Wikimedia Commons has media related to . 1941
1941 ( MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1941st year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 941st year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1940s decade.
Events [ ]
Below, the events of
World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
January [ ]
January– August – 10,072 men, women and children with mental and physical disabilities are asphyxiated with carbon monoxide in a gas chamber, at Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in Germany, in the first phase of mass killings under the Action T4 program here.
January 1 – Thailand Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram decrees January 1 as the official start of the Thai solar calendar new year (thus the previous year that began April 1 had only 9 months).
January 3 – A decree ( Normalschrifterlass) promulgated in Germany by Martin Bormann, on behalf of Adolf Hitler, requires replacement of blackletter typefaces by Antiqua. 
January 4 – The short subject is released, marking the second appearance of Elmer's Pet Rabbit Bugs Bunny, and also the first to have his name on a title card.
January 5 – WWII: Battle of Bardia in Libya: Australian and British troops defeat Italian forces, the first battle of the war in which an Australian Army formation takes part.
January 10 – The Lend-Lease Act is introduced into the United States Congress.
January 11 – The British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS is sunk off Southampton (83) Malta.
January 13 – All persons born in Puerto Rico since this day are declared U.S. citizens by birth, through U.S. federal law. 
Commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser captures the Norwegian whaling fleet near Pinguin Bouvet Island, effectively ending Southern Ocean whaling for the duration of the war.  In a BBC radio broadcast from London, Victor de Laveleye asks all Belgians to use the letter "V" as a rallying sign, being the first letter of victoire (victory) in French and of vrijheid (freedom) in Dutch. This is the beginning of the "V campaign" which sees "V" graffities on the walls of Belgium and later all of Europe and introduces the use of the " V sign" for victory and freedom. Winston Churchill adopts the sign soon afterwards, though he sometimes gets it the wrong way around and uses the common insult gesture. 
January 15 – John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry describe the workings of the Atanasoff–Berry computer in print.
January 19 – WWII: British troops attack Italian-held Eritrea.
January 20 – Franklin D. Roosevelt is sworn in for a third term as President of the United States.
January 23 – Aviator Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress, and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.
January 27 – WWII: Joseph Grew, the U.S. ambassador to Japan, reports to Washington a rumor overheard at a diplomatic reception, concerning a planned surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
January 28 – Subhas Chandra Bose, the chief of Indian national Army, reaches Kabul, Afghanistan by successfully evading the British authorities in British India. January 30 – WWII: Australians capture Derna, Libya, from the Italians.
February [ ]
March [ ]
March 4 – WWII: Operation Claymore – British Commandos carry out a successful raid on the Lofoten Islands, off the north coast of Norway.
March 8 – WWII: The U.S. Senate passes the Lend-Lease Act.
March 11 – WWII: Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, providing for the U.S. to provide Lend-Lease aid to the Allies.
March 15 – Richard C. Hottelet is arrested by the Gestapo on "suspicion of espionage", but eventually released in July as part of a  prisoner exchange with the U.S.
March 16 – A group of U.S. warships arrive in Auckland, New Zealand, on a goodwill visit. On March 20, they arrive in Sydney, Australia.
March 22 – Washington state's Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity.
March 24 – WWII: Rommel launches his first offensive in Cyrenaica.
March 25 – WWII: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia joins the Axis powers in Vienna.
March 27 – WWII:
March 30 – WWII:
All German, Italian and Danish ships anchored in United States waters are taken into "protective custody".
A German Lorenz cipher machine operator sends a 4,000-character message twice, allowing British mathematician Bill Tutte to decipher the machine's coding mechanism. 
April [ ]
April – The Valley of Geysers is discovered on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia, by Tatyana Ustinova.
April 1 – A military coup d'état, launched by Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani, overthrows the pro-British regime in Iraq.
April 4 – WWII: Axis forces capture Benghazi.
April 6 – WWII: Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
April 9 – The U.S. acquires full military defense rights in Greenland.
April 10 – WWII:
April 12 – WWII: German troops enter Belgrade.
April 13 – The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact is signed. 
April 15 – WWII: Axis forces reach Halfaya Pass, on the Libyan-Egyptian frontier.
April 18 – WWII:
The Yugoslav Royal Army capitulates.
Greek Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide, as German troops approach Athens.
April 19 – Bertolt Brecht's anti-war play ( Mother Courage and Her Children German: Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) receives its first theatrical production, at the Schauspielhaus Zürich.
April 21 – WWII: Greece capitulates. Commonwealth troops and some elements of the Greek Army withdraw to Crete.
April 23 – The America First Committee holds its first mass rally in New York City, with Charles Lindbergh as keynote speaker.
April 25 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, at his regular press conference, criticizes Charles Lindbergh by comparing him to the Copperheads of the Civil War period. In response, Lindbergh resigns his commission in the U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve on April 28.
April 27 – WWII: German troops enter Athens. April 28 – World War II persecution of Serbs: Gudovac massacre – Members of the Croatian nationalist Ustashe movement kill around 190 Bjelovar Serbs in the village of Gudovac, in the Independent State of Croatia.
May [ ]
The breakfast cereal
is introduced as Cheerios by CheeriOats General Mills.
Orson Welles' film premieres in New York City. Citizen Kane The first Defense Bonds and Defense Savings Stamps go on sale in the United States, to help fund the greatly increased production of military equipment.
May 2 – Anglo-Iraqi War: British combat operations against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq begin. 
May 5 – WWII: Emperor Haile Selassie enters Addis Ababa, which has been liberated from Italian forces; this date is subsequently commemorated as Liberation Day in Ethiopia.
May 6 – At California's March Field, entertainer Bob Hope performs his first USO Show.
May 8 – WWII: The German auxiliary cruiser is sunk by Pinguin HMS in the Indian Ocean; 555 are killed. Cornwall (56)
May 9 – WWII: German submarine is captured by the British U-110 Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine, which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.
May 11/ May 12 – WWII: The Ustaše massacre 260–373 Serb men in a Catholic church in Glina, Croatia, where the men had assembled to be received into the Catholic faith, in exchange for their lives.
May 12 – Konrad Zuse presents the Z3, the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computer, in Berlin.
May 13 – WWII: Yugoslav General Draža Mihailović and a group of 80 soldiers and officers cross the Drina river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, arrive at Ravna Gora, in western Nazi-occupied Serbia and start fighting with German occupation troops.
May 19 – The Viet Minh is formed at Pác Bó in Vietnam, to overthrow French rule of the nation, as an alliance between the Indochina Communist party, led by Ho Chi Minh, and the Nationalist party. It will become the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War.
May 20 – WWII: The Battle of Crete begins, as Germany launches an airborne invasion of Crete, the first mainly airborne invasion in military history.
May 21 – German submarine sinks the U.S.-flagged U-69 SS off the west African coast, having allowed the passengers and crew to disembark. Robin Moor
May 26 – WWII: In the North Atlantic, Fairey Swordfish aircraft from the carrier HMS cripple the steering of Ark Royal German battleship in an Bismarck aerial torpedo attack.
May 29 – The Disney animators' strike occurs, due to Walt Disney refusing to recognize his animators and their low pay.
May 30 – WWII: Manolis Glezos and Apostolos Santas tear down the Nazi swastika on the Acropolis in Athens, and replace it with the Greek flag. May 31 – Anglo-Iraqi War: British troops complete the re-occupation of the Kingdom of Iraq, returning Prince 'Abd al-Ilah to power as regent for Faisal II.
June [ ]
June 1 – WWII: The Battle of Crete ends, as Crete surrenders to invading German forces.
June 6 – WWII: The Commissar Order is issued by , requiring all Soviet Oberkommando der Wehrmacht political commissars identified in Operation Barbarossa among captured forces to receive summary execution.
June 8 – WWII: British and Free French forces invade Syria.
June 12 – Winston Churchill united the heads of invaded countries to pledge unity against Hitler 
June 13 – TASS, the official Soviet news agency, denies reports of tension between Germany and the Soviet Union.
All German and Italian consulates in the United States are ordered closed, and their staffs to leave the country by July 10.
WWII: British Fleet Air Arm aircraft sink the Vichy ship . Chevalier Paul
June 18 – The German–Turkish Treaty of Friendship is signed between Nazi Germany and Turkey, in Ankara.
Operation Barbarossa: Nazi Germany (with allies) invades the Soviet Union. Winston Churchill promises all possible British assistance to the Soviet Union in a worldwide broadcast: "Any man or state who fights against Nazidom will have our aid. Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our foe." Italy and Romania declare war on the Soviet Union. WWII: The
First Sisak Partisan Brigade, the first anti-fascist armed unit in occupied Europe, is founded by Yugoslav partisans near Sisak, Croatia.
June Uprising in Lithuania: A Provisional Government of Lithuania is established by the Lithuanian Activist Front, in an attempt to liberate Lithuania from Soviet occupation. Rapid escalation of the
Holocaust in Lithuania: Between now and the end of the year, an estimated 190,000-195,000 out of 210,000 Lithuanian Jews will be massacred, killing an estimated 95% of the nation's Jewish population. Rapid Vienna beats Schalke 04, in the final of the German Fottballchampionship, after 0:3 with 4:3.
June 23 – WWII: Hungary and Slovakia declare war on the Soviet Union.
June 25 – WWII: Finland (as a co-belligerent with Germany) attacks the Soviet Union, to start the Continuation War.
June 28 – WWII: Albania declares war on the Soviet Union.
June 28– 30 – Holocaust: The Iași pogrom takes place, killing "at least 13,266" Romanian Jews. June 29 – WWII: Hitler's second-in-command, Reichsmarshall Hermann Göring, is appointed as Hitler's successor in a written decree. The decree will come into effect, should Hitler die in the middle of the war. (The decree becomes void in April 1945, after Göring tries to assume power while Hitler is still alive, leading to Göring's expulsion from the Nazi Party.)
July [ ]
July – The British Army's Special Air Service is formed.
Commercial television is authorized by the
Federal Communications Commission in the United States.
NBC Television begins commercial operation on WNBT, on Channel 1. The world's first legal TV commercial, for Bulova watches, occurs at 2:29 PM over WNBT, before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The 10-second spot displays a picture of a clock superimposed on a map of the United States, accompanied by the voice-over "America runs on Bulova time."  As a one-off special, the first quiz show called "Uncle Bee" is telecast on WNBT's inaugural broadcast day, followed later the same day by  Ralph Edwards hosting the second game show broadcast on U.S. television, , as simulcast on radio and TV and sponsored by Truth or Consequences Ivory Soap. Weekly broadcasts of the show commence in 1956, with Bob Barker.
CBS Television begins commercial operation on New York station WCBW (modern-day WCBS-TV), on Channel 2. WWII:
July 2 – WWII: The Empire of Japan calls up 1 million men for military service.
July 3 – WWII: Joseph Stalin, in his first address since the German invasion, calls upon the Soviet people to carry out a " scorched earth" policy of resistance to the bitter end.
July 4 – A massacre of Polish scientists and writers is committed by Nazi German troops, in the occupied Polish city of Lwów.
July 5 – WWII:
July 5– 31: War is fought between Peru and Ecuador.
July 10 – The Holocaust: Jedwabne pogrom: Local ethnic Poles massacre at least 340 Jewish residents of Jedwabne, in occupied Poland. The Jewish residents are locked in a barn and the barn set on fire 
July 11 – The Northern Rhodesian Labour Party holds its first congress in Nkana. 
July 14 – WWII: Vichy France signs armistice terms ending all fighting in Syria and Lebanon.
July 17 – Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak ends.
BBC broadcast by "Colonel Britton" ( Douglas Ritchie) calls on the people of occupied Europe to resist the Nazis, under the slogan "V for Victory". The Tom and Jerry cartoon short is released; it is the second appearance for the duo, and the first in which they are officially named. The Midnight Snack
July 23 – WWII: Italian aircraft damage the British destroyer HMS which has to be sunk. Fearless
July 25 – Postal codes are introduced in Germany.
July 26 – WWII:
July 29 – The Vichy Regime signs the Protocol Concerning Joint Defense and Joint Military Cooperation with the Empire of Japan, giving the Japanese a total of 8 airfields, allowing them greater troop presence, and the use of the Indochinese financial system, in return for continued French autonomy.
July 30 – WWII: Glina massacre of July–August 1941 – The Ustaše brutally kill 200 Serbs inside a Serbian Orthodox church in Glina, Croatia, with a total of 700–1,200 being killed in the area of the next few days. July 31 – WWII: The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official Hermann Göring orders S.S. General Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question." 
August [ ]
August – The Political Warfare Executive is formed in the United Kingdom to disseminate propaganda to Germany and its occupied countries.
August 1 – The Willys MB U.S. Army Jeep is first produced.
August 5 – The Provisional Government of Lithuania is dissolved.
August 6 – Six-year-old Elaine Esposito goes to have an appendix operation in Florida and lapses into a coma, dying 37 years later, still comatose.
August 7 – WWII: British submarine HMS sinks an Italian Severn Marconi-class submarine.
August 9 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet on board ship at Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter (released August 14), setting goals for postwar international cooperation, is created as a result.
August 19 – The Tiraspol Agreement is signed between Germany and Romania. 
August 21 – In revenge for the execution two days earlier of French Resistance member Samuel Tyszelman, communist activist Pierre Georges (with others) shoots and kills a member of the German military in occupied Paris, initiating a cycle of assassinations and retribution that will claim hundreds of lives. 
August 25 – WWII: The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran to secure the Persian Corridor and oilfields begins.
August 27 – WWII: Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre, 23,600 Jews are shot dead by Einsatzgruppen troops and local collaborators in Ukraine.
August 28 – WWII: Soviet evacuation of Tallinn – German troops capture Tallinn, Estonia from the Soviet Union, while attacks on the evacuating Soviet ships leave more than 12,000 dead in one of the bloodiest naval battles of the war. German forces will capture the entire Estonian territory by December 6.
September [ ]
September 3 – The Holocaust: SS- Hauptsturmführer Karl Fritzsch first uses the pesticide Zyklon B, to execute Soviet prisoners of war en masse at Auschwitz concentration camp; eventually it will be used to kill about 1.2 million people.
September 5 – Citizen Kane is released. 
September 6 – The Holocaust: The requirement to wear the Star of David, with the word "Jew" inscribed, is extended to all Jews over the age of 6 in German-occupied areas.
September 8 – WWII: Siege of Leningrad: German forces begin a siege against the Soviet Union's second-largest city, Leningrad. Stalin orders the Volga Germans deported to Siberia.
September 14 – The State of Vermont "declares war" on Germany, by defining the United States to be in "armed conflict", in order to extend a wartime bonus to Vermonters in the service. 
September 15 – The Estonian Self-Administration, headed by Hjalmar Mäe, is appointed by the German military administration.
September 16 – Rezā Shāh of Iran is forced to resign in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, under pressure from the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, concluding the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.
September 16– 30 – The Nikolaev massacre takes place in Mykolaiv (Soviet Union); 35,782 men, women and children; mostly Jews, are killed by Einsatzgruppe D and local collaborators.
September 22 – The town of Reshetylivka in the Soviet Union is occupied by German forces.
September 23 – The 1941 Texas hurricane makes landfall near Bay City, Texas, causing extensive damage and flooding in Galveston and Houston.
September 28 – WWII: The Drama Uprising against the Bulgarian occupation in northern Greece begins.
September 29 – WWII: The Moscow Conference begins; U.S. representative Averell Harriman and British representative Lord Beaverbrook meet with Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, to arrange urgent assistance for Russia. September 29– 30 – The Holocaust: Babi Yar massacre – German troops, assisted by Ukrainian police and local collaborators, kill 33,771 Jews in Kiev.
October [ ]
series is launched in the United States, with a version of Classic Comics . The Three Musketeers  Mid-October – The first
P-38E Lightning fighter is produced by Lockheed in the United States.
October 2 – WWII: Operation Typhoon begins, as Germany launches an all-out offensive against Moscow.
October 2 – Tudeh Party of Iran is founded.
October 5 – The Holocaust: In Berdychiv, 20–30,000 Jews are shot dead.
October 7 – John Curtin becomes the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, following the defeat of Arthur Fadden's Country/ UAP Coalition Government, on the floor of the House of Representatives.
October 8 – WWII: In their invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany reaches the Sea of Azov, with the capture of Mariupol.
October 11 – WWII: Armed insurgents from the People's Liberation Army of Macedonia attack Axis-occupied zones in the city of Prilep, beginning the National Liberation War of Macedonia.
October 11– 12 – Fire destroys a Firestone Tire and Rubber Company plant in Fall River, Massachusetts, consuming 15,850 tons of rubber, and causing a setback to the United States war effort. 
October 13 – The Holocaust: Heinrich Himmler instructs SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik to begin construction of Bełżec, the first of the Operation Reinhard extermination camps.
October 15 – WWII: British submarine HMS bombards the port of Torbay Apollonia, Cyrenaica in Italian Libya.
October 16 – WWII: The Soviet government moves to Kuibyshev (modern Samara), but Stalin remains in Moscow.
October 17 – WWII: Destroyer USS is torpedoed and damaged near Kearny Iceland, killing 11 sailors (the first American military casualties of the war, in which the US is at this time neutral).
October 18 – General Hideki Tōjō becomes the 40th Prime Minister of Japan.
October 18 – Film is released in the United States, starring The Maltese Falcon Humphrey Bogart, directed by John Huston.
October 21 – WWII: Kragujevac massacre – German soldiers and local auxiliaries massacre more than 2,000 civilian men at Kragujevac, in Nazi-occupied Serbia.
October 23 – Walt Disney's fourth animated film is released in the United States. Dumbo
October 25 – WWII: German fighter pilot Franz von Werra disappears during a flight over the North Sea.
October 29 – The Holocaust: Kaunas massacre of October 29, 1941 – Over 9,200 Lithuanian Jews are shot dead.
November [ ]
November 5 – WWII: The United States holds peace talks with Japan.
November 6 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet Union for only the second time during his three-decade rule (the first time was earlier this year on July 2). He states that 350,000 Soviet troops have been killed in German attacks, but that the Germans have lost 4.5 million soldiers (a gross exaggeration), and that Soviet victory is near.
November 7 – WWII: The Soviet hospital ship is sunk by German aircraft while evacuating refugees, wounded military and the staff of several Armenia Crimean hospitals. It is estimated that more than 5,000 die in the sinking.
November 10 – In a speech at the Mansion House, London, Winston Churchill promises "should the United States become involved in war with Japan, the British declaration will follow within the hour".
November 12 – WWII:
November 17 – WWII: Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables to Washington, D.C. a warning, that Japan may strike suddenly and unexpectedly.
November 18 – WWII: Operation Crusader, a British Eighth Army operation to relieve the Siege of Tobruk in North Africa, begins.
November 19 – WWII: Battle between HMAS – Both Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser and Australian cruiser Kormoran HMAS sink following a battle off the coast of Western Australia. There are no survivors from the 645 Australian sailors aboard Sydney Sydney. 
November 21 – The live blues radio program is broadcast for the first time on King Biscuit Time KFFA in Helena, Arkansas; it will attain its 17,000th broadcast in 2014 making it the longest-running daily American radio broadcast.
November 22 – WWII: HMS sinks Devonshire commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser , ending the longest warship cruise of the war (622 days without in-port replenishment or repair). Atlantis 
November 26 – WWII:
WWII: Germans reach their closest approach to Moscow. They are subsequently frozen by cold weather and stopped by attacks by the
Soviets. A group of young men stop traffic on U.S. Highway 99 south of Yreka, California, handing out fliers proclaiming the establishment of the State of Jefferson. November 30 and December 8 – Rumbula massacre: Nazi forces kill approximately 24,000 Latvian Jews and 1,000 German Jews outside of Riga.
December [ ]
December 1 – WWII:
December 2 – WWII: The code message "Climb Mount Niitaka" is transmitted to the Japanese task force, indicating that negotiations have broken down and that the attack on Pearl Harbor is to be carried out according to plan.
December 4 – The State of Jefferson is declared in Yreka, California, with a judge, John Childs, as governor.
December 5 – WWII: The United Kingdom declares war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.
December 6 – WWII:
Soviet counterattacks begin against German troops encircling Moscow. The
is subsequently pushed back over 200 mi (320 km). Heer British submarine HMS is Perseus mined off Cephalonia.
December 7 ( December 8 – 3:18 a.m., Japan Standard Time) – WWII:
Battle of Hong Kong begins shortly after 8:00 a.m. ( local time), less than 8 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, when Japanese forces invade Hong Kong, which is defended by British, Canadian and local troops. The United Kingdom officially declares war on the Empire of Japan. WWII: The Japanese Invade
Shanghai International Settlement, to occupy the British and the American sectors, after the attack on Pearl Harbor. WWII: The Japanese invasion of the Philippines begins 10 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, when Japanese forces invade
Luzon and destroy U.S. aircraft on Clark Field.  WWII: President of the United States
Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his " Infamy Speech" to a Joint session of the United States Congress at 12:30 p.m. EST (17.30 GMT). Transmitted live over all four major national networks, it attracts the largest audience ever for an American radio broadcast, over 81% of homes. Within an hour, Congress agrees to the President's request for a  United States declaration of war upon Japan, and he signs it at 4:10 p.m. WWII:
Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, the Free French, Yugoslavia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras also officially declare war on Japan, and the Republic of China declares war on the Axis powers.  WWII: Japanese forces attack
British Malaya and Thailand.  WWII: The German advance on Moscow (Operation Typhoon) is suspended for the winter.
The Holocaust: The Nazi German Chełmno extermination camp opens in occupied Poland, near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem. Between December 1941-April 1943 and June 1944-January 1945, at least 153,000 Jews will be killed in the camp. The Holocaust The first mass gassing of Jews begins at the Chełmno extermination camp on December 8, 1941, when the Nazis use gas vans to murder people from the Lodz ghetto.
December 10 – WWII:
December 11 – WWII:
December 11– 13 – WWII: Battle of Jitra: Japanese compel British troops to withdraw from their positions in Malaya.
December 12 – WWII:
December 14 – WWII: The Independent State of Croatia declares war on the United States and the United Kingdom.
December 15 – WWII: At Drobytsky Yar, 15,000 Jews are shot dead by German troops.
December 19 – WWII:
December 22 – WWII: The Arcadia Conference opens in Washington, D.C., the first meeting on military strategy between the heads of government of the United Kingdom and the United States, following the latter's entry into the war.
December 23 – WWII: A second Japanese landing attempt on Wake Island is successful, and the American garrison surrenders, after a full night and morning of fighting.
December 24 – WWII:
British forces capture
Benghazi.  Dutch submarine HNLMS is the first Allied ship to sink a Japanese warship, sinking the destroyer K XVI near Sagiri Sarawak; K XVI is herself torpedoed the following day by Japanese submarine . I-66
December 25 – WWII:
December 26 – WWII: Winston Churchill becomes the first British Prime Minister to address a joint session of the United States Congress. December 27 – WWII: British Commandos raid the Norwegian port of Vaagso, causing Hitler to reinforce the garrison and defenses, drawing vital troops away from other areas.
Date unknown [ ]
Births [ ]
January [ ]
February [ ]
February 3 – Dory Funk, Jr., American professional wrestler
February 4 – Laisenia Qarase, Fijian politician (d. 2020) 
February 9 – Kermit Gosnell, American abortionist and serial killer 
February 10 – Michael Apted, British film director (d. 2021) 
February 11 – Sergio Mendes, Brazilian jazz musician 
February 15 – Florinda Bolkan, Brazilian actress and model
February 16 – Kim Jong-il, Leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (d. 2011)
February 17 – Ron Meyer, American football coach (d. 2017)
February 18 – Irma Thomas, African-American singer
February 19 – David Gross, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
February 20 – Buffy Sainte-Marie, Canadian singer
February 27 – Paddy Ashdown, British politician, diplomat (d. 2018)
March [ ]
March 4 – Adrian Lyne, English film director
March 7 – Andrei Mironov, Soviet and Russian theatre and film actor (d. 1987)
March 10 – George P. Smith, American biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate
March 12 – Erkki Salmenhaara, Finnish composer (d. 2002)
March 13 – Mahmoud Darwish, Palestinian poet and author (d. 2008)
March 14 – Wolfgang Petersen, German film director
March 15 – Mike Love, American musician ( ) Beach Boys
March 17 – Paul Kantner, American rock guitarist ( ) (d. Jefferson Airplane 2016)
March 18 – Wilson Pickett, African-American singer (d. 2006) 
March 20 – Kenji Kimihara, Japanese long-distance runner
March 21 – Dirk Frimout, Belgian cosmonaut and astrophysicist
March 22 – Bruno Ganz, Swiss actor (d. 2019)
March 26 – Richard Dawkins, British scientist
March 27 – Ivan Gašparovič, 3rd President of Slovakia
March 29 – Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., American astrophysicist, Nobel Prize laureate 
March 30 – Wasim Sajjad, President of Pakistan March 31 – Rosario Green, Mexican economist, diplomat and politician (d. 2017)
April [ ]
April 2 – Dr. Demento (Barret Eugene Hansen), American radio disc jockey, novelty music collector
April 5 – Michael Moriarty, American-Canadian actor 
April 8 – Peggy Lennon, American singer ( ) The Lennon Sisters
April 9 – Kay Adams, American country singer
April 10 – Paul Theroux, American travel writer and novelist 
April 11 – Frederick Hauck, American astronaut
April 12 – Bobby Moore, English football captain (d. 1993) 
April 13 – Michael Stuart Brown, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
April 14 – Pete Rose, American baseball player
April 18 – Michael D. Higgins, 9th President of Ireland 
April 19 – Roberto Carlos, Brazilian singer-songwriter 
April 20 – Ryan O'Neal, American actor ( ) Love Story
April 22 – Amir Pnueli, Israeli computer scientist (d. 2009)
April 26 – Claudine Auger, French actress (d. 2019)  April 28
May [ ]
May 3 – Kornel Morawiecki, Polish politician and theoretical physicist (d. 2019)
May 6 – Ivica Osim, Bosnian football player, manager
May 11 – Eric Burdon, British singer 
May 14 – Jesús Gómez, Mexican equestrian (d. 2017)
May 18 – Miriam Margolyes, British-Australian actress
May 19 – Nora Ephron, American film producer, director, and screenwriter (d. 2012) 
May 20 – Goh Chok Tong, 2nd Prime Minister of Singapore
May 23 – K. Raghavendra Rao, Indian film director, producer, screenwriter and choreographer
May 24 – Bob Dylan, American poet, musician and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature
May 25 – Vladimir Voronin, 3rd President of Moldova May 31
June [ ]
Martha Argerich, Argentine pianist 
Spalding Gray, American actor and screenwriter 
June 6 – Alexander Cockburn, Irish-American political journalist and writer (d. 2012)
June 7 – Jaime Laredo, Bolivian-American violinist and conductor
June 9 – Jon Lord, English composer, pianist and organist (d. 2012)
June 12 – Chick Corea, American jazz pianist (d. 2021) 
June 13 – Esther Ofarim, Israeli singer
June 16 – Rosalind Baker, Australian author
June 17 – Roberta Maxwell, Canadian actress
June 22 – Michael Lerner, American actor
July [ ]
Rod Gilbert, Canadian professional ice hockey forward
Alfred G. Gilman, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2015) 
Ursula Koch, Swiss politician
Jaakko Kailajärvi, Finnish weightlifter
Twyla Tharp, American dancer, choreographer, and author 
Zimani Kadzamira, Malawian academic, civil servant and diplomat Myron Scholes, Canadian-American financial economist and Nobel laureate 
July 4 – Sergio Oliva, Cuban bodybuilder (d. 2012)
July 8 – Dario Gradi, Italia amateur football player, coach and manager
July 23 – Sergio Mattarella, Italian lawyer, judge and politician, 12th President of Italy
July 26 – Darlene Love, African-American singer, actress
July 27 – Bill Baxley, Alabama politician
July 28 – Riccardo Muti, Italian conductor 
July 30 – Paul Anka, Canadian-American singer, songwriter 
August [ ]
August 2 – Ede Staal, Dutch singer-songwriter (d. 1986)
August 5 – Gil Garcetti, American politician
August 6 – Lyle Berman, American poker player
August 9 – Shirlee Busbee, American novelist
August 12 – Deborah Walley, American actress (d. 2001)
August 16 – Théoneste Bagosora, Rwandan army officer, alleged planner of the Rwandan genocide
August 18 – Mohamed Ghannouchi, 8th Prime Minister of Tunisia
August 20 – Slobodan Milošević, 3rd President of Yugoslavia and 1st President of Serbia (d. 2006)
August 21 – Jackie DeShannon, American singer, songwriter (" What the World Needs Now")
August 28 – A. I. Katsina-Alu, Nigerian judge (d. 2018) August 29 – Robin Leach, English television personality (d. 2018)
September [ ]
September 3 – Sergei Dovlatov, Russian short-story writer, novelist (d. 1990)
September 4 – Sushilkumar Shinde, Indian politician
September 14 – Alberto Naranjo, Venezuelan musician (d. 2020)
September 15 – Etelka Barsi-Pataky, Hungarian politician (d. 2018)
September 18 – Priscilla Mitchell, American country music singer (d. 2014)
September 19 – Cass Elliot, American singer ( ) (d. The Mamas & the Papas 1974)
September 20 – Dale Chihuly, American glass sculptor
September 23 – George Jackson, American author (d. 1971)
September 24 – Linda McCartney, American activist, musician and photographer (d. 1998) 
Gay Kayler Ashcroft, Australian country music singer Sam Zell, American publisher, investor
September 28 – Edmund Stoiber, German politician September 29 – Fred West, British serial killer (d. 1995)
October [ ]
October 1 – Vyacheslav Vedenin, Soviet cross-country skier
October 3 – Chubby Checker, African-American singer ( ) The Twist 
October 5 – Eduardo Duhalde, 50th President of Argentina 
October 8 – Jesse Jackson, African-American clergyman, civil rights activist and presidential candidate
October 11 – Valerii Postoyanov, Soviet Olympic sport shooter (d. 2018)
October 13 – Paul Simon, American singer, composer ( ) Simon and Garfunkel
October 19 – Peter Thornley, English professional wrestler best known for the ring character Kendo Nagasaki 
October 27 – Gerd Brantenberg, Norwegian feminist author, gay rights activist
October 28 – Hank Marvin, British guitarist, singer and songwriter ( ) The Shadows 
October 30 – Theodor W. Hänsch, German physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics recipient October 31 – Sally Kirkland, American actress
November [ ]
November 2 – Bruce Welch, British guitarist, singer and songwriter
November 2 – Arun Shourie, Indian author and economist
November 5 – Art Garfunkel, American singer ( ) Simon and Garfunkel
November 7 – Angelo Scola, Italian cardinal
November 20 – Dr. John, American singer and songwriter (d. 2019)  
November 21 – İdil Biret, Turkish pianist
November 22 – Tom Conti, British actor and director
November 23 – Franco Nero, Italian actor
November 28 – Laura Antonelli, Italian actress (d. 2015) November 29 – Lothar Emmerich, German footballer (d. 2003)
December [ ]
Deaths [ ]
January [ ]
January 1 – József Konkolics, Hungarian Slovene writer (b. 1861)
January 4 – Henri Bergson, French philosopher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (b. 1859) 
January 11 – Emanuel Lasker, German chess champion (b. 1868)
January 13 – James Joyce, Irish novelist, poet and critic (b. 1882) 
January 15 – Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi, Italian nobleman, general, and politician (b. 1856)
January 21 – Rudolf von Brudermann, Austro-Hungarian general (b. 1851) January 29 – Ioannis Metaxas, Greek military officer, politician and Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1871) 
February [ ]
February 2 – Harris Laning, American admiral (b. 1873)
February 4 – George Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd, British politician and diplomat (b. 1879)
February 5 – Otto Strandman, 1st Prime Minister of Estonia (b. 1875)
February 6 – Banjo Paterson, Australian poet, journalist (b. 1864) 
February 7 – Giuseppe Tellera, Italian general (died of wounds) (b. 1882)
February 8 – Willis Van Devanter, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (b. 1859) 
February 9 – Aaron S. Watkins, American temperance movement leader (b. 1863)
February 11 – Rudolf Hilferding, German economist, Minister of Finance (b. 1877)
February 21 – Sir Frederick Banting, Canadian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1891)
February 24 – Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière, German submarine commander (b. 1886) February 28 – King Alfonso XIII of Spain (b. 1886)
March [ ]
April [ ]
April 3 – Pál Teleki, 2-time Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1879)
April 5 – Sir Nigel Gresley, English steam locomotive engineer ( and Flying Scotsman ) (b. Mallard 1876)
April 13 – Annie Jump Cannon, American astronomer (b. 1863)
April 16 – Josiah Stamp, British baron, banker, civil servant, industrialist, economist and statistician (b. 1880)
April 17 – Hans Driesch, German biologist, philosopher (b. 1867)
April 24 – King Sisowath Monivong of Cambodia (b. 1875) April 30 – Edwin S. Porter, American film director (b. 1870)
May [ ]
May 6 – Shūzō Kuki, Japanese philosopher (b. 1888)
May 7 – Sir James Frazer, Scottish social anthropologist (b. 1854)
May 11 – Peggy Shannon, American actress (b. 1910)
May 12 – Ruth Stonehouse, American actress (b. 1892)
May 16 – Minnie Vautrin, American missionary, heroine of the Nanjing Massacre (b. 1887)
May 24 – Lancelot Holland, British admiral (b. 1887)
May 27 – Günther Lütjens, German admiral (b. 1889) May 30 – Prajadhipok, Rama VII, King of Siam (b. 1893)
June [ ]
June 2 – Lou Gehrig, American baseball player ( New York Yankees), MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1903)
June 4 – Wilhelm II, last Emperor of Germany (b. 1859) 
June 6 – Louis Chevrolet, Swiss-born automobile builder, race car driver (b. 1878)
June 11 – Daniel Carter Beard, American scouting pioneer (b. 1850)
June 15 – Evelyn Underhill, British writer (b. 1875)
June 21 – Elliott Dexter, American actor (b. 1870)
June 25 – Luigi Capello, Italian general (b. 1859)
June 26 – Andrew Jackson Houston, American politician (b. 1854)
June 28 – Richard Carle, American actor (b. 1871) June 29 – Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Polish pianist, composer, and third Prime Minister of Poland (b. 1860)
July [ ]
July 3 – Friedrich Akel, Estonian diplomat, politician (b. 1871)
July 4 – Antoni Łomnicki, Polish mathematician (b. 1881)
July 10 – Jelly Roll Morton, African-American jazz musician, composer (b. 1890)
July 11 – Sir Arthur Evans, English archaeologist (b. 1851)
July 15 – Walter Ruttmann, German director (b. 1887)
July 20 – Lew Fields, American vaudeville performer (b. 1867)
July 22 – Dmitry Pavlov, Soviet general (executed) (b. 1897)
July 23 – José Quiñones Gonzales, Peruvian aviator (b. 1914)
July 24 – Rudolf Ramek, 5th Chancellor of Austria (b. 1881)
July 25 – Allan Forrest, American actor (b. 1885)
July 26 – Henri Lebesgue, French mathematician (b. 1875)
July 29 – James Stephenson, British actor (b. 1889)
July 31 – Ron Barassi Sr., Australian rules footballer (b. 1913)
August [ ]
August 1 – James Drake, Australian politician (b. 1850)
August 7 – Rabindranath Tagore, Indian author, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1861)
August 12 – Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon, British politician and colonial administrator, 22nd Viceroy of India (b. 1866)
August 13 – J. Stuart Blackton, American film producer (b. 1875) 
August 20 – John Baird, 1st Viscount Stonehaven, British politician, 8th Governor-General of Australia (b. 1874)
August 30 – Peder Oluf Pedersen, Danish engineer, physicist (b. 1874) August 31 – Marina Tsvetaeva, Soviet and Russian poet (b. 1892)
September [ ]
October [ ]
November [ ]
November 7 – Frank Pick, British transport administrator, designer (b. 1878)
November 10 – Carrie Derick, Canadian botanist and geneticist (b. 1862)
November 17 – Ernst Udet, German World War I fighter ace, Nazi Luftwaffe official (suicide) (b. 1896)
November 23 – Henrietta Vinton Davis, American elocutionist, dramatist, impersonator, and public speaker (b. 1860)
November 25 – Pedro Aguirre Cerda, President of Chile (b. 1879)
November 26 – Niels Hansen Jacobsen, Danish sculptor, ceramist (b. 1861) November 27 – Sir Charles Briggs, British general (b. 1865)
December [ ]
December 2 – Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Polish marshal (b. 1886)
December 3 – Christian Sinding, Norwegian composer (b. 1856)
December 7 – Isaac Campbell Kidd, American admiral (killed in action) (b. 1884)
December 8 – Izidor Kürschner, Hungarian football player and coach (b. 1885) 
December 9 – Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli, Austrian general, German field marshal (b. 1856)
December 10 – Tom Phillips, British admiral (b. 1888) 
December 11 – Émile Picard, French mathematician (b. 1856)
December 15 – Blessed Martyrs of Drina, Croatian nuns
December 25 – Blanche Bates, American stage actress (b. 1873)
December 29 – Tullio Levi-Civita, Italian mathematician (b. 1873) December 30 – El Lissitzky, Russian artist, architect (b. 1890)
Nobel Prizes [ ]
References [ ]
". About.com "The Bormann Decree" banning the use of the Fraktur typeface" . Retrieved . October 23, 2013
8 U.S.C. § 1402.
Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. pp. 140–143. ISBN . 0-13-354027-8 .
Telfer, Kevin (2015). The Summer of '45. Islington: Aurum Press Ltd. p. 5. ISBN . 978-1-78131-435-7
"Post-Gazette Feb. 3, 1941".
"Our Proud History: Important Dates in USO History". USO Web Site. USO Inc . Retrieved . May 17, 2010
Great Britain. Royal Commission on Scottish Affairs (1953). . H.M. Stationery Office. p. 84. Royal Commission on Scottish Affairs
Tony Currie (2001). . Kelly. p. 50. The Radio Times Story ISBN . 978-1-903053-09-6
Robertson, Patrick (1974). The Shell Book of Firsts. London: Ebury Press. pp. 124–5.
. Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs. 1941. p. 334. The Department of State Bulletin
BBC (archived from the original)
"A Brief History of U.S. Navy Destroyers. Part II - World War II (1941-1943)". America's Navy. Washington, DC: US Navy . Retrieved . April 28, 2018
Quigley, Carroll (1966). . New York: Macmillan. p. 738. Tragedy And Hope ISBN . 0-945001-10-X
Playfair, Major-General I. S. O.; with Flynn R. N., Captain F. C.; Molony, Brigadier C. J. C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S. E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1956]. Butler, J. R. M (ed.). The Merranean and Middle East, Volume II The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Naval & Military Press. pp. 182–3. ISBN . 1-84574-066-1
Proclamation of Unlimited National Emergency, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, May 27, 1941
Lang, Karl (1988). . Lausanne: Editions d'en bas. pp. 270–2. Solidarité, débats, mouvement: cent ans de Parti socialiste suisse, 1888-1988 ISBN . 9782829000973
"PRIME MINISTER WINSTON CHURCHILL'S SPEECH TO THE ALLIED DELEGATES". ibiblio.
"About Bulova". Bulova.
"A U. S. Television Chronology, 1875-1970". jeff560.tripod.com.
Evans, A. A.; Gibbons, David (2012). The Illustrated Timeline of World War II. Rosen Publishing. p. 69. ISBN . 978-1-4488-4795-2
"The Jedwabne Tragedy". Polish Academic Information Center, University at Buffalo. 2000. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012 . Retrieved . July 10, 2012
J. R. T. Wood (1983). . Graham Publishing. p. 80. The Welensky Papers: A History of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland ISBN . 978-0-620-06410-1
Hayes, Peter; Roth, John K., eds. (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 122. ISBN . 9780199211869
^ a b
Babeș, Adina; Florian, Alexandru (2014). "The beginning of war in the East and hastening the approaches against the Jewish population". Holocaust. Studii și cercetări (7): 30–44.
Hansen, Randall (2014). . Oxford University Press. p. Disobeying Hitler: German Resistance After Valkyrie 31. ISBN . 978-0-19-992792-0
"Citizen Kane". www.tcm.com . Retrieved . January 17, 2021
"Vermont declares war on Germany". Archived from the original on January 18, 2013.
Dale Jacobs (August 29, 2013). . A&C Black. p. 90. Graphic Encounters: Comics and the Sponsorship of Multimodal Literacy ISBN . 978-0-8264-4424-0
"No Sabotage Found in Firestone Blaze by FBI Men Making Probe". . Fall River. October 14, 1941. p. 1. The Herald News
^ Robert Forczyk (2008). Sevastopol 1942, Von Manstein's triumph, p. 40.
Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. pp. 186–191. ISBN . 0-13-354027-8
Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. p. 114. ISBN . 0-13-354027-8
^ a b c d
Shaw, Antony (2005). World War II Day by Day. Staplehurst: Spellmount. ISBN . 1-86227-304-9
Brown, Robert J. (1998). . Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. pp. Manipulating the Ether: the Power of Broadcast Radio in Thirties America 117–120. ISBN . 0-7864-2066-9
The United States Naval Academy Alumni Association and the United States Naval Academy Foundation website, usna.com; accessed December 4, 2014.
Randolph Spencer Churchill (1966). . Heinemann. p. 26. Winston S. Churchill: Road to victory, 1941-1945
Long, Vicky (2014). "Situating the factory canteen in discourses of health and industrial work in Britain (1914-1939)". Le Mouvement Social. 2 (247): 65–83. doi: 10.3917/lms.247.0065. ISSN 0027-2671. PMC . 4113673 PMID 25082999.
"Compass Group Timeline". Caterer Search. Archived from the original on December 29, 2012 . Retrieved . March 9, 2014
"EVANS, Sir Martin (John)". . Who's Who ukwhoswho.com. 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription or UK public library membership required) (subscription required)
. St. Martin's. 1989. p. 481. The Annual Obituary ISBN . 978-1-55862-013-1
Geoffrey M. Horn (December 15, 2006). . Gareth Stevens Publishing LLLP. p. 27. Movie Animation ISBN . 978-0-8368-6837-1
Dean Hayes (1993). . Indus. p. 119. India's Cricketing Greats ISBN . 978-81-7223-065-4
"Col. Frederick Drew Gregory". thehistorymakers.org. The History Makers . Retrieved . December 14, 2020
Brigham Narins (2001). . Gale Group. p. 2332. Notable Scientists from 1900 to the Present ISBN . 978-0-7876-5454-2
. Screen International, King Publications. 1984. p. 342. Screen International Film and TV Year Book
Miller, John Jackson (June 10, 2005). "Comics Industry Birthdays". . Archived from Comics Buyer's Guide the original on October 30, 2010.
Frank Northen Magill (1995). . Salem Press. p. 118. Great Lives from History: American women series ISBN . 978-0-89356-892-4
Garry Jenkins; Pedro Redig (1998). . Simon & Schuster. p. 8. The Beautiful Team: In Search of Pelé and the 1970 Brazilians ISBN . 978-0-684-81955-6
Lawrence Goldman (March 7, 2013). . OUP Oxford. p. 48. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2005-2008 ISBN . 978-0-19-967154-0
. A. S. Kerswil Limited. 1998. p. 348. Vacher's European Companion
Daphne Davis (1983). . p. 48. Selections from Stars!
Neil A. Hamilton (1995). . p. 204. Founders of Modern Nations: A Biographical Dictionary ISBN . 978-0-87436-750-8
Mike Barnes (November 8, 2011). . Omnibus Press. p. 5. Captain Beefheart: The Biography ISBN . 978-0-85712-728-0
Country Music Magazine (Périodique) (1994). . Times Books. p. 146. The Comprehensive Country Music Encyclopedia ISBN . 9780812922479
Brock Helander (1999). . Schirmer Books. p. 363. The Rockin' '60s: The People who Made the Music ISBN . 978-0-02-864873-6
Plácido Domingo; Helena Matheopoulos (2000). . Baskerville Publishers. p. 10. My Operatic Roles ISBN . 978-1-880909-61-4
Patricia Romanowski; Holly George-Warren; Jon Pareles (1995). . Fireside. p. 1982. The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll ISBN . 978-0-684-81044-7
Editors of Chase's (September 24, 2019). . Rowman & Littlefield. p. 98. Chase's Calendar of Events 2020: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months ISBN . 978-1-64143-316-7 CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( link)
Balazs Hargittai; Istvan Hargittai (2005). . Imperial College Press. p. 77. Candid Science V: Conversations with Famous Scientists ISBN . 978-1-86094-505-2
Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie; Joy Dorothy Harvey (2000). . Taylor & Francis. p. 1292. The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: L-Z ISBN . 978-0-415-92040-7
Ann R. Shapiro (1994). . Greenwood Press. p. 232. Jewish American Women Writers: A Bio-bibliographical and Critical Sourcebook ISBN . 978-0-313-28437-3
Mooney (March 1991). . Cengage Gale. p. 73. Newsmakers 91 ISBN . 978-0-8103-7344-0
Bergan, Ronald (November 14, 2007). "Delbert Mann". The Guardian . Retrieved . April 30, 2016
Hendrik Jacobus Kotzé; Anneke Greyling (1991). . Tafelberg. p. 236. Political organisations in South Africa: A-Z ISBN . 9780624030423
Ann Marie Bissessar (June 14, 2017). . Springer. p. 40. Ethnic Conflict in Developing Societies: Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Fiji, and Suriname ISBN . 978-3-319-53709-2
Kliff, Sarah. "The Gosnell case: Here's what you need to know" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
. Screen International, King Publications Limited. 1981. p. 270. International Film and TV Year Book
Editors of Chase's (September 24, 2019). . Rowman & Littlefield. p. 125. Chase's Calendar of Events 2020: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months ISBN . 978-1-64143-316-7 CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( link)
Bernardo Bertolucci (2000). . Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 17. Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews ISBN . 978-1-57806-205-8
Norm N. Nite; Wolfman Jack (1982). . Harper & Row. p. 486. Rock on: The solid gold years ISBN . 978-0-06-181642-0
Gosta Ekspong (1997). . World Scientific. p. 71. Physics, 1991-1995 ISBN . 978-981-02-2678-7
Eric Braeden (February 7, 2017). . Dey Street Books. p. 7. I'll Be Damned: How My Young and Restless Life Led Me to America's #1 Daytime Drama ISBN . 978-0-06-247614-2
. H. W. Wilson Company. 1976. p. 35. Current Biography Yearbook
Samuel Chase Coale (1987). . Twayne Publishers. p. 1. Paul Theroux ISBN . 978-0-8057-7506-8
Jeff Powell (August 26, 2014). . Biteback Publishing. p. 272. Bobby Moore: The Definitive Biography ISBN . 978-1-84954-791-8
B. Turner (January 12, 2017). . Springer. p. 680. The Statesman's Yearbook 2013: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World ISBN . 978-1-349-59541-9
Colin Larkin (2000). . MUZE. pp. 190–191. The Encyclopedia of Popular Music: Brown, Marion - Dilated Peoples ISBN . 978-0-19-531373-4
Bernard A. Cook (2001). . Taylor & Francis. p. 789. Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia ISBN . 978-0-8153-4058-4
"Ray Tomlinson, email inventor - obituary". The Telegraph. March 7, 2016 . Retrieved . October 14, 2020
. Department of State. July 1994. p. 8. State
Pete Prown; Harvey P. Newquist (1997). . Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 88. Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists ISBN . 978-0-7935-4042-6
. 1966. p. 6. The Diplomat's Annual
James Monaco (1991). . Perigee Books. p. 11. The Encyclopedia of Film ISBN . 978-0-399-51604-7
"Claudine Auger, French beauty queen turned actress". Telegraph. December 20, 2019 . Retrieved . October 7, 2020
Frédérique Galametz; Philippe Bouvet (June 13, 2019). . Octopus. p. 447. The Official Encyclopedia of the Yellow Jersey: 100 Years of the Yellow Jersey (Maillot Jaune) ISBN . 978-0-600-63648-9
Celebrity Services Internation (December 1989). . Cengage Gale. p. 11. Celebrity Register ISBN . 978-0-8103-6875-0
. Robert A. Welch Foundation. 1982. p. 11. The Robert A. Welch Foundation Research Bulletin
Aleksandr Mikhaĭlovich Prokhorov (1973). . Macmillan. p. 468. Great Soviet Encyclopedia
"Denning: Going against social norms - The Prague Post". archive.is. September 10, 2013. Archived from the original on September 10, 2013.
Brock Helander (January 1, 2001). . Schirmer Trade Books. p. 18. The Rockin' 60s: The People Who Made the Music ISBN . 978-0-85712-811-9
Frank N. Magill (May 13, 2013). . Routledge. p. 1083. The 20th Century A-GI: Dictionary of World Biography, Volume 7 ISBN . 978-1-136-59334-5
Charles W. Carey (May 14, 2014). . Infobase Publishing. p. 187. American Scientists ISBN . 978-1-4381-0807-0
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs (1977). . U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 26. Nomination of William D. Nordhaus and Lyle E. Gramley CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link)
. Gramophone Publications. 2000. p. 10. International Piano Quarterly: IPQ
"Spalding Gray". TODAY.com . Retrieved . February 16, 2021
ans-Michael Bock; im Bergfelder (September 1, 2009). . Berghahn Books. p. 377. The Concise Cinegraph: Encyclopaedia of German Cinema ISBN . 978-0-85745-565-9
Shteamer, Hank (February 11, 2021). "Chick Corea, Jazz Pianist Who Expanded the Possibilities of the Genre, Dead at 79". Rolling Stone . Retrieved . February 11, 2021
. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Incorporated. 1994. p. 71. RFE/RL Research Report: Weekly Analyses from the RFE/RL Research Institute
Ben Evans (June 1, 2012). . Springer Science & Business Media. p. 132. Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit: The Eighties and Early Nineties ISBN . 978-1-4614-3430-6
"Альберт ШЕСТЕРНЁВ". RussiaTeam. Archived from the original on May 3, 2020 . Retrieved . October 18, 2020
Bruce Olav Solheim (2006). . Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 112. The Vietnam War Era: A Personal Journey ISBN . 978-0-275-98308-6
Horst Kliemann (1992). . Intercontinental Book and Publishing Company, German or R. Oldenbourg Verlag. p. 1937. Who's who in Germany ISBN . 9783921220283
. Robert A. Welch Foundation. 1985. pp. 20–21. Bulletin
Paul T. Hellmann (February 14, 2006). . Routledge. p. 326. Historical Gazetteer of the United States ISBN . 1-135-94859-3
Editors : William Breit And Barry T. Hirsch (2006). . Academic Foundation. p. 235. Lives of the Laureates Eighteen Nobel Economists ISBN . 978-81-7188-526-8 CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( link)
West Group (1998). . West Publishing Company. West's Encyclopedia of American Law ISBN . 978-0-314-20159-1
Matthews, Tony (1994). The Encyclopaedia of Stoke City. Lion Predd. ISBN . 0-9524151-0-0
. Billboard Pub. 1973. p. 6. High Fidelity Incorporating Musical America
. Contemporary Books. 1993. p. 309. Chase's Annual Events ISBN . 978-0-8092-3897-2
Cleveland Amory (1986). . Harper & Row. p. 12. Celebrity Register ISBN . 978-0-9615476-0-8
Emmanuel Kwaku Akyeampong; Henry Louis Gates (February 2, 2012). . OUP USA. p. 317. Dictionary of African Biography ISBN . 978-0-19-538207-5
Mark Paxton (2013). . ABC-CLIO. p. 129. Media Perspectives on Intelligent Design and Evolution ISBN . 978-0-313-38064-8
Michael L. LaBlanc (1992). . Gale Research, Incorporated. p. 11. Contemporary Musicians: Profiles of the People in Music ISBN . 978-0-8103-5402-9
Nick Talevski (1999). . Omnibus. p. 270. The Encyclopedia of Rock Obituaries ISBN . 978-0-7119-7548-4
Editors of Chase's (September 30, 2018). . Rowman & Littlefield. p. 494. Chase's Calendar of Events 2019: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months ISBN . 978-1-64143-264-1 CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( link)
East, Roger; Thomas, Richard J. (June 3, 2014). . Routledge. p. 19. Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders ISBN 9781317639404 . Retrieved . October 3, 2018
Craig W. McLuckie; Aubrey McPhail (2000). . Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 233. Ken Saro-Wiwa: Writer and Political Activist ISBN . 978-0-89410-883-9
Pattullo, Polly (October 4, 2000). "Rosie Douglas". The Guardian . Retrieved . November 12, 2016
Hébert, Bertrand; Laprade, Pat; Stabile, Tony (April 28, 2020). . ECW Press. The Eighth Wonder of the World: The True Story of André the Giant ISBN – via Google Books. 9781773054766
Pete Prown; Harvey P. Newquist (1997). . Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 26. Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists ISBN . 978-0-7935-4042-6
Lawrence Goldman (March 7, 2013). . OUP Oxford. p. 308. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2005-2008 ISBN . 978-0-19-967154-0
Wirt, John (November 15, 2018). "New Orleans music legend Dr. John is turning 78! Or is he ..." NOLA.com. Archived from the original on June 7, 2019 . Retrieved . June 7, 2019
Douglas, Jeff (November 22, 2018). "The As It Happens Transcript for November 21, 2018". CBC Radio. Archived from the original on July 20, 2019 . Retrieved . June 7, 2019 On Tuesday after John Wirt's article Dr. John's publicist responded -- she said that back in the 50s the musician added a year to his age so he could play in clubs and that 'Mac has rolled with it since his teenage years.'
Richard Goldstein (June 7, 2015). "Henry Carr, Olympic Sprinter and a Football Giant, Dies at 73". The New York Times . Retrieved . October 14, 2020
Tom Dunmore (September 16, 2011). . Scarecrow Press. p. 155. Historical Dictionary of Soccer ISBN . 978-0-8108-7188-5
Patricia Romanowski; Holly George-Warren; Jon Pareles (1995). . Fireside. p. 1974. The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll ISBN . 978-0-684-81044-7
Spencer Tucker; Laura Matysek Wood; Justin D. Murphy (1999). . Taylor & Francis. p. 124. The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia ISBN . 978-0-8153-3351-7
Harold Oxbury (1985). . Oxford University Press. p. 15. Great Britons: Twentieth-century Lives ISBN . 978-0-19-211599-7
Ellmann, Richard, . James Joyce Oxford University Press, 1959, revised ion 1982. ISBN 0-19-503103-2, pp. 740-41
Frederick Martin; Sir John Scott Keltie; Isaac Parker Anderson Renwick (1949). . St. Martin's Press. The Statesman's Year-book
Clement Semmler (1988). "Paterson, Andrew Barton (Banjo) (1864–1941)". . Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11 MUP. pp. 154–157. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008 . Retrieved . April 3, 2008
"Willis Van Devanter". . Oyez Project Chicago-Kent College of Law.
Walter B. Rideout (February 15, 2007). . Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 400. Sherwood Anderson: A Writer in America, Volume 2 ISBN . 978-0-299-22023-5
Tayfun Belgin; Alexej von Jawlensky; Yevgenia Petrova (2000). . Russian State Museum. p. 184. Alekseĭ I︠a︡vlenskiĭ: biografii︠a︡ ISBN . 9785933320272
Jane Goldman (September 14, 2006). . Cambridge University Press. p. 24. The Cambridge Introduction to Virginia Woolf ISBN . 978-1-139-45788-0
"Historic Figures: Wilhelm II (1859 - 1941)". BBC History . Retrieved . August 22, 2018
"Blackton, Pioneer In Movies, Dies, 66. Ex-Commodore of Atlantic Yacht Club Here. Is Victim of Auto Accident. A Founder Of Vitagraph. Producer of 'Black Diamond Express' Thriller. Began as Marine Artist". . August 14, 1941 The New York Times . Retrieved . December 6, 2014
Gregory, Helen, "Cultural Advice", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University , retrieved January 17, 2021
"Ezen a napon született Kürschner Izidor, a kiváló játékos és világjáró edző, akinek Brazíliában szobrot állítottak". www.mtkbudapest.hu.
"Phillips, Sir Tom Spencer Vaughan". CWGC . Retrieved . June 3, 2020
Further reading [ ]
William K. Klingaman. 1941: Our Lives in a World on the Edge (1988) world perspective based on primary sources by a scholar.