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1941 ( MCMXLI)
was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1941st year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 941st year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1940s decade.
Events [ ]
Below, the events of
World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
January [ ]
January– August – 10,072 men, women and children with mental and physical disabilities are asphyxiated with carbon monoxide in a gas chamber, at Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in Germany, in the first phase of mass killings under the Action T4 program here.
January 1 – Thailand Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram decrees January 1 as the official start of the Thai solar calendar new year (thus the previous year that began April 1 had only 9 months).
January 3 – A decree ( Normalschrifterlass) promulgated in Germany by Martin Bormann, on behalf of Adolf Hitler, requires replacement of blackletter typefaces by Antiqua. 
January 4 – The short subject is released, marking the second appearance of Elmer's Pet Rabbit Bugs Bunny, and also the first to have his name on a title card.
January 5 – WWII: Battle of Bardia in Libya: Australian and British troops defeat Italian forces, the first battle of the war in which an Australian Army formation takes part.
January 10 – The Lend-Lease Act is introduced into the United States Congress.
January 11 – The British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS is sunk off Southampton (83) Malta.
January 13 – All persons born in Puerto Rico since this day are declared U.S. citizens by birth, through U.S. federal law. 
Commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser captures the Norwegian whaling fleet near Pinguin Bouvet Island, effectively ending Southern Ocean whaling for the duration of the war.  In a BBC radio broadcast from London, Victor de Laveleye asks all Belgians to use the letter "V" as a rallying sign, being the first letter of victoire (victory) in French and of vrijheid (freedom) in Dutch. This is the beginning of the "V campaign" which sees "V" graffities on the walls of Belgium and later all of Europe and introduces the use of the " V sign" for victory and freedom. Winston Churchill adopts the sign soon afterwards, though he sometimes gets it the wrong way around and uses the common insult gesture. 
January 15 – John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry describe the workings of the Atanasoff–Berry computer in print.
January 19 – WWII: British troops attack Italian-held Eritrea.
January 20 – Franklin D. Roosevelt is sworn in for a third term as President of the United States.
January 23 – Aviator Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress, and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.
January 27 – WWII: Joseph Grew, the U.S. ambassador to Japan, reports to Washington a rumor overheard at a diplomatic reception, concerning a planned surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. January 30 – WWII: Australians capture Derna, Libya, from the Italians.
February [ ]
March [ ]
March 4 – WWII: Operation Claymore – British Commandos carry out a successful raid on the Lofoten Islands, off the north coast of Norway.
March 8 – WWII: The U.S. Senate passes the Lend-Lease Act.
March 11 – WWII: Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, providing for the U.S. to provide Lend-Lease aid to the Allies.
March 15 – Richard C. Hottelet is arrested by the Gestapo on "suspicion of espionage", but eventually released in July as part of a prisoner exchange with the U.S.
March 16 – A group of U.S. warships arrive in Auckland, New Zealand, on a goodwill visit. On March 20, they arrive in Sydney, Australia.
March 22 – Washington state's Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity.
March 24 – WWII: Rommel launches his first offensive in Cyrenaica.
March 25 – WWII: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia joins the Axis powers in Vienna.
March 27 – WWII:
March 30 – WWII:
All German, Italian and Danish ships anchored in United States waters are taken into "protective custody".
A German Lorenz cipher machine operator sends a 4,000-character message twice, allowing British mathematician Bill Tutte to decipher the machine's coding mechanism. 
April [ ]
April – The Valley of Geysers is discovered on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia, by Tatyana Ustinova.
April 1 – A military coup d'état, launched by Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani, overthrows the pro-British regime in Iraq.
April 4 – WWII: Axis forces capture Benghazi.
April 6 – WWII: Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
April 9 – The U.S. acquires full military defense rights in Greenland.
April 10 – WWII:
April 12 – WWII: German troops enter Belgrade.
April 13 – The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact is signed. 
April 15 – WWII: Axis forces reach Halfaya Pass, on the Libyan-Egyptian frontier.
April 18 – WWII:
The Yugoslav Royal Army capitulates.
Greek Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide, as German troops approach Athens.
April 19 – Bertolt Brecht's anti-war play ( Mother Courage and Her Children German: Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) receives its first theatrical production, at the Schauspielhaus Zürich.
April 21 – WWII: Greece capitulates. Commonwealth troops and some elements of the Greek Army withdraw to Crete.
April 23 – The America First Committee holds its first mass rally in New York City, with Charles Lindbergh as keynote speaker.
April 25 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, at his regular press conference, criticizes Charles Lindbergh by comparing him to the Copperheads of the Civil War period. In response, Lindbergh resigns his commission in the U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve on April 28.
April 27 – WWII: German troops enter Athens. April 28 – World War II persecution of Serbs: Gudovac massacre – Members of the Croatian nationalist Ustashe movement kill around 190 Bjelovar Serbs in the village of Gudovac, in the Independent State of Croatia.
May [ ]
The breakfast cereal
is introduced as Cheerios by CheeriOats General Mills.
Orson Welles' film premieres in New York City. Citizen Kane The first Defense Bonds and Defense Savings Stamps go on sale in the United States, to help fund the greatly increased production of military equipment.
May 2 – Anglo-Iraqi War: British combat operations against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq begin. 
May 5 – WWII: Emperor Haile Selassie enters Addis Ababa, which has been liberated from Italian forces; this date is subsequently commemorated as Liberation Day in Ethiopia.
May 6 – At California's March Field, entertainer Bob Hope performs his first USO Show.
May 8 – WWII: The German auxiliary cruiser is sunk by Pinguin HMS in the Indian Ocean; 555 are killed. Cornwall (56)
May 9 – WWII: German submarine is captured by the British U-110 Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine, which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.
May 11/ May 12 – WWII: The Ustaše massacre 260–373 Serb men in a Catholic church in Glina, Croatia, where the men had assembled to be received into the Catholic faith, in exchange for their lives.
May 12 – Konrad Zuse presents the Z3, the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computer, in Berlin.
May 13 – WWII: Yugoslav General Draža Mihailović and a group of 80 soldiers and officers cross the Drina river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, arrive at Ravna Gora, in western Nazi-occupied Serbia and start fighting with German occupation troops.
May 19 – The Viet Minh is formed at Pác Bó in Vietnam, to overthrow French rule of the nation, as an alliance between the Indochina Communist party, led by Ho Chi Minh, and the Nationalist party. It will become the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War.
May 20 – WWII: The Battle of Crete begins, as Germany launches an airborne invasion of Crete, the first mainly airborne invasion in military history.
May 21 – German submarine sinks the U.S.-flagged U-69 SS off the west African coast, having allowed the passengers and crew to disembark. Robin Moor
May 26 – WWII: In the North Atlantic, Fairey Swordfish aircraft from the carrier HMS cripple the steering of Ark Royal German battleship in an Bismarck aerial torpedo attack.
May 29 – The Disney animators' strike occurs, due to Walt Disney refusing to recognize his animators and their low pay.
May 30 – WWII: Manolis Glezos and Apostolos Santas tear down the Nazi swastika on the Acropolis in Athens, and replace it with the Greek flag. May 31 – Anglo-Iraqi War: British troops complete the re-occupation of the Kingdom of Iraq, returning Prince 'Abd al-Ilah to power as regent for Faisal II.
June [ ]
June 1 – WWII: The Battle of Crete ends, as Crete surrenders to invading German forces.
June 6 – WWII: The Commissar Order is issued by , requiring all Soviet Oberkommando der Wehrmacht political commissars identified in Operation Barbarossa among captured forces to receive summary execution.
June 8 – WWII: British and Free French forces invade Syria.
June 13 – TASS, the official Soviet news agency, denies reports of tension between Germany and the Soviet Union.
All German and Italian consulates in the United States are ordered closed, and their staffs to leave the country by July 10.
WWII: British Fleet Air Arm aircraft sink the Vichy ship . Chevalier Paul
June 18 – The German–Turkish Treaty of Friendship is signed between Nazi Germany and Turkey, in Ankara.
Operation Barbarossa: Nazi Germany (with allies) invades the Soviet Union. Winston Churchill promises all possible British assistance to the Soviet Union in a worldwide broadcast: "Any man or state who fights against Nazidom will have our aid. Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our foe." Italy and Romania declare war on the Soviet Union. WWII: The
First Sisak Partisan Brigade, the first anti-fascist armed unit in occupied Europe, is founded by Yugoslav partisans near Sisak, Croatia.
June Uprising in Lithuania: A Provisional Government of Lithuania is established by the Lithuanian Activist Front, in an attempt to liberate Lithuania from Soviet occupation. Rapid escalation of the
Holocaust in Lithuania: Between now and the end of the year, an estimated 190,000-195,000 out of 210,000 Lithuanian Jews will be massacred, killing an estimated 95% of the nation's Jewish population. Rapid Vienna beats Schalke 04, in the final of the German Fottballchampionship, after 0:3 with 4:3.
June 23 – WWII: Hungary and Slovakia declare war on the Soviet Union.
June 25 – WWII: Finland (as a co-belligerent with Germany) attacks the Soviet Union, to start the Continuation War.
June 28 – WWII: Albania declares war on the Soviet Union.
June 28– 30 – Holocaust: The Iași pogrom takes place, killing "at least 13,266" Romanian Jews. June 29 – WWII: Hitler's second-in-command, Reichsmarshall Hermann Göring, is appointed as Hitler's successor in a written decree. The decree will come into effect, should Hitler die in the middle of the war. (The decree becomes void in April 1945, after Göring tries to assume power while Hitler is still alive, leading to Göring's expulsion from the Nazi Party.)
July [ ]
July – The British Army's Special Air Service is formed.
Commercial television is authorized by the
Federal Communications Commission in the United States.
NBC Television begins commercial operation on WNBT, on Channel 1. The world's first legal TV commercial, for Bulova watches, occurs at 2:29 PM over WNBT, before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The 10-second spot displays a picture of a clock superimposed on a map of the United States, accompanied by the voice-over "America runs on Bulova time."  As a one-off special, the first quiz show called "Uncle Bee" is telecast on WNBT's inaugural broadcast day, followed later the same day by  Ralph Edwards hosting the second game show broadcast on U.S. television, , as simulcast on radio and TV and sponsored by Truth or Consequences Ivory Soap. Weekly broadcasts of the show commence in 1956, with Bob Barker.
CBS Television begins commercial operation on New York station WCBW (modern-day WCBS-TV), on Channel 2. WWII: Germany and Italy recognize the Japanese-sponsored Chinese reorganized national government under Wang Jingwei as the legitimate government of China.
July 2 – WWII: The Empire of Japan calls up 1 million men for military service.
July 3 – WWII: Joseph Stalin, in his first address since the German invasion, calls upon the Soviet people to carry out a " scorched earth" policy of resistance to the bitter end.
July 4 – A massacre of Polish scientists and writers is committed by Nazi German troops, in the occupied Polish city of Lwów.
July 5 – WWII:
July 5– 31: War is fought between Peru and Ecuador.
July 10 – The Holocaust: Jedwabne pogrom: Local ethnic Poles massacre at least 340 Jewish residents of Jedwabne, in occupied Poland. The Jewish residents are locked in a barn and the barn set on fire 
July 11 – The Northern Rhodesian Labour Party holds its first congress in Nkana. 
July 14 – WWII: Vichy France signs armistice terms ending all fighting in Syria and Lebanon.
July 17 – Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak ends.
BBC broadcast by "Colonel Britton" ( Douglas Ritchie) calls on the people of occupied Europe to resist the Nazis, under the slogan "V for Victory". The Tom and Jerry cartoon short is released; it is the second appearance for the duo, and the first in which they are officially named. The Midnight Snack
July 23 – WWII: Italian aircraft damage the British destroyer HMS which has to be sunk. Fearless
July 25 – Postal codes are introduced in Germany.
July 26 – WWII:
July 29 – The Vichy Regime signs the Protocol Concerning Joint Defense and Joint Military Cooperation with the Empire of Japan, giving the Japanese a total of 8 airfields, allowing them greater troop presence, and the use of the Indochinese financial system, in return for continued French autonomy.
July 30 – WWII: Glina massacre of July–August 1941 – The Ustaše brutally kill 200 Serbs inside a Serbian Orthodox church in Glina, Croatia, with a total of 700–1,200 being killed in the area of the next few days. July 31 – WWII: The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official Hermann Göring orders S.S. General Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question." 
August [ ]
August – The Political Warfare Executive is formed in the United Kingdom to disseminate propaganda to Germany and its occupied countries.
August 1 – The Willys MB U.S. Army Jeep is first produced.
August 5 – The Provisional Government of Lithuania is dissolved.
August 6 – Six-year-old Elaine Esposito goes to have an appendix operation in Florida and lapses into a coma, dying 37 years later, still comatose.
August 7 – WWII: British submarine HMS sinks an Italian Severn Marconi-class submarine.
August 9 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet onboard ship at Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter (released August 14), setting goals for postwar international cooperation, is created as a result.
August 21 – In revenge for the execution two days earlier of French Resistance member Samuel Tyszelman, communist activist Pierre Georges (with others) shoots and kills a member of the German military in occupied Paris, initiating a cycle of assassinations and retribution that will claim hundreds of lives. 
August 25 – WWII: The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran to secure the Persian Corridor and oilfields begins.
August 27 – WWII: Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre, 23,600 Jews are shot dead by Einsatzgruppen troops and local collaborators in Ukraine.
August 28 – WWII: Soviet evacuation of Tallinn – German troops capture Tallinn, Estonia from the Soviet Union, while attacks on the evacuating Soviet ships leave more than 12,000 dead in one of the bloodiest naval battles of the war. German forces will capture the entire Estonian territory by December 6.
August 30 – German troopship Bahia Laura is sunk by HMS ; 450 are killed. Trident (N52) August 31
September [ ]
September 3 – The Holocaust: SS- Hauptsturmführer Karl Fritzsch first uses the pesticide Zyklon B, to execute Soviet prisoners of war en masse at Auschwitz concentration camp; eventually it will be used to kill about 1.2 million people.
September 6 – The Holocaust: The requirement to wear the Star of David, with the word "Jew" inscribed, is extended to all Jews over the age of 6 in German-occupied areas.
September 8 – WWII: Siege of Leningrad: German forces begin a siege against the Soviet Union's second-largest city, Leningrad. Stalin orders the Volga Germans deported to Siberia.
September 14 – The State of Vermont "declares war" on Germany, by defining the United States to be in "armed conflict", in order to extend a wartime bonus to Vermonters in the service. 
September 15 – The Estonian Self-Administration, headed by Hjalmar Mäe, is appointed by the German military administration.
September 16 – Rezā Shāh of Iran is forced to resign in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, under pressure from the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, concluding the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.
September 16– 30 – The Nikolaev massacre takes place in Mykolaiv (Soviet Union); 35,782 men, women and children; mostly Jews, are killed by Einsatzgruppe D and local collaborators.
September 22 – The town of Reshetylivka in the Soviet Union is occupied by German forces.
September 23 – The 1941 Texas hurricane makes landfall near Bay City, Texas, causing extensive damage and flooding in Galveston and Houston.
September 28 – WWII: The Drama Uprising against the Bulgarian occupation in northern Greece begins.
September 29 – WWII: The Moscow Conference begins; U.S. representative Averell Harriman and British representative Lord Beaverbrook meet with Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, to arrange urgent assistance for Russia. September 29– 30 – The Holocaust: Babi Yar massacre – German troops, assisted by Ukrainian police and local collaborators, kill 33,771 Jews in Kiev.
October [ ]
Mid-October – The first
P-38E Lightning fighter is produced by Lockheed in the United States.
October 2 – WWII: Operation Typhoon begins, as Germany launches an all-out offensive against Moscow.
October 2 – Tudeh Party of Iran is founded.
October 5 – The Holocaust: In Berdychiv, 20-30,000 Jews are shot dead.
October 7 – John Curtin becomes the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, following the defeat of Arthur Fadden's Country/ UAP Coalition Government, on the floor of the House of Representatives.
October 8 – WWII: In their invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany reaches the Sea of Azov, with the capture of Mariupol.
October 11 – WWII: Armed insurgents from the People's Liberation Army of Macedonia attack Axis-occupied zones in the city of Prilep, beginning the National Liberation War of Macedonia.
October 11– 12 – Fire destroys a Firestone Tire and Rubber Company plant in Fall River, Massachusetts, consuming 15,850 tons of rubber, and causing a setback to the United States war effort. 
October 13 – The Holocaust: Heinrich Himmler instructs SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik to begin construction of Bełżec, the first of the Operation Reinhard extermination camps.
October 15 – WWII: British submarine HMS bombards the port of Torbay Apollonia, Cyrenaica in Italian Libya.
October 16 – WWII: The Soviet government moves to Kuibyshev (modern Samara), but Stalin remains in Moscow.
October 17 – WWII: Destroyer USS is torpedoed and damaged near Kearny Iceland, killing 11 sailors (the first American military casualties of the war, in which the US is at this time neutral).
October 18 – General Hideki Tōjō becomes the 40th Prime Minister of Japan.
October 18 – Film is released in the United States, starring The Maltese Falcon Humphrey Bogart, directed by John Huston.
October 21 – WWII: Kragujevac massacre – German soldiers and local auxiliaries massacre more than 2,000 civilian men at Kragujevac, in Nazi-occupied Serbia.
October 23 – Walt Disney's fourth animated film is released in the United States. Dumbo
October 25 – WWII: German fighter pilot Franz von Werra disappears during a flight over the North Sea.
October 29 – The Holocaust: Kaunas massacre of October 29, 1941 – Over 9,200 Lithuanian Jews are shot dead.
November [ ]
November 5 – WWII: The United States holds peace talks with Japan.
November 6 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet Union for only the second time during his three-decade rule (the first time was earlier this year on July 2). He states that 350,000 Soviet troops have been killed in German attacks, but that the Germans have lost 4.5 million soldiers (a gross exaggeration), and that Soviet victory is near.
November 7 – WWII: The Soviet hospital ship is sunk by German aircraft while evacuating refugees, wounded military and the staff of several Armenia Crimean hospitals. It is estimated that more than 5,000 die in the sinking.
November 10 – In a speech at the Mansion House, London, Winston Churchill promises "should the United States become involved in war with Japan, the British declaration will follow within the hour".
November 12 – WWII:
November 17 – WWII: Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables to Washington, D.C. a warning, that Japan may strike suddenly and unexpectedly.
November 18 – WWII: Operation Crusader, a British Eighth Army operation to relieve the Siege of Tobruk in North Africa, begins.
November 19 – WWII: Battle between HMAS – Both Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser and Australian cruiser Kormoran HMAS sink following a battle off the coast of Western Australia. There are no survivors from the 645 Australian sailors aboard Sydney Sydney. 
November 21 – The live blues radio program is broadcast for the first time on King Biscuit Time KFFA in Helena, Arkansas; it will attain its 17,000th broadcast in 2014 making it the longest-running daily American radio broadcast.
November 22 – WWII: HMS sinks Devonshire commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser , ending the longest warship cruise of the war (622 days without in-port replenishment or repair). Atlantis 
November 26 – WWII:
WWII: Germans reach their closest approach to Moscow. They are subsequently frozen by cold weather and stopped by attacks by the
Soviets. A group of young men stop traffic on U.S. Highway 99 south of Yreka, California, handing out fliers proclaiming the establishment of the State of Jefferson. November 30 and December 8 – Rumbula massacre: Nazi forces kill approximately 24,000 Latvian Jews and 1,000 German Jews outside of Riga.
December [ ]
December 1 – WWII:
December 2 – WWII: The code message "Climb Mount Niitaka" is transmitted to the Japanese task force, indicating that negotiations have broken down and that the attack on Pearl Harbor is to be carried out according to plan.
December 4 – The State of Jefferson is declared in Yreka, California, with a judge, John Childs, as governor.
December 5 – WWII: The United Kingdom declares war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.
December 6 – WWII:
Soviet counterattacks begin against German troops encircling Moscow. The
is subsequently pushed back over 200 mi (320 km). Heer British submarine HMS is Perseus mined off Cephalonia.
December 7 ( December 8 – 3:18 a.m., Japan Standard Time) – WWII:
Battle of Hong Kong begins shortly after 8:00 a.m. ( local time), less than 8 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, when Japanese forces invade Hong Kong, which is defended by British, Canadian and local troops. The United Kingdom officially declares war on the Empire of Japan. WWII: The Japanese Invade
Shanghai International Settlement, to occupy the British and the American sectors, after the attack on Pearl Harbor. WWII: The Japanese invasion of the Philippines begins 10 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, when Japanese forces invade
Luzon and destroy U.S. aircraft on Clark Field.  WWII: President of the United States
Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his " Infamy Speech" to a Joint session of the United States Congress at 12:30 p.m. EST (17.30 GMT). Transmitted live over all four major national networks, it attracts the largest audience ever for an American radio broadcast, over 81% of homes. Within an hour, Congress agrees to the President's request for a  United States declaration of war upon Japan, and he signs it at 4:10 p.m. WWII:
Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, the Free French, Yugoslavia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras also officially declare war on Japan, and the Republic of China declares war on the Axis powers.  WWII: Japanese forces attack
British Malaya and Thailand.  WWII: The German advance on Moscow (Operation Typhoon) is suspended for the winter.
The Holocaust: The Nazi German Chełmno extermination camp opens in occupied Poland, near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem. Between December 1941-April 1943 and June 1944-January 1945, at least 153,000 Jews will be killed in the camp. The Holocaust The first mass gassing of Jews begins at the Chełmno extermination camp on December 8, 1941, when the Nazis use gas vans to murder people from the Lodz ghetto.
December 10 – WWII:
December 11 – WWII:
December 11– 13 – WWII: Battle of Jitra: Japanese compel British troops to withdraw from their positions in Malaya.
December 12 – WWII:
December 14 – WWII: The Independent State of Croatia declares war on the United States and the United Kingdom.
December 15 – WWII: At Drobytsky Yar, 15,000 Jews are shot dead by German troops.
December 19 – WWII:
December 22 – WWII: The Arcadia Conference opens in Washington, D.C., the first meeting on military strategy between the heads of government of the United Kingdom and the United States, following the latter's entry into the war.
December 23 – WWII: A second Japanese landing attempt on Wake Island is successful, and the American garrison surrenders, after a full night and morning of fighting.
December 24 – WWII:
British forces capture
Benghazi. Dutch submarine HNLMS K XVI is the first Allied ship to sink a Japanese warship, sinking the destroyer near Sagiri Sarawak; K XVI is herself torpedoed the following day by Japanese submarine . I-66
December 25 – WWII:
December 26 – WWII: Winston Churchill becomes the first British Prime Minister to address a joint session of the United States Congress. December 27 – WWII: British Commandos raid the Norwegian port of Vaagso, causing Hitler to reinforce the garrison and defenses, drawing vital troops away from other areas.
Date unknown [ ]
Births [ ]
January [ ]
January 3 – Shima Iwashita, Japanese actress
January 4 – John Bennett Perry, American actor, singer
January 10 – José Greci, Italian actress (d. 2017)
January 12 – Long John Baldry, English singer (d. 2005)
January 13 – Pasqual Maragall, Spanish politician
January 15 – Captain Beefheart, American singer (d. 2010)
January 16 – Ivan Allan, Malaysian race horse trainer, businessman (d. 2009)
January 17 – Mircea Snegur, 1st President of Moldova
January 18 – David Ruffin, African-American singer ( ) (d. The Temptations 1991)
January 19 – Pat Patterson, Canadian professional wrestler
January 23 – Buddy Buie, American songwriter, record producer (d. 2015)
January 28 – Fernando Serena, Spanish footballer (d. 2018)
February [ ]
February 2 – Omar Sey, Gambian politician (d. 2018)
February 6 – Stephen Albert, American composer (d. 1992)
February 9 — Kermit Gosnell, American abortionist and serial killer 
February 12 – Naomi Uemura, Japanese adventurer (d. 1984)
February 14 – Sylvester Carmel Magro, Maltese bishop (d. 2018)
February 15 – Florinda Bolkan, Brazilian actress and model
February 16 – Kim Jong-il, Leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (d. 2011)
February 17 – Ron Meyer, American football coach (d. 2017)
February 19 – David Gross, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
February 20 – Buffy Sainte-Marie, Canadian singer
February 25 – Sandy Bull, American folk musician, composer (d. 2001) February 27 – Paddy Ashdown, British politician, diplomat (d. 2018)
March [ ]
March 9 – Ernesto Miranda, American criminal (d. 1976)
March 10 – George P. Smith, American biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate
March 12 – Erkki Salmenhaara, Finnish composer (d. 2002)
March 14 – Wolfgang Petersen, German film director
March 15 – Mike Love, American musician ( ) Beach Boys
March 17 – Paul Kantner, American rock guitarist ( ) (d. Jefferson Airplane 2016)
March 18 – Wilson Pickett, African-American singer (d. 2006)
March 22 – Bruno Ganz, Swiss actor (d. 2019)
March 23 – Jim Trelease, American educator, author
March 26 – Richard Dawkins, British scientist
March 29 – Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., American astrophysicist, Nobel Prize laureate
March 31 – Rosario Green, Mexican economist, diplomat and politician (d. 2017)
April [ ]
April 2 – Dr. Demento (Barret Eugene Hansen), American radio disc jockey, novelty music collector
April 6 – Phil Austin, American comedian ( ) (d. The Firesign Theater 2015)
April 8 – Peggy Lennon, American singer ( ) The Lennon Sisters
April 9 – Kay Adams, American country singer
April 10 – John Kurila, Scottish footballer (d. 2018)
April 11 – Shirley Stelfox, English actress (d. 2015)
April 12 – Bobby Moore, English football player, World Cup winning captain (d. 1993)
April 13 – Michael Stuart Brown, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
April 14 – Pete Rose, American baseball player
April 18 – Michael D. Higgins, 9th President of Ireland
April 20 – Ryan O'Neal, American actor ( ) Love Story
April 21 – Eduardo Guedes, U.S., Portuguese film-maker (d. 2000)
May [ ]
May 3 – Paul Ferris, English film composer, actor (d. 1995)
May 5 – Alexander Ragulin, Russian hockey player (d. 2004)
May 9 – Howard Komives, American professional basketball player (d. 2009)
May 11 – Eric Burdon, British singer
May 14 – Jesús Gómez, Mexican equestrian (d. 2017)
May 16 – Eric Berntson, Canadian politician (d. 2018)
May 20 – Goh Chok Tong, 2nd Prime Minister of Singapore
May 21 – Bobby Cox, American baseball manager
May 22 – Menzies Campbell, British politician
May 23 – K. Raghavendra Rao, Indian film director, producer, screenwriter and choreographer
May 25 – Vladimir Voronin, 3rd President of Moldova
May 26 – John Kaufman, British sculptor
June [ ]
June 7 – Tony Ray-Jones, British photographer (d. 1972)
June 9 – Jon Lord, English composer, pianist, and organist (d. 2012)
June 16 – Rosalind Baker, Australian author
June 17 – Roberta Maxwell, Canadian actress
Mitty Collier, American church pastor, gospel singer and former rhythm and blues singer
Aloysius Paul D'Souza, Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mangalore
Joe Flaherty, American-Canadian actor, comedian ( ) Second City Television
Totto Osvold, Norwegian radio entertainer
Liz Mohn, widow of Reinhard Mohn, owner of the media conglomerate Bertelsmann
Jimmy Rayl, American professional basketball player (d. 2019)
Eduardo Suplicy, Brazilian left-wing politician, economist and professor Valeri Zolotukhin, Soviet/Russian actor (d. 2013)
Julia Kristeva, Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and novelist
Graham McKenzie, Australian cricketer
Erkin Koray, Turkish musician
Nelson López, Argentine football defender
Bill Reardon, American politician, educator Charles Whitman, American mass murderer (d. 1966)
July [ ]
Alf Duval, Australian rower
Rod Gilbert, Canadian professional ice hockey forward
Alfred G. Gilman, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2015)
Ursula Koch, Swiss politician
Jaakko Kailajärvi, Finnish weightlifter
Twyla Tharp, American dancer, choreographer, and author
Zimani Kadzamira, Malawian academic, civil servant and diplomat Denis Michael Rohan, Australian citizen who, on August 21, 1969, set fire to the pulpit of the Al-Aqsa Mosque, in Jerusalem (d. 1995)
Vivian Barbot, Canadian-Haitian teacher, activist, and politician
Marco Bollesan, Italian former rugby union player, coach and manager
Alan Durban, Welsh international footballer, manager
Louis Friedman, American astronautics engineer, space spokesperson
Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, Welsh politician
Bill Oddie, English writer, composer, musician and comedian
John Fru Ndi, Cameroonian politician Jim Rodford, English musician (d. 2018)
July 23 – Sergio Mattarella, Italian lawyer, judge and politician, 12th President of Italy
July 26 – Darlene Love, African-American singer, actress
July 27 – Bill Baxley, Alabama politician
July 30 – Paul Anka, Canadian-American singer, songwriter
August [ ]
August 2 – Ede Staal, Dutch singer-songwriter (d. 1986)
August 4 – Ted Strickland, American politician
August 5 – Gil Garcetti, American politician
August 6 – Lyle Berman, American poker player
August 8 – George Tiller, American physician (d. 2009)
August 9 – Shirlee Busbee, American novelist
August 12 – Deborah Walley, American actress (d. 2001)
August 20 – Slobodan Milošević, 3rd President of Yugoslavia and 1st President of Serbia (d. 2006)
August 27 – Cesária Évora, Cape Verdean singer (d. 2011)
August 28 – A. I. Katsina-Alu, Nigerian judge (d. 2018) August 29 – Robin Leach, English television personality (d. 2018)
September [ ]
September 1 – Graeme Langlands, Australian rugby league footballer (d. 2018)
September 3 – Sergei Dovlatov, Russian short-story writer, novelist (d. 1990)
September 4 – Sushilkumar Shinde, Indian politician
September 14 – Alberto Naranjo, Venezuelan musician
September 17 – Bob Matsui, U.S. Congressman from California (d. 2005)
September 18 – Priscilla Mitchell, American country music singer (d. 2014)
September 19 – Cass Elliot, American singer ( ) (d. The Mamas & the Papas 1974)
September 20 – Dale Chihuly, American glass sculptor
September 21 – R. James Woolsey Jr., American lawyer and diplomat
September 23 – George Jackson, American author (d. 1971)
September 26 – Martine Beswick, British actress, model
Gay Kayler Ashcroft, Australian country music singer Sam Zell, American publisher, investor
September 28 – Edmund Stoiber, German politician
September 29 – Fred West, British serial killer (d. 1995) September 30 – Angela Pleasence, British actress
October [ ]
October 3 – Chubby Checker, African-American singer ( ) The Twist
October 5 – Eduardo Duhalde, 50th President of Argentina
October 8 – Jesse Jackson, African-American clergyman, civil rights activist and presidential candidate
October 9 – Trent Lott, American politician and author
October 11 – Valerii Postoyanov, Soviet Olympic sport shooter (d. 2018)
October 13 – Paul Simon, American singer, composer ( ) Simon and Garfunkel
October 16 – Tim McCarver, American baseball commentator
October 17 – Earl Thomas Conley, American country music singer (d. 2019)
October 20 – Anneke Wills, British actress
October 21 – Dickie Pride, British rock and roll singer (d. 1969)
October 23 – Mel Winkler, American actor
October 24 – Frank Aendenboom, Belgian actor (d. 2018)
October 30 – Theodor W. Hänsch, German physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics recipient October 31 – Sally Kirkland, American actress
November [ ]
November 2 – Bruce Welch, British guitarist, singer and songwriter
November 2 – Arun Shourie, Indian author and economist
November 5 – Art Garfunkel, American singer ( ) Simon and Garfunkel
November 7 – Angelo Scola, Italian cardinal
November 9 – Tom Fogerty, American guitarist ( ) (d. Creedence Clearwater Revival 1990)
November 12 – Mae-Wan Ho, geneticist known for her critical views on genetic engineering and neo-Darwinism (d. 2016)
November 17 – Tova Traesnaes, Norwegian-American cosmetician and businesswoman; widow of actor Ernest Borgnine
November 18 – David Hemmings, English actor (d. 2003)
November 19 – Dan Haggerty, American actor ( ) (d. Grizzly Adams 2016)
November 22 – Tom Conti, British actor, theatre director
November 24 – Pete Best, English drummer
November 26 – G. Alan Marlatt, Canadian-born American psychologist
November 28 – Laura Antonelli, Italian actress (d. 2015) November 29 – Bill Freehan, American baseball player
December [ ]
December 13 – John Davidson, American singer, actor
December 16 – Poldy Bird, Argentine writer (d. 2018)
December 24 – Lex Hixon, American Sufi author, poet, and spiritual teacher (d. 1995)
December 27 – Miles Aiken, American basketball player and coach
December 29 – Ray Thomas, English flautist, singer and songwriter ( The Moody Blues) (d. 2018)
December 30 – Mel Renfro, American football player December 31 – Sir Alex Ferguson, Scottish football manager ( Manchester United)
Deaths [ ]
January [ ]
January 1 – József Konkolics, Hungarian Slovene writer (b. 1861)
January 4 – Henri Bergson, French philosopher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (b. 1859)
January 8 – Lord Robert Baden-Powell, English soldier; founder of the Scouts (b. 1857)
January 11 – Emanuel Lasker, German chess champion (b. 1868)
January 13 – James Joyce, Irish writer, poet (b. 1882)
January 24 – Josslyn Hay, 22nd Earl of Erroll, British aristocrat, murder victim (b. 1901) January 29 – Ioannis Metaxas, Greek military officer, politician and Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1871)
February [ ]
February 2 – Harris Laning, American admiral (b. 1873)
February 5 – Otto Strandman, 1st Prime Minister of Estonia (b. 1875)
February 6 – Banjo Paterson, Australian poet, journalist (b. 1864)
February 7 – Giuseppe Tellera, Italian general (died of wounds) (b. 1882)
February 9 – Aaron S. Watkins, American temperance movement leader (b. 1863)
February 11 – Rudolf Hilferding, German economist, Minister of Finance (b. 1877)
February 21 – Frederick Banting, Canadian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1891)
February 24 – Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière, German submarine commander (b. 1886)
February 27 – William D. Byron, U.S. Congressman (b. 1895) February 28 – King Alfonso XIII of Spain (b. 1886)
March [ ]
April [ ]
April 3 – Pál Teleki, 2-time Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1879)
April 5 – Sir Nigel Gresley, English steam locomotive engineer ( and Flying Scotsman ) (b. Mallard 1876)
April 13 – Annie Jump Cannon, American astronomer (b. 1863)
April 16 – Josiah Stamp, British baron, banker, civil servant, industrialist, economist and statistician (b. 1880)
April 17 – Hans Driesch, German biologist, philosopher (b. 1867) April 30 – Edwin S. Porter, American film director (b. 1870)
May [ ]
May 6 – Shūzō Kuki, Japanese philosopher (b. 1888)
May 7 – James George Frazer, Scottish social anthropologist (b. 1854)
May 11 – Peggy Shannon, American actress (b. 1910)
May 12 – Ruth Stonehouse, American actress (b. 1892)
May 16 – Minnie Vautrin, American missionary, heroine of the Nanjing Massacre (b. 1887)
May 24 – Lancelot Holland, British admiral (b. 1887)
May 27 – Günther Lütjens, German admiral (b. 1889) May 30 – Prajadhipok, Rama VII, King of Siam (b. 1893)
June [ ]
June 2 – Lou Gehrig, American baseball player ( New York Yankees), MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1903)
June 4 – Wilhelm II, last Emperor of Germany (b. 1859) 
June 6 – Louis Chevrolet, Swiss-born automobile builder, race car driver (b. 1878)
June 15 – Evelyn Underhill, British writer (b. 1875)
June 21 – Elliott Dexter, American actor (b. 1870)
June 28 – Richard Carle, American actor (b. 1871) June 29 – Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Polish pianist, composer, and third Prime Minister of Poland (b. 1860)
July [ ]
July 3 – Friedrich Akel, Estonian diplomat, politician (b. 1871)
July 4 – Antoni Łomnicki, Polish mathematician (b. 1881)
July 10 – Jelly Roll Morton, African-American jazz musician, composer (b. 1890)
July 11 – Arthur Evans, English archaeologist (b. 1851)
July 15 – Walter Ruttmann, German director (b. 1887)
July 20 – Lew Fields, American vaudeville performer (b. 1867)
July 22 – Dmitry Pavlov, Soviet general (b. 1897)
July 23 – José Quiñones Gonzales, Peruvian aviator (b. 1914)
July 24 – Rudolf Ramek, 5th Chancellor of Austria (b. 1881)
July 25 – Allan Forrest, American actor (b. 1885)
July 26 – Henri Lebesgue, French mathematician (b. 1875)
July 29 – James Stephenson, British actor (b. 1889) July 30
August [ ]
August 7 – Rabindranath Tagore, Indian author, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1861)
August 12 – Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon, British politician and colonial administrator, 22nd Viceroy of India (b. 1866)
August 13 – J. Stuart Blackton, American film producer (b. 1875)
August 20 – John Baird, 1st Viscount Stonehaven, British politician, 8th Governor-General of Australia (b. 1874)
August 30 – Peder Oluf Pedersen, Danish engineer, physicist (b. 1874) August 31 – Marina Tsvetaeva, Russian poet (suicide) (b. 1892)
September [ ]
October [ ]
November [ ]
November 7 – Frank Pick, British transport administrator, designer (b. 1878)
November 10 – Carrie Derick, Canadian botanist and geneticist (b. 1862)
November 17 – Ernst Udet, German World War I fighter ace, Nazi Luftwaffe official (suicide) (b. 1896)
November 23 – Henrietta Vinton Davis, American elocutionist, dramatist, impersonator, and public speaker (b. 1860)
November 25 – Pedro Aguirre Cerda, President of Chile (b. 1879)
November 26 – Niels Hansen Jacobsen, Danish sculptor, ceramist (b. 1861) November 27 – Sir Charles Briggs, British general (b. 1865)
December [ ]
December 2 – Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Polish marshal (b. 1886)
December 3 – Christian Sinding, Norwegian composer (b. 1856)
December 7 – Isaac Campbell Kidd, American admiral (killed in action) (b. 1884)
December 9 – Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli, Austrian general, German field marshal (b. 1856)
December 10 – Tom Phillips, British admiral (b. 1888)
December 11 – Émile Picard, French mathematician (b. 1856)
December 15 – Blessed Martyrs of Drina, Croatian nuns
December 25 – Blanche Bates, American stage actress (b. 1873)
December 29 – Tullio Levi-Civita, Italian mathematician (b. 1873) December 30 – El Lissitzky, Russian artist, architect (b. 1890)
Nobel Prizes [ ]
References [ ]
". About.com "The Bormann Decree" banning the use of the Fraktur typeface" . Retrieved . October 23, 2013
8 U.S.C. § 1402.
Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. pp. 140–143. ISBN . 0-13-354027-8 .
Telfer, Kevin (2015). The Summer of '45. Islington: Aurum Press Ltd. p. 5. ISBN . 978-1-78131-435-7
"Post-Gazette Feb. 3, 1941".
Robertson, Patrick (1974). The Shell Book of Firsts. London: Ebury Press. pp. 124–5.
BBC (archived from the original)
"A Brief History of U.S. Navy Destroyers. Part II - World War II (1941-1943)". America's Navy. Washington, DC: US Navy . Retrieved . April 28, 2018
Quigley, Carroll (1966). . New York: Macmillan. p. 738. Tragedy And Hope ISBN . 0-945001-10-X
Playfair, Major-General I. S. O.; with Flynn R. N., Captain F. C.; Molony, Brigadier C. J. C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S. E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1956]. Butler, J. R. M (ed.). The Merranean and Middle East, Volume II The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Naval & Military Press. pp. 182–3. ISBN . 1-84574-066-1
Proclamation of Unlimited National Emergency, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, May 27, 1941
Lang, Karl (1988). . Lausanne: Editions d'en bas. pp. 270–2. Solidarité, débats, mouvement: cent ans de Parti socialiste suisse, 1888-1988 ISBN . 9782829000973
"About Bulova". Bulova.
"A U. S. Television Chronology, 1875-1970".
"The Jedwabne Tragedy". Polish Academic Information Center, University at Buffalo. 2000. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012 . Retrieved . July 10, 2012
J. R. T. Wood (1983). . Graham Publishing. p. 80. The Welensky Papers: A History of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland ISBN . 978-0-620-06410-1
Hayes, Peter; Roth, John K., eds. (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 122. ISBN . 9780199211869
Hansen, Randall (2014). Disobeying Hitler: German Resistance After Valkyrie. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN . 978-0-19-992792-0
"Vermont declares war on Germany".
"No Sabotage Found in Firestone Blaze by FBI Men Making Probe". . Fall River. October 14, 1941. p. 1. The Herald News
^ Robert Forczyk (2008). Sevastopol 1942, Von Manstein's triumph, p. 40.
Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. pp. 186–191. ISBN . 0-13-354027-8
Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. p. 114. ISBN . 0-13-354027-8
^ a b c d
Shaw, Antony (2005). World War II Day by Day. Staplehurst: Spellmount. ISBN . 1-86227-304-9
Brown, Robert J. (1998). . Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. pp. Manipulating the Ether: the Power of Broadcast Radio in Thirties America 117–120. ISBN . 0-7864-2066-9
The United States Naval Academy Alumni Association and the United States Naval Academy Foundation website, usna.com; accessed December 4, 2014.
"The Gosnell case: Here's what you need to know".
"Denning: Going against social norms - The Prague Post". archive.is. September 10, 2013. Archived from the original on September 10, 2013.
"Historic Figures: Wilhelm II (1859 - 1941)". BBC History . Retrieved . August 22, 2018
Further reading [ ]
William K. Klingaman. 1941: Our Lives in a World on the Edge (1988) world perspective based on primary sources by a scholar.
External links [ ]