Germany was referred to as DDR (not Deutsche Demokratische Republik, German Democratic Republic), the Soviet Union as UdSSR and the United States as USA as well as the host country as Deutschland (Germany).[18]

Rhodesia's invitation to take part in the 1972 Summer Games was withdrawn by the International Olympic Committee four days before the opening ceremony, in response to African countries' protests against the Rhodesian government. (Rhodesia did, however, compete in the 1972 Summer Paralympics, held a little earlier in Heidelberg.)[19][20]

Participating National Olympic Committees

Calendar[]

All times are in Central European Time (UTC+1)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events MS Memorial service CC Closing ceremony
August/September 26th
Sat
27th
Sun
28th
Mon
29th
Tue
30th
Wed
31st
Thu
1st
Fri
2nd
Sat
3rd
Sun
4th
Mon
5th
Tue
6th
Wed
7th
Thu
8th
Fri
9th
Sat
10th
Sun
11th
Mon
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC MS CC N/A
Archery 2 2
Athletics 2 2 5 6 3 7 2 3 8 38
Basketball 1 1
Boxing 11 11
Canoeing 1 3 7 11
Cycling 1 1 2 1 1 1 7
Diving 1 1 1 1 4
Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Field hockey 1 1
Football 1 1
Gymnastics 1 1 2 4 6 14
Handball 1 1
Judo 1 1 1 1 1 5
Modern pentathlon 2 2
Rowing 7 7
Sailing 6 6
Shooting 1 1 1 1 2 2 8
Swimming 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 29
Volleyball 1 1 2
Water polo 1 1
Weightlifting 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
Wrestling 10 10 20
Daily medal events 2 8 8 13 27 16 23 14 13 2 16 3 26 23 1 195
Cumulative total 2 10 18 31 58 74 97 111 124 126 142 145 171 194 195
August/September 26th
Sat
27th
Sun
28th
Mon
29th
Tue
30th
Wed
31st
Thu
1st
Fri
2nd
Sat
3rd
Sun
4th
Mon
5th
Tue
6th
Wed
7th
Thu
8th
Fri
9th
Sat
10th
Sun
11th
Mon
Total events


‡ No medal events were contested and no medals were awarded on 5 September and all Olympic competitions were suspended later during the day for a period of twenty four hours due to the Munich massacre.

‡ The Memorial service was held in the Olympic Stadium on 6 September which was attended by 80,000 spectators and 3,000 athletes. All Olympic competitions resumed later that day.


Medal count[]

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1972 Games.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Soviet Union50272299
2 United States33313094
3 East Germany20232366
4 West Germany*13111640
5 Japan138829
6 Australia87217
7 Poland75921
8 Hungary6131635
9 Bulgaria610521
10 Italy531018
Totals (10 nations)161138141440
Key

  *   Host nation (West Germany)

See also[]

Notes[]

  1. ^ "Ein Geschenk der Deutschen an sich selbst". Der Spiegel (in German) (35/1972). August 21, 1972. pp. 28–29. … für die versprochene Heiterkeit der Spiele, die den Berliner Monumentalismus von 1936 vergessen machen und dem Image der Bundesrepublik in aller Welt aufhelfen sollen
  2. ^ Digitized version of the Official Report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad Munich 1972 (Volume 2) (PDF) (in German). proSport GmbH & Co. KG. München Ed. Herbert Kunze. 1972. p. 22. … the theme of the "cheerful Games"…
  3. ^ "Official Emblem – Munich 1972 Olympics". Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  4. ^ Herbert Rehbein: Olympic Fanfare Munich 1972 (TV Intro)
  5. ^ Uhrig, Klaus (March 20, 2014). "Die gebaute Utopie: Das Münchner Olympiastadion" (in German). Archived from the original on February 13, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  6. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  7. ^ "IOC VOTE HISTORY". aldaver.com.
  8. ^ "Transcend – Munich Massacre". Bleacher Report Media Lab. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  9. ^ Countering Terrorism: The Israeli Response To The 1972 Munich Olympic Massacre And The Development Of Independence Covert Action Teams, M.A. thesis by Alexander B. Calahan at Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 1995.
  10. ^ Deming, Mark. "Movies – One Day in September (1999)". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  11. ^ "Television – Sword of Gideon". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  12. ^ Dargis, Manohla. "An Action Film About the Need to Talk". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  13. ^ Herbert, Martin. "Sarah Morris". frieze.com. Frieze Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  14. ^ "USA Basketball". Archived from the original on 2007-08-22.
  15. ^ "120 years, 120 stories (Part 15) : Soviets beat the Americans amidst controversies involving communist judges". Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  16. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554.
  17. ^ "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
  18. ^ Munich 1972 Opening Ceremony on YouTube
  19. ^ "1972: Rhodesia out of Olympics"
  20. ^ "Rhodesia expelled", Montreal Gazette, August 23, 1972

External links[]

Further reading[]

Preceded by
Mexico City
Summer Olympic Games
Munich

XX Olympiad (1972)
Succeeded by
Montreal