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1945 ( MCMXLV)
was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1945th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 945th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1940s decade. This year also marks the end of the Second World War, the deadliest conflict in human history.
Events [ ]
Below, events of
World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
January [ ]
January – WWII: The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine continues; the United States Army crosses the Siegfried Line.
January 1 – WWII:
January 5 – Australia recognizes the Polish Committee of National Liberation as the government of Poland.
January 7 – WWII: British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference at Zonhoven, describing his role at the Battle of the Bulge.
January 12 – WWII: The Soviet Union begins the Vistula–Oder Offensive in Eastern Europe, against the German Army.
January 13 – WWII: The Soviet Union begins the East Prussian Offensive, to eliminate German forces in East Prussia.
January 16 – WWII: Adolf Hitler takes residence in the in Berlin. Führerbunker
January 18 – The Holocaust: The SS begins the evacuation of Auschwitz concentration camp. Nearly 60,000 prisoners, mostly Jews, are forced to march to other locations in Germany; as many as 15,000 die. The 7,000 too sick to move are left without supplies being distributed.
January 19 – The Holocaust: Soviet forces liberate the Łódź Ghetto; only 877 Jews of the initial population of 164,000 remain at this time.
January 23 – WWII:
January 24 – WWII: AP war correspondent Joseph Morton, nine OSS men, and four SOE agents are executed by the Germans at Mauthausen concentration camp under Hitler's Commando Order of 1942, which stipulates the immediate execution of all captured Allied commandos or saboteurs without trial, even those in proper uniforms. Morton is the only Allied correspondent to be executed by the Axis during the war.
January 26 – WWII: Audie Murphy sees action at Holtzwihr, France, for which is awarded the Medal of Honor. 
January 27 – The Holocaust: The Soviet Red Army liberates the Auschwitz and Birkenau concentration camps.
January 28 – WWII: Supplies begin to reach China, over the newly reopened Burma Road.
January 30 – WWII:
January 31 – WWII:
February [ ]
troopship SS is sunk by the General von Steuben Soviet submarine ; 3,608 drown. S-13
February 10– 20 – WWII: Operation Kita: The Imperial Japanese Navy returns "Completion Force", containing both its , safely from Ise-class battleships Singapore to Kure in Japan despite Allied attacks.
February 13 – WWII:
February 16 – WWII:
February 19– February 20 – 980 Japanese soldiers die as a result of being attacked by long saltwater crocodiles in Ramree, Burma. 
February 19 – WWII – Battle of Iwo Jima: About 30,000 United States Marines land on Iwo Jima.
February 21 – The last V-2 rocket is launched from Peenemünde.
February 22 – WWII:
February 23 – WWII:
Battle of Iwo Jima: A group of United States Marines reach the top of Mount Suribachi on the island, and are photographed raising the American flag. The photo, (taken by Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima Joe Rosenthal), later wins a Pulitzer Prize. The
11th Airborne Division, with Filipino guerrillas, free the captives of the Los Baños internment camp. The capital of the
Philippines, Manila, is liberated by combined American and Filipino ground troops. American and Filipino troops enter
Intramuros, Manila. The German garrison in
Poznań capitulates to Red Army and Polish troops.
Bombing of Pforzheim: The heaviest of a series of bombing raids on Pforzheim, Germany by Allied aircraft is carried out by the British Royal Air Force. As many as 17,600 people, or 31.4% of the town's population, are killed in the raid and about 83% of the town's buildings destroyed, two-thirds of its complete area and between 80 and 100% of the inner city. Turkey joins the war on the Allies' side.
February 24 – Egyptian Premier Ahmad Mahir Pasha is killed in Parliament, after reading a decree.
February 27 – The Bombing of Mainz results in 1,209 confirmed dead; 80% of the city is destroyed. February 28 – In Bucharest, a violent demonstration takes place, during which the Bolşevic group opens fire on the army and protesters. In response, Andrei Y. Vishinsky, USSR vice commissioner of foreign affairs and president of the Allied Control Commission for Romania, travels to Bucharest to compel Nicolae Rădescu to resign as premier.
March [ ]
March 1 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt gives what will be his last address to a joint session of the United States Congress, reporting on the Yalta Conference.
March 3 – WWII:
March 5 – WWII: Brazilian troops take Castelnuovo ( Vergato), in the last operations of the Allied Spring 1945 offensive in Italy.
A Communist-led government is formed in
Romania under Petru Groza, following Soviet intervention. Resistance fighters accidentally ambush and attempt to execute SS general Hanns Albin Rauter, the arch-persecutor of the Dutch.
March 7 – WWII: At the end of Operation Lumberjack, American troops seize the Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine at Remagen, Germany and begin to cross; in the next 10 days, 25,000 troops with equipment are able to cross.
March 9– 10 – WWII: Bombing of Tokyo: USAAF B-29 bombers attack Tokyo, Japan, with incendiary bombs, killing 100,000 citizens in the firebombing. It is the single most destructive air attack of World War II.
March 9 – The film premieres in Paris. Les Enfants du Paradis
March 12 – WWII: Swinemünde is destroyed by the USAAF, killing an estimated 8,000 to 23,000 civilians, mostly refugees saved by Operation Hannibal.
March 15– 31 – WWII: The Soviet Red Army carries out the Upper Silesian Offensive.
March 15 – The 17th Academy Awards ceremony is held, broadcast via radio for the first time. Best Picture goes to . Going My Way
March 16 – WWII:
Battle of Iwo Jima unofficially ends, with pockets of guerrilla resistance persisting until the official conclusion of the battle. The Bombing of Würzburg, as part of the Allied strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany, destroys 89% of the city and causes 4,000 deaths.
March 17 – WWII: Kobe, Japan is fire-bombed by 331 B-29 bombers, killing over 8,000 people.
March 18 – WWII: 1,250 American bombers attack Berlin.
March 19 – WWII:
Adolf Hitler orders that all industries, military installations, machine shops, transportation facilities and communications facilities in Germany be destroyed. Off the coast of Japan, bombers hit the aircraft carrier USS , killing about 800 of her crewmen and crippling the ship. Franklin
March 21 – WWII:
March 26 – WWII: The Battle of Iwo Jima officially ends, with the destruction of the remaining areas of Japanese resistance.
March 27 – WWII: Argentina declares war on Germany and Japan.
March 30 – WWII:
Red Army pushes most of the Axis forces out of Hungary into Austria. Alger Hiss is congratulated in Moscow, for his part in bringing the positions of the Western powers and the Soviet Union closer to each other, at the Yalta Conference.
April [ ]
April 1 – WWII: Battle of Okinawa: The Tenth United States Army lands on Okinawa.
April 4 – WWII:
April 6 – WWII:
April 7 – WWII:
April 8 – The SS begins to evacuate the Buchenwald concentration camp; inmates in the Buchenwald Resistance call for American aid, and overpower and kill the remaining guards.
April 10 – WWII: Visoko is liberated by the 7th, 9th and 17th Krajina Brigades from the Tenth Division of Yugoslav Partisan forces.
April 11 – Buchenwald concentration camp is liberated by the United States Army.
April 14 – WWII:
April 15 – WWII:
April 16 – WWII:
April 17 – WWII:
April 18 – American war correspondent Ernie Pyle is killed by Japanese machine gun fire, on the island of Ie Shima off Okinawa.
April 19 – Rodgers and Hammerstein's , a musical play based on Carousel Ferenc Molnár's , opens on Liliom Broadway, and becomes their second long-running stage classic.
April 20 – WWII: On his 56th birthday, Adolf Hitler leaves his , to decorate a group of Führerbunker Hitler Youth soldiers in Berlin. It will be his last trip to the surface from his underground bunker.
April 22 – WWII:
Heinrich Himmler, through Folke Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg, puts forth an offer of German surrender to the Western Allies, but not the Soviet Union. Adolf Hitler privately concedes defeat in his underground Berlin bunker, after learning Felix Steiner cannot mobilize enough men to launch a counterattack on the Soviet Union which has just broken through Germany.
April 23 – WWII: Hermann Göring sends the Göring Telegram to Hitler, seeking confirmation that he should take over leadership of Germany, in accordance with the decree of 29 June 1941. Hitler regards this as treason.
April 24 – Retreating German troops destroy all the bridges over the Adige in Verona, including the historic Ponte di Castelvecchio and Ponte Pietra.
April 25– 26 – WWII: The last major strategic bombing raid by RAF Bomber Command, the destruction of the oil refinery at Tønsberg in southern Norway, is carried out by 107 Avro Lancasters.
April 26 – WWII:
Benito Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, are executed by Italian partisans as they attempt to flee the country. Their bodies are then hung by their heels in the public square of Milan Piazzale Loreto. The Canadian First Army captures Emden and Wilhelmshaven.
April 30 – Death of Adolf Hitler: Adolf Hitler and his wife of one day, Eva Braun, commit suicide as the Red Army approaches the Führerbunker in Berlin. Großadmiral Karl Dönitz succeeds Hitler as President of Germany ( Reichspräsident) and Joseph Goebbels succeeds as Chancellor of Germany ( Reichskanzler), in accordance with Hitler's political testament of the previous day.
May [ ]
May – Interpol (being headquartered in Berlin) effectively ceases to exist (it is recreated on June 3, 1946).
May 1 – WWII:
May 2 – WWII:
May 3 – WWII:
May 4 – WWII:
May 5 – WWII:
May 6– 7 – The government of the Independent State of Croatia, the Nazi-affiliated fascist puppet state established in occupied Yugoslavia, flees Zagreb for a location near Klagenfurt in Austria, rather than fall into the hands of the Yugoslav Partisans, initiating the Bleiburg repatriations.  
May 7 – WWII:
At 02:41, General
Alfred Jodl signs the unconditional German Instrument of Surrender in SHAEF HQ at Reims, France, to end Germany's participation in the war. Surrender is effective on May 8 at 23:01 hours Central European Time (00:01 hours May 9 German Summer Time). Numerous RAF Lancasters land in Germany to repatriate British prisoners of war. Some 4,500 ex-POWs are flown back to Great Britain over the next 24 hours.
May 8 – WWII:
May 8– 29 - Sétif and Guelma massacre: in Algeria, thousands die as French troops and released Italian POWs kill an estimated 6,000 to 40,000 Algerian citizens.
May 9 – WWII:
May 10 – WWII: German occupation of Sark ends, with its liberation by the Royal Navy.
May 14– 15 – WWII: Battle of Poljana: The last battle of the War in Europe is fought at Poljana near Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia.
May 15 – WWII: – Surrender at Bleiburg – Retreating troops of the Croatian Armed Forces of the former puppet Independent State of Croatia (intermingled with fleeing civilians) attempt to surrender to the British Army at Bleiburg, but are directed to surrender to Yugoslav Partisans, who open fire on them. The remainder, after orders are given by Tito, are force-marched through Croatia and Serbia, interned or massacred, with thousands dying.  
May 16 – WWII: German occupation of Alderney ends, with its liberation by the Royal Navy.
May 28 – U.S.-born Irish-raised William Joyce (" Lord Haw-Haw") is captured on the German border. He is later charged with high treason in London for his English-language wartime broadcasts on German radio, convicted, and then hanged in January 1946.
German communists, led by
Walter Ulbricht, arrive in Berlin. Dutch painter Han van Meegeren is arrested for collaboration with the Nazis, but the "Dutch Golden Age" paintings he has sold to Hermann Göring (Koch) are later proved to be his own fakes. May 30 – The Iranian government demands that all Soviet and British troops leave the country.
June [ ]
July [ ]
published. As We May Think 
July 1 – WWII: Germany is divided between the Allied occupation forces.
July 4 – Brazilian cruiser is sunk by an accidentally induced explosion, killing more than 300 and stranding the survivors in shark-infested waters. Bahia
July 6– 7 – Schio massacre: 54 prisoners, mostly fascist sympathisers, are killed by members of the Italian resistance movement in Schio.
July 8 – WWII: Harry S. Truman is informed that Japan will talk peace if it can retain the reign of the Emperor. 
July 9 – A forest fire breaks out in the Tillamook Burn (the third in that area of Oregon since 1933).
July 12 – Ben Chifley is elected leader of the Labor Party, and consequently becomes the 16th Prime Minister of Australia, defeating Frank Forde as well as Norman Makin and H.V. Evatt. As a result, Forde becomes the shortest serving Prime Minister in Australian history; nevertheless, he retains his post as Deputy Leader.
July 14 – WWII: Italy declares war on Japan.
July 15 – The Scott Morrison Award of Minor Hockey Excellence is first given; the first recipient is Gordie Howe.
Trinity Test, the first of an atomic bomb, using about six kilograms of plutonium, succeeds in unleashing an explosion equivalent to that of 19 kilotons of TNT. A train collision near Munich, Germany kills 102 war prisoners.
July 17– August 2 – WWII: Potsdam Conference – At Potsdam, the three main Allied leaders hold their final summit of the war. President Truman officially informs Stalin that the U.S. has a powerful new weapon.
July 21 – WWII: President Harry S. Truman approves the order for atomic bombs to be used against Japan.  July 23 – WWII: French marshal Philippe Pétain, who headed the Vichy government during WWII, goes on trial for treason.
August [ ]
August 6 – WWII: Atomic bombing of Hiroshima: A United States Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay, drops an atomic bomb, codenamed " Little Boy", on Hiroshima, Japan, at 8:15 a.m. (local time). The atomic bombings are believed to have resulted in between 129,000 and 246,000 deaths.
August 7 – U.S. President Harry Truman announces the successful atomic bombing of Hiroshima, while he is returning from the Potsdam Conference aboard the U.S. Navy heavy cruiser USS , in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Augusta (CA-31)
United Nations Charter is ratified by the United States Senate, and this nation becomes the third to join the new international organization. WWII: The Soviet Union declares war on Japan.
August 9 – WWII:
August 10 – WWII: Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, "provided this does not prejudice the sovereignty of the Emperor".
August 11– 25 – Soviet troops complete the occupation of Sakhalin.
August 13 – The Zionist World Congress approaches the British government, to discuss the founding of the country of Israel.
August 16 – A Polish–Soviet treaty establishes boundaries between the two countries.
August 18 – WWII: According to Habibur Rahman, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was killed in air crash.
August 19 – Chinese Civil War: Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek meet in Chongqing to discuss an end to hostilities between the Communists and the Nationalists.
August 23 – Soviet–Japanese War – Joseph Stalin orders the detention of Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union.
August 30 – WWII: Vietnam's capital Hanoi is taken by the Viet Minh, which ends the French occupation in what becomes North Vietnam, and thus the southern provinces become South Vietnam. This ends the August Revolution. August 31
September [ ]
September 2 – World War II ends:
Tomoyuki Yamashita surrenders to Filipino and American forces at Kiangan, Ifugao. The final official
Japanese Instrument of Surrender is accepted by the Supreme Allied Commander, General Douglas MacArthur, and Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz for the United States, and delegates from the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, China, and others from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu, on board the American battleship USS in Missouri Tokyo Bay. General
Douglas MacArthur is given the title of Supreme Commander Allied Powers, and is also tasked with the occupation of Japan.  The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is officially established, by Ho Chi Minh. 
September 4 – WWII: Japanese forces surrender on Wake Island, after hearing word of their country's surrender.
American troops occupy southern Korea, while the Soviet Union occupies the north, with the dividing line being the 38th parallel of latitude. This arrangement proves to be the indirect beginning of a divided Korea, which will lead to the Korean War in 1950.
September 9 – Chiang Kai-shek officially accepts the Japanese capitulation at Nanking.  September 10 – Vidkun Quisling is sentenced to death as a Nazi collaborator, in Norway. 
: The surrender of the Japanese Army in Central China, 1945-09-18. (Memorial in Wuhan)
October [ ]
October – Arthur C. Clarke puts forward the idea of a geosynchronous communications satellite, in a magazine article. Wireless World
October 1– 15 – Operation Backfire: Three A4 rockets are launched near Cuxhaven, in a demonstration to Allied forces.
October 2– George Albert Smith becomes president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
October 4 – The Partizan Belgrade sports club is founded in Belgrade, Serbia.
October 5 – Hollywood Black Friday: A strike by the Set Decorator's Union in Hollywood results in a riot.
October 8– 15 – Hadamar Trial: Personnel of the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre, now in the American zone of Allied-occupied Germany, are the first to be tried for systematic extermination in Nazi Germany.
October 9 – Pierre Laval is sentenced to death, for collaboration with the Nazis in Vichy France. 
October 10 – The Nazi Party is officially dissolved by the Allied Powers.
October 14 – Czechoslovakia: A new provisional national assembly is elected. 
October 15 – WWII: Pierre Laval, the former premier of Vichy France, is shot dead by a firing squad, for treason against France.
October 15– 21 – The Fifth Pan-African Congress is held in Manchester.
October 16 – The Food and Agriculture Organization is established at a meeting in Quebec City, as a specialized agency of the United Nations.
October 17 – A massive number of people, headed for the General Confederation of Labour (Argentina), gather in the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires to demand Juan Perón's release. This is known to the Peronists as the Día de la lealtad ( Loyalty Day) and considered the founding day of Peronism.
October 18 – Isaías Medina Angarita, president of Venezuela, is overthrown by a military coup. 
October 19 – Members of the Indonesian People's Army attack Anglo-Dutch forces in Indonesia. 
October 20 – Mongolians vote for independence from China. 
October 21 – Women's suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in the French Legislative Election for the first time.
October 22 – Rómulo Betancourt is named provisional president of Venezuela. 
October 23 – Jackie Robinson signs a contract with the Montreal Royals baseball team.
October 27– November 20 – Indonesian National Revolution: Battle of Surabaya – Pro-independence Indonesian soldiers and militia fight British and British Indian troops in Surabaya.
October 30 – The undivided country of India joins the United Nations.
November [ ]
Astrid Lindgren's children's book Pippi Långstrump is published in Sweden, and its English translation as is also issued. Pippi Longstocking
November 5 – Colombia joins the United Nations.
November 6 – Indonesians reject an offer of autonomy from the Dutch. 
November 9 – Soo Bahk Do and Moo Duk Kwan martial arts are founded in Korea.
November 11 – Marshal Josip Broz Tito and the People's Front win a deciding majority (90%), in the Yugoslavian Assembly. 
November 18 – The Tudeh party starts a bloodless coup, and will form Azerbaijan within days. Soviet troops prevent Iranian troops from getting involved.
November 20 – The Nuremberg trials begin: Trials against 22 Nazi war criminals of WWII start at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice. 
November 26 – U.S. Ambassador to China Patrick J. Hurley resigns, after he is unable to broker a deal between Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse Tung. 
November 28 – An earthquake in Balochistan causes a tsunami, and kills 4,000. November 29
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is declared (this day is celebrated as Republic Day until the 1990s). Marshal Tito is named president. Assembly of the world's first general purpose electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer ( ENIAC), is completed in the United States, covering 1,800 square feet (170 m 2) of floor space, and the first set of calculations is run on it.
December [ ]
Date unknown [ ]
Births [ ]
January [ ]
January 3 – Stephen Stills, American rock singer, songwriter ( ) Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
January 4 – Richard R. Schrock, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
January 11 – Christine Kaufmann, German actress (d. 2017)
January 12 – André Bicaba, Burkinabé sprinter
January 14 – Einar Hákonarson, Icelandic painter
January 20 – Robert Olen Butler, American writer
January 21 – Martin Shaw, British TV, film actor
January 27 – Harold Cardinal, Cree political leader, writer, and lawyer (d. 2005)
January 30 – Michael Dorris, American author (d. 1997) January 31 – Joseph Kosuth, American artist
February [ ]
February 5 – Sarah Weddington, American attorney
February 6 – Bob Marley, Jamaican reggae singer, songwriter and musician (d. 1981)
February 7 – Gerald Davies, Welsh rugby player
February 9 – Mia Farrow, American actress
February 10 – Koo Bon-moo, South Korean business executive (d. 2018)
February 13 – Simon Schama, English academician, historian
February 14 – Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein
February 15 – Douglas Hofstadter, American cognitive scientist
February 16 – Jeremy Bulloch, English actor
February 17 – Brenda Fricker, Irish actress
February 20 – Henry Polic II, American actor (d. 2013)
February 22 – Oliver, American singer ( ) (d. Good Morning Starshine 2000)
February 24 – Barry Bostwick, American actor
February 26 – Marta Kristen, Norwegian actress ( ) Lost In Space
February 27 – Carl Anderson, American singer, actor ( ) (d. Jesus Christ Superstar 2004) February 28 – Bubba Smith, American football player, actor (d. 2011)
March [ ]
March 1 – Dirk Benedict, American actor
March 2 – Hamza Abdullahi, Nigerian politician, military officer (d. 2019)
March 10 – Nobuhiko Higashikuni, Japanese Imperial prince (d. 2019)
March 12 – Sammy Gravano, American mobster
March 13 – Anatoly Fomenko, Russian mathematician
March 15 – A. K. Faezul Huq, Bangladeshi lawyer, politician (d. 2007)
March 21 – Charles Greene, American Olympic athlete
March 24 – Curtis Hanson, American film director, screenwriter (d. 2016)
March 26 – Mikhail Voronin, Russian gymnast (d. 2004)
March 27 – Władysław Stachurski, Polish football player, manager (d. 2013)
March 30 – Eric Clapton, English rock guitarist ( ) Layla March 31 – Gabe Kaplan, American actor, comedian, and professional poker player ( ) Welcome Back, Kotter
April [ ]
May [ ]
May 1 – Rita Coolidge, American pop singer
May 3 – Jeffrey C. Hall, American geneticist, chronobiologist, and Nobel Prize laureate
May 4 – Narasimhan Ram, Indian journalist
May 8 – Keith Jarrett, American musician
May 9 – Jupp Heynckes, German football manager, former footballer
May 13 – Tammam Salam, 34th Prime Minister of Lebanon
May 14 – Yochanan Vollach, Israeli footballer and president of Maccabi Haifa, CEO
May 15 – Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, heir to the Portuguese crown
May 16 – Nicky Chinn, English rock songwriter ( , The Sweet ) Suzi Quatro
May 17 – Tony Roche, Australian tennis player
May 19 – Pete Townshend, English rock guitarist, lyricist ( ) The Who
May 22 – Victoria Wyndham, American actress ( ) Another World
May 24 – Priscilla Presley, American actress, businesswoman
May 28 – John Fogerty, American rock singer ( ) Creedence Clearwater Revival
June [ ]
June 1 – Frederica von Stade, American mezzo-soprano
June 2 – Jon Peters, American film producer
June 3 – Hale Irwin, American professional golfer
June 6 – David Dukes, American actor (d. 2000)
June 8 – Steven Fromholz, American singer, songwriter (d. 2014)
June 9 – Nike Wagner, German woman of the theater
June 10 – Benny Gallagher, Scottish singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist, half of the duo Gallagher and Lyle
June 11 – Adrienne Barbeau, American actress, television personality and author ( ) Maude
June 12 – Pat Jennings, Northern Irish footballer
June 13 – Rodney P. Rempt, American admiral
June 20 – Anne Murray, Canadian singer ( ) Love Song
Dwight York, American musician, fashion consultant, cult leader, and child molester Paul Chun, Hong Kong actor
June 29 – Chandrika Kumaratunga, 5th President of Sri Lanka June 30
July [ ]
July 2 – Linda Warren, American author
July 3 – Thomas Mapfumo, Zimbabwean musician
July 6 – Burt Ward, American actor ( ) Batman
July 8 – Micheline Calmy-Rey, Swiss Federal Councilor
July 11 – Richard Wesley, American playwright, screenwriter
July 14 – Antun Vujić, Croatian politician, philosopher, political analyst, lexicographer and author
John Lowe, English darts player
Barry Richards, South African batsman Ziona, Indian religious, known for fathering the largest living family
July 24 – Azim Premji, Indian businessman
July 26 – Helen Mirren, British actress
July 28 – Jim Davis, American cartoonist ( ) Garfield July 30
August [ ]
August 1 – Douglas D. Osheroff, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
August 2 – Joanna Cassidy, American actress
August 4 – Alan Mulally, American businessman, former CEO of the Ford Motor Company
August 6 – Ron Jones, British director (d. 1993)
August 7 – Alan Page, American football player
August 9 – Posy Simmonds, English cartoonist
August 12 – J. D. McClatchy, American poet, literary critic (d. 2018)
August 13 – Howard Marks, Welsh drug smuggler, author (d. 2016)
August 19 – Ian Gillan, English rock singer ( ) Deep Purple
August 20 – Jonathan Goodson, American television game show producer, son of Mark Goodson
August 24 – Vincent K. "Vince" McMahon, American professional wrestling promoter, chairman and CEO of WWE
August 25 – Daniel Hulet, Belgian cartoonist (d. 2011)
August 26 – Tom Ridge, American politician
August 27 – Marianne Sägebrecht, German film actress
September [ ]
September 1 – Mustafa Balel, Turkish writer
September 4 – Danny Gatton, American guitarist (d. 1994)
September 6 – Victor Ramahatra, 5th Prime Minister of Madagascar
September 7 – Jacques Lemaire, Canadian ice hockey coach
September 9 – Doug Ingle, American singer, songwriter
September 10 – José Feliciano, Puerto Rican-American singer (" Feliz Navidad")
September 11 – Franz Beckenbauer, German footballer, coach
September 14 – Martin Tyler, British sports broadcaster
September 15 – Jessye Norman, American soprano
September 16 – Pat Stevens, American voice actress (d. 2010)
September 17 – Phil Jackson, American basketball coach
September 18 – P. F. Sloan, American singer, songwriter (d. 2015)
September 19 – Randolph Mantooth, American actor, motivational speaker ( ) Emergency!
September 22 – Gonzaguinha, Brazilian singer, composer (d. 1991)
September 23 – Paul Petersen, American child actor, advocate for other child actors
September 24 – John Rutter, English choral composer, conductor
September 25 – Dee Dee Warwick, American singer (d. 2008)
September 26 – Bryan Ferry, English singer-songwriter and musician ( Roxy Music)
September 27 – Jack Goldstein, Canadian artist (d. 2003)
September 29 – Nadezhda Chizhova, Russian athlete September 30
October [ ]
October 2 – Don McLean, American rock singer, songwriter ( ) American Pie
October 4 – Clifton Davis, African-American actor, minister ( ) Amen
October 5 – Brian Connolly, Scottish musician (d. 1997)
October 6 – Ivan Graziani, Italian singer, songwriter (d. 1997)
October 9 – Vijaya Kumaratunga, Sri Lankan film actor, politician (d. 1988)
October 13 – Susan Stafford, American television presenter
October 15 – Jim Palmer, American baseball player
October 20 – George Wyner, American actor
October 30 – Henry Winkler, American actor, producer and director ( ) Happy Days October 31 – Brian Doyle-Murray, American actor ( ) Saturday Night Live
November [ ]
December [ ]
December 1 – Bette Midler, American actress, comedian and singer ( ) Beaches
December 2 – Charles "Tex" Watson, American prisoner, 'Manson Family' member
December 3 – Bozhidar Dimitrov, Bulgarian historian, politician, and polemicist (d. 2018)
December 4 – Geoff Emerick, English recording engineer (d. 2018)
December 6 – Larry Bowa, American baseball player, manager
December 7 – Clive Russell, English actor
December 9 – Michael Nouri, American actor
December 11 – Sharafuddin of Selangor, Sultan of Selangor
Kathy Garver, American actress, author and online radio hostess
Heather North, American actress (d. 2017) Herman Cain, American politician, author, business executive, radio host, syndicated columnist, and Tea Party activist
December 16 – Patti Deutsch, American voice actress (d. 2017)
December 18 – Carolyn Wood, American professional swimmer
December 21 – Mari Lill, Estonian actress
December 23 – Donald A. Ritchie, American historian
December 26 – John Walsh, American media personality ( ) America's Most Wanted
December 30 – Davy Jones, English-born pop singer, actor ( ) (d. The Monkees 2012) December 31
Deaths [ ]
January [ ]
January 2 – Bertram Ramsay, British admiral (b. 1883)
January 3 – Edgar Cayce, American mysticist (b. 1877)
January 4 – Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno, 3-time President of Costa Rica (b. 1859)
Dennis O'Neill, British child killed by his foster parents, which scandal resulted in an overhaul of the British Care Systems (b. 1932) Jüri Uluots, Estonian statesman (b. 1890)
January 10 – Pēteris Juraševskis, 8th Prime Minister of Latvia (b. 1872)
January 12 – Teresio Olivelli, Italian Roman Catholic soldier and venerable (b. 1916)
January 15 – Pedro Abad Santos, Filipino politician, brother of Jose Abad Santos (b. 1876)
January 16 – José Fabella, Filipino physician (b. 1889)
January 20 – Federico Pedrocchi, Italian artist, writer (b. 1907)
January 21 – Sir Archibald Murray, British Army general (b. 1860)
January 22 – Else Lasker-Schüler, German poet, author (b. 1869)
January 31 – Eddie Slovik, American soldier (b. 1920)
February [ ]
Anne Frank, German-born Jewish diarist, writer (typhus in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp) (b. 1929)
February 3 – Roland Freisler, Nazi German judge (b. 1893)
February 6 – Robert Brasillach, French writer (b. 1909)
February 7 – Karl Schwitalle, German Olympic weightlifter (b. 1906)
February 8 – Robert Mallet-Stevens, French architect, designer (b. 1886)
February 10 – Anacleto Díaz, Filipino jurist (murdered during the Battle of Manila) (b. 1878)
February 11 – Al Dubin, Swiss songwriter (b. 1891)
February 12 – Antonio Villa-Real, Filipino jurist (murdered during the Battle of Manila) (b. 1878)
February 13 – Maria Orosa, Filipino technologist, chemist, humanitarian and WWII heroine (b. 1893)
February 15 – Helmut Möckel, German youth leader, politician (b. 1909)
February 17 – Gabrielle Weidner, Belgian World War II heroine (b. 1914)
February 19 – Heinrich Jasper, German politician (b. 1875)
February 21 – Eric Liddell, British Olympic athlete (b. 1902)
February 22 – Sara Josephine Baker, American physician (b. 1873)
February 24 – Josef Mayr-Nusser, Italian Roman Catholic layman, martyr and blessed (b. 1910)
February 25 – Mário de Andrade, Brazilian writer, photographer (b. 1893) February 26
March [ ]
March 2 – Emily Carr, Canadian artist (b. 1871)
March 3 – Aleksandra Samusenko, Soviet WWII tank commander (b. 1922)
March 7 – Ralph Ignatowski, American WWII hero (killed in action) (b. 1926)
March 12 – Friedrich Fromm, German Nazi official (executed) (b. 1888)
March 14 – Antônio Francisco Braga, Brazilian composer (b. 1868)
March 16 – Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (b. 1874)
March 18 – William Grover-Williams, French race car driver, war hero (b. 1903)
March 19 – Marcel Callo, French Roman Catholic layman, martyr and blessed (b. 1921)
March 23 – Élisabeth de Rothschild, French WWII heroine (b. 1902)
March 27 – Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil, Turkish author (b. 1867)
March 29 – Ferenc Csik, Hungarian swimmer (b. 1913)
April [ ]
Auguste van Pels, German-Jewish housemate of Anne Frank (b. 1900) (exact date unknown)
April 1 – Giuseppe Girotti, Italian Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1905)
April 5 – Huldreich Georg Früh, Swiss composer (b. 1903)
April 11 – Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard, British colonial administrator (b. 1858)
April 12 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, American political leader, statesman, and 32nd President of the United States (b. 1882)
April 13 – Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher (b. 1874)
April 16 – Ernst Bergmann, German philosopher (b. 1881)
April 17 – Franz Heritsch, Austrian geologist, paleontologist (b. 1882)
April 24 – Ernst-Robert Grawitz, German Reichsphysician (S.S. and Police) in the Third Reich (probable suicide) (b. 1899)
Franz Brantzky, German painter, sculptor and architect (b. 1871)
Hermann Fegelein, German Nazi general (b. 1906)
Benito Mussolini, Italian politician, journalist, 27th Prime Minister of Italy and Duce of Fascism (executed) (b. 1883)
Clara Petacci, mistress of Benito Mussolini (b. 1912)
Nicola Bombacci, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1879)
Achille Starace, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1889)
Alessandro Pavolini, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1903) Roberto Farinacci, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1892)
May [ ]
May 3 – Mario Blasich, Italian physician, politician (b. 1878)
May 4 – Fedor von Bock, German field marshal (b. 1880)
May 6 – Xhem Hasa, Albanian nationalist (b. 1908)
May 7 – Vladimir Boyarsky, Soviet army officer (b. 1901)
May 9 – Gustav Becking, German musician (b. 1894)
May 10 – Konrad Henlein, Sudeten German Nazi leader (b. 1898)
May 11 – Kiyoshi Ogawa, Japanese kamikaze pilot (b. 1922)
May 16 – Kaju Sugiura, Japanese admiral (b. 1896)
May 18 – William Joseph Simmons, American founder of the second Ku Klux Klan (b. 1880)
May 19 – Philipp Bouhler, German Nazi leader (b. 1899)
May 23 – Heinrich Himmler, German head of the SS (b. 1900)
May 24 – Robert Ritter von Greim, German field marshal (b. 1892)
May 25 – Rafael Estrella Ureña, Dominican lawyer, politician, and acting President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1889) May 31 – Odilo Globocnik, Austrian Nazi leader (b. 1904)
June [ ]
June 2 – József Heszlényi, Hungarian general (b. 1890)
June 4 – Georg Kaiser, German dramatist (b. 1878)
June 7 – Kitaro Nishida, Japanese philosopher (b. 1870)
June 8 – Robert Desnos, French poet, resistance fighter (b. 1900)
June 13 – Minoru Ōta, Japanese admiral (b. 1891)
June 19 – Seweryn Franciszek Światopełk-Czetwertyński, Polish politician (b. 1873)
June 24 – José Gutiérrez Solana, Spanish painter (b. 1886)
June 26 – Javier Ángel Figueroa, Chilean lawyer, politician (b. 1862)
July [ ]
July 1 – Félix Evaristo Mejía, Dominican diplomat, educator and writer (b. 1866)
July 2 – Óscar R. Benavides, Peruvian field marshal, diplomat, politician and President of Peru (b. 1876)
July 5 – John Curtin, 14th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1885)
July 7 – Peter To Rot, Papuan Roman Catholic layman, martyr and blessed (b. 1912)
July 9 – Luigi Aldrovandi Marescotti, Italian politician, diplomat (b. 1876)
July 12 – Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, German field marshal (b. 1895)
July 13 – Alla Nazimova, Russian-born American actress (b. 1879)
July 16 – Addison Randall, American actor (b. 1906)
July 17 – Ernst Busch, German field marshal (b. 1885)
July 19 – George Barbier, American actor (b. 1864)
July 20 – Paul Valéry, French poet (b. 1871)
July 25 – Malin Craig, United States Army general (b. 1875)
July 28 – Margot Asquith, Countess of Oxford and Asquith (b. 1864)
July 29 – Maria Pierina De Micheli, Italian Roman Catholic religious sister, mystic and blessed (b. 1890) July 31 – Artemio Ricarte, Filipino general (b. 1866)
August [ ]
August 1 – Blas Cabrera Felipe, Spanish physicist (b. 1878)
August 2 – Pietro Mascagni, Italian composer (b. 1863)
August 3 – Roman Kochanowski, Polish painter, illustrator (b. 1857)
August 8 – Joseph Pujol, Le Pétomane, French flatulist (b. 1857)
August 7 – Jacques Vaillant de Guélis, French WWII hero (b. 1907)
August 10 – Robert H. Goddard, American rocket scientist (b. 1882)
August 12 – Karl Leisner, German Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1915)
August 16 – Takijirō Ōnishi, Japanese admiral (b. 1891)
August 19 – Tomás Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (b. 1875)
August 22 – Mustafa Al-Maraghi, Egyptian reformer (b. 1881)
August 24 – Shizuichi Tanaka, Japanese general (b. 1887)
August 27 – Maria Pilar Izquierdo Albero, Spanish Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1906)
August 29 – Fritz Pfleumer, German engineer, inventor (b. 1881)
August 30 – Florencio Harmodio Arosemena, 6th President of Panama (b. 1872) August 31
September [ ]
October [ ]
October 1 – Walter Bradford Cannon, American physiologist (b. 1871)
October 6 – Hans Vogel, Chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) (b. 1881)
October 10 – Joseph Darnand, Vichy France politician (b. 1897)
October 12 – Dmytro Antonovych, Soviet politician (b. 1877)
October 13 – Milton S. Hershey, American chocolate tycoon (b. 1857)
October 15 – Pierre Laval, French politician, 2-time Prime Minister of France (executed) (b. 1883)
October 18 – Yoshiki Yahama, Japanese author (b. 1894)
October 21 – Henry Armetta, Italian actor (b. 1888)
October 24 – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian Nazi collaborator (b. 1887)
October 25 – Robert Ley, German Nazi politician (b. 1890)
October 26 – Paul Pelliot, French explorer (b. 1878)
October 28 – Gilbert Emery, American actor (b. 1875)
November [ ]
November 7 – Gus Edwards, American songwriter (b. 1879)
November 8 – August von Mackensen, German field marshal (b. 1849)
November 11 – Jerome Kern, American composer (b. 1885)
November 16 – Sigurður Eggerz, Minister for Iceland during World War I and 2nd Prime Minister of Iceland (b. 1875)
November 17 – Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1882)
November 19 – Carlo Alberto Biggini, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1902)
November 20 – Francis William Aston, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
November 22 – Irma Ingertha Gram, Norwegian historian (b. 1873)
November 23 – Charles Armijo Woodruff, 11th Governor of American Samoa (b. 1884)
November 25 – Doris Keane, American stage actress (b. 1881)
November 27 – Josep Maria Sert, Spanish Catalan muralist (b. 1874)
November 28 – Dwight F. Davis, American tennis player (b. 1879) November 30 – Shigeru Honjō, Japanese general (suicide) (b. 1876)
December [ ]
December 1 – Anton Dostler, German general (executed) (b. 1891)
December 3 – George McKay, Soviet-born American actor (b. 1884)
December 4 – Thomas Hunt Morgan, American biologist, geneticist, embryologist and Nobel Prize in Physiology recipient (b. 1866)
December 5 – Cosmo Lang, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1864)
December 8 – Gabriellino D'Annunzio, Italian actor, director and screenwriter (b. 1886)
December 12 – Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe (b. 1868)
December 21 – George S. Patton, American general (b. 1885)
December 22 – Otto Neurath, Austrian philosopher, political economist (b. 1892)
December 24 – Luis Chamizo Trigueros, Spanish writer (b. 1894)
December 28 – Theodore Dreiser, American author (b. 1871)
Nobel Prizes [ ]
References [ ]
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"Penicillin Pills May Replace Injection". . February 16, 1945 The Milwaukee Sentinel . Retrieved . May 22, 2012
"SS General von Steuben [+1945]". WreckSite . Retrieved . December 6, 2010
Guinness Book of World Records. 2008. p. 137.
Year by Year – 1945. History International.
Nohlen, Dieter; Stöver, Philip, eds. (2010). Elections in Europe: A data handbook. Baden-Baden: Nomos. p. 1678. ISBN . 978-3-8329-5609-7
Mayne, Alan James (1999). . Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0 . Retrieved . August 31, 2013
"1945". A WW2 Timeline. Worldwar-2.net . Retrieved . November 7, 2012
Smythe, John (1967). Bolo Whistler: The Life of General Sir Lashmer Whistler. London: Muller.
Duncan, George R. "Massacres and Atrocities of World War II" . Retrieved . October 15, 2015
"Central Europe Campaign – 522nd Field Artillery Battalion" . Retrieved . January 12, 2015 Jewish prisoners from the outer Dachau camps were marched to Dachau, and then 70 miles south. Many of the Jewish marchers weighed less than 80 pounds. Shivering in their tattered striped uniforms, the "skeletons" marched 10 to 15 hours a day, passing more than a dozen Bavarian towns. If they stopped or fell behind, the SS guards shot them and left their corpses along the road.
"Search Results". www.ushmm.org . Retrieved . April 5, 2018
"Liberatione". Lib.usc.edu. May 4, 1945. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016 . Retrieved . January 16, 2012
"Befrielsen 1945 – Tidslinje". Befrielsen1945.dk. January 2, 2012 . Retrieved . January 16, 2012
Waller, Derek (September 25, 2010). "U-Boats that Surrendered". u-boat.net . Retrieved . November 14, 2014
Milcic, Allen. "Croatian Axis Forces in WWII" . Retrieved . June 28, 2012
Dizdar, Zdravko (December 2005). "Prilog istraživanju problema Bleiburga i križnih putova (u povodu 60. obljetnice)" [An addition to the research of the problem of Bleiburg and the Way of the Cross (dedicated to their 60th anniversary)]. The Review of Senj (in Croatian). Senj, Croatia: City Museum Senj; Senj Museum Society. 32 (1): 117–193. ISSN 0582-673X . Retrieved . May 28, 2012
Bethell, Nicholas (1974). The Last Secret. London.
Palaich, Michael (1991). "Bleiburg Tragedy" . Retrieved . August 15, 2013
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"1945 - The Decision to Drop the Bomb". NuclearFiles. Archived from the original on April 6, 2010.
"Brief History (timeline)", AI Topics, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence , retrieved August 24, 2016
"1945: Labour landslide buries Churchill". BBC News. April 5, 2005.
Pike, John. "The Soviet Army Offensive: Manchuria, 1945". Globalsecurity.org . Retrieved . January 16, 2012
Angier, R. B.; Boothe, J. H.; Hutchings, B. L.; Mowat, J. H.; Semb, J.; Stokstad, E. L. R.; Subbarow, Y.; Waller, C. W.; Cosulich, D. B.; Fahrenbach, M. J.; Hultquist, M. E.; Kuh, E.; Northey, E. H.; Seeger, D. R.; Sickels, J. P.; Smith Jr, J. M. (1945). "Synthesis of a Compound Identical with the L. Casei Factor Isolated from Liver". Science. 102 (2644): 227–28. Bibcode: 1945Sci...102..227A. doi: 10.1126/science.102.2644.227. PMID 17778509.
Hoffbrand, A. V.; Weir, D. G. (2001). "The history of folic acid". . British Journal of Haematology 113 (3): 579–589. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.02822.x. PMID 11380441.
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Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945-1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN . 0-313-24308-5
"Discovery of Promethium". Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review. 36 (1). 2003. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011 . Retrieved . June 16, 2011
Further reading [ ]
Ian Buruma. Year Zero: A History of 1945 (Penguin Press; 2013) 368 pages; covers liberation, revenge, decolonization, and the rise of the United Nations. Keith Lowe.
Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II (2012) excerpt and text search Walter Yust, ed. 10 Eventful Years, 1937 – 1946 Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1947, 4 vol., encyclopedia yearbook