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1938 ( MCMXXXVIII)
was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1938th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 938th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1930s decade.
Events [ ]
January [ ]
February [ ]
March [ ]
Santa Ana River in California spills over its banks during a rainy winter, killing 58 people in Orange County, and causing trouble as far inland as Palm Springs. 
Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia. Sir Nevile Henderson, British Ambassador to Germany, presents a proposal to Hitler for an international consortium to rule much of Africa (in which Germany would be assigned a leading role), in exchange for a German promise never to resort to war to change her frontiers; Hitler rejects the British offer.
March 12 – German troops occupy Austria; annexation is declared the following day. Anschluss:
March 14 – French Premier Léon Blum reassures the Czechoslovak government that France will honor its treaty obligations to aid Czechoslovakia, in the event of a German invasion.
March 15 – The Soviet Union announces officially that Nikolai Bukharin has been executed.
March 17 – Poland presents an ultimatum to Lithuania, to establish normal diplomatic relations that were severed over the Vilnius Region.
Mexico nationalizes all foreign-owned
oil properties within its borders. General Werner von Fritsch is acquitted of charges of homosexuality at his court-martial.
March 27 – Italian mathematician Ettore Majorana disappears suddenly under mysterious circumstances, while travelling by ship from Palermo to Naples.
March 28 – At a meeting with Hitler in Berlin, Konrad Henlein is instructed to make increasing demands concerning the status of the Sudetenland, but to avoid reaching an agreement with Czechoslovak authorities. March 30 – Italy's Duce Benito Mussolini is granted equal power over the Italian military to that of King Victor Emmanuel III, as First Marshal of the Empire.
April [ ]
Édouard Daladier becomes prime minister of France. He appoints as Foreign Minister a leading advocate of the policy of appeasement, Georges Bonnet, effectively negating Blum's reassurances of March 14. In a result that astonishes even Hitler, the Austrian electorate in a national referendum approve Anschluss by an overwhelming 99.73%.
April 15 – Huey, Dewey and Louie make their first appearance, in the Disney animated short . Donald's Nephews
April 16 – London and Rome sign an agreement that sees Britain recognise Italian control of Ethiopia (formally on November 16), in return for an Italian pledge to withdraw all its 10,000 troops from Spain, at the conclusion of the civil war there.
April 18 – Superman first appears (as an untested lead feature ), in Action Comics #1 (cover date June). The date is established in court documents released during the legal battle over the rights to Superman (on April 18, 2018, DC Comics releases Action Comics #1000).
April 24 – Konstantin Päts becomes the first President of Estonia.
April 25 – : The Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins U.S. Supreme Court overturns a century of federal common law. April 28 – The towns of Dana, Enfield, Greenwich, and Prescott in Massachusetts are disincorporated, to make way for the Quabbin Reservoir.
May [ ]
Vatican recognizes Francisco Franco's government in Spain. General Ludwig Beck, Chief of the German Army's General Staff, submits a memorandum to Hitler opposing (Case Green), the plan for a war with Czechoslovakia, under the grounds that Germany is ill-prepared for the world war likely to result from such an attack. Fall Grün
May 12 – U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull rejects the Soviet Union's offer of a joint defence pact, to counter the rise of Nazi Germany.
May 14 – Chile withdraws from the League of Nations.
May 17 – debuts on Information Please NBC Radio in the United States.
May 19 – May Crisis 1938: Czechoslovak intelligence receives reports of menacing German military concentrations (it later appears the reports are false).
May 20 – Czechoslovakia orders a partial mobilization of its armed forces along the German border.
May 21 – Tsuyama massacre: Matsuo Toi kills 30 people in a village in Okayama, Japan, in the world's worst spree killing by an individual until 1982.
May 23 – No evidence of German troop movements against Czechoslovakia is found, and the May Crisis subsides. Germany is, nevertheless, perceived to have backed down in the face of Czechoslovak mobilization and international diplomatic unity, but the issue of the future of the Sudetenland is far from resolved.
May 28 – In a conference at the Reich Chancellery, Hitler declares his decision to destroy Czechoslovakia by military force, and orders the immediate mobilization of 96 Wehrmacht divisions. May 30 – Hitler issues a revised directive for ("Case Green") - the invasion of Fall Grün Czechoslovakia - to be carried out by 1 October 1938.
June [ ]
June 5 & 7 – The 1938 Yellow River flood is created by the Nationalist government in central China, breaching embankments during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War, in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of Japanese forces. The flood kills at least 400,000, covers and destroys thousands of square kilometers of farmland, and shifts the mouth of the Yellow River hundreds of kilometers to the south.
June 11 – Fire destroys 214 buildings in Ludza, Latvia.
June 15 – László Bíró patents the ballpoint pen in Britain.
June 19 – Italy beats Hungary 4–2, to win the 1938 FIFA World Cup.
June 22 – Heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis knocks out Max Schmeling in the first round of their rematch, at Yankee Stadium in New York City.
June 24 – A 450- metric-ton (496- short-ton) meteorite explodes about 12 miles (19 km) above the earth, near Chicora, Pennsylvania. June 25 – Dr. Douglas Hyde is elected the first President of Ireland.
July [ ]
July – The Mauthausen concentration camp is built in Austria.
July 1 – The South African Press Association is established, with offices in Cape Town, Johannesburg, Durban, Bloemfontein and Pretoria.
July 5 – The Non-Intervention Committee reaches an agreement to withdraw all foreign volunteers from the Spanish Civil War. The agreement is respected by most Republican International Brigades, notably those from England and the United States, but is ignored by the governments of Germany and Italy.
July 6 – The Evian Conference on Refugees is convened in France. No country in Europe is prepared to accept Jews fleeing persecution, and the United States will take only 27,370.
July 14 – Howard Hughes sets a new record, by completing a 91-hour airplane flight around the world.
July 18 – Wrong Way Corrigan takes off from New York, ostensibly heading for California. He lands in Ireland instead.
July 22 – Britain rejects a proposal from its ambassador in Berlin, Nevile Henderson, for a four-power summit on Czechoslovakia consisting of Britain, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R., as London will under no circumstances accept the U.S.S.R. as a diplomatic partner.
July 24 – The Eiger north face of the Alps is first ascended.
July 30 – The first ever issue of children's comic is published in Britain. The Beano
August [ ]
August – In the face of overwhelming Japanese military pressure, Chiang Kai-shek withdraws his government to Chungking.
August 3 – Lord Runciman, sent by Neville Chamberlain, arrives in Prague on his mission of mediation, in the Sudetenland dispute.
August 10 – At a secret summit with his leading generals, Hitler attacks General Beck's arguments against Fall Grün, winning the majority of his senior officers over to his point of view.
August 23 – Hitler, hosting a dinner on board the ocean liner Patria in Kiel Bay, tells the Regent of Hungary, Admiral Horthy, that action against Czechoslovakia is imminent and that "he who wants to sit at the table must at least help in the kitchen", a reference to Horthy's designs on Carpathian Ruthenia.
August 27 – General Beck leaves office as Chief of the General Staff; he is replaced by General Franz Halder.
August 28 – Lord Runciman's mission to mitigate the Sudetenland crisis begins to break down. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain recalls Ambassador Nevile Henderson from Berlin, to instruct Henderson to set up a personal meeting between Chamberlain and Hitler. August 31 – Winston Churchill, still believing France and Britain mean to honor their promises to defend Czechoslovakia against Nazi aggression, suggests in a personal note to Neville Chamberlain that His Majesty's Government may want to set up a broad international alliance, including the United States (specifically mentioning U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt as possibly receptive to the idea) and the Soviet Union.
September [ ]
September – The European crisis over German demands for annexation of the Sudeten borderland of Czechoslovakia becomes increasingly severe.
September 2 – Soviet Ambassador to Britain Ivan Maisky calls on Winston Churchill, telling him that Soviet Foreign Commissar Maxim Litvinov has expressed to the French chargé d'affaires in Moscow that the Soviet Union is willing to fight over the territorial integrity of Czechoslovakia.
September 4 – During the ceremony marking the unveiling of a plaque at Pointe de Grave, France, celebrating Franco-American friendship, American Ambassador William Bullitt in a speech states, "France and the United States were united in war and peace", leading to much speculation in the press that if war did break out over Czechoslovakia, then the United States would join the war on the Allied side.
September 5 – Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš invites mid-level representatives of the Sudeten Germans Hradčany Palace, to tell them he will accept whatever demands they care to make, provided the Sudetenland remains part of the Republic of Czechoslovakia.
September 6 – What eventually proves to be the last of the " Nuremberg Rallies" begins. It draws worldwide attention because it is widely assumed that Hitler, in his closing remarks, will signal whether there will be peace with or war over Czechoslovakia.
September 7 – publishes a lead article, which calls on The Times Czechoslovakia to cede the Sudetenland to Germany.
September 9 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt disallows the popular interpretation of Bullitt's speech at a press conference at the White House. Roosevelt states it is "100% wrong" the U.S. would join a "stop-Hitler bloc" under any circumstances and makes it quite clear that in the event of German aggression against Czechoslovakia, the U.S. would remain neutral.
September 10 – Hermann Göring, in a speech at Nuremberg, calls the Czechs a "miserable pygmy race" who are "harassing the human race." That same evening, Edvard Beneš, President of Czechoslovakia, makes a broadcast in which he appeals for calm.
September 12 – Hitler makes his much-anticipated closing address at Nuremberg, in which he vehemently attacks the Czech people and President Beneš. American news commentator Hans von Kaltenborn begins his famous marathon of broadcast bulletins over the CBS Radio Network, with a summation of Hitler's address.
September 13 – The followers of Konrad Henlein begin an armed revolt against the Czechoslovak government in Sudetenland. Martial law is declared and after much bloodshed on both sides order is temporarily restored. Neville Chamberlain personally sends a telegram to Hitler, urgently requesting that they both meet.
September 15 – Neville Chamberlain arrives in Berchtesgaden, to begin negotiations with Hitler over the Sudetenland.
September 16 – Lord Runciman is recalled to London from Prague, in order to brief the British government on the situation in the Sudetenland.
September 17 – Neville Chamberlain returns temporarily to London, to confer with his cabinet. The U.S.S.R. Red Army masses along the Ukrainian frontier. Rumania agrees to allow Soviet soldiers free passage across her territory to defend Czechoslovakia.
During a meeting between
Neville Chamberlain, the recently elected Premier of France, Édouard Daladier, and Daladier's Foreign Minister, Georges Bonnet, it becomes apparent that neither the British nor the French governments are prepared to go to war over the Sudetenland. The Soviet Union declares it will come to the defence of Czechoslovakia only if France honours her commitment to defend Czechoslovak independence. Mussolini makes a speech in Trieste, Italy, where he indicates that Italy is supporting Germany in the Sudeten crisis.
In the early hours of the day, representatives of the French and British governments call on Czechoslovak President
Edvard Beneš, to tell him France and Britain will not fight Hitler if he decides to annex the Sudetenland by force. Late in the afternoon, the Czechoslovak government capitulates to the French and British demands.
Winston Churchill warns of grave consequences to European security, if Czechoslovakia is partitioned. The same day, Soviet Foreign Commissar Maxim Litvinov makes a similar statement in the League of Nations. The
1938 New England hurricane strikes Long Island and southern New England, killing over 300 along the Rhode Island shoreline and 600 altogether. Following the capitulation of the Czech government to Germany's demands, both Poland and Hungary demand slices of Czech territory where their nationals reside.
Unable to survive the previous day's capitulation to the demands of the English and French governments, Czechoslovak premier
Milan Hodža resigns. General Jan Syrový takes his place.
Neville Chamberlain arrives in the city of Bad Godesberg, for another round of talks with Hitler over the Sudetenland crisis. Hitler raises his demands to include occupation of all German Sudeten territories by October 1. That night after a telephone conference, Chamberlain reverses himself and advises the Czechoslovaks to mobilize. Olsen and Johnson's musical comedy revue begins its 3-year run on Broadway. Hellzapoppin
The Czechoslovak army mobilizes.
As the Polish army masses along the Czech border, the Soviet Union warns Poland that if it crosses the Czech frontier, Russia will regard the 1932 non-aggression pact between the two countries as void.
Eric Phipps, British Ambassador to France, reports to London, "all that is best in France is against war, almost at any price", being opposed only by a "small, but noisy and corrupt, war group". Phipps's report creates major doubts about the ability and/or willingness of France to go to war. At 1:30 AM, Adolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain conclude their talks on the Sudetenland. Chamberlain agrees to take Hitler's demands, codified in the Godesberg Memorandum, personally to the Czech Government. The Czech Government rejects the demands, as does Chamberlain's own cabinet. The French Government also initially rejects the terms and orders a partial mobilization of the French army.
September 26 – In a vitriolic speech at Berlin's Sportpalast, Hitler defies the world and implies war with Czechoslovakia will begin at any time.
September 28 – As his self-imposed October 1 deadline for occupation of the Sudetenland approaches, Adolf Hitler invites Italian Duce Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edourd Deladier and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to one last conference in Munich. The Czechs themselves are not invited.
September 30 – Neville Chamberlain returns to Britain from meeting with Adolf Hitler, and declares " Peace for our time".
October [ ]
October – The Imperial Japanese Army largely overruns Canton.
October 1 – German troops march into the Sudetenland. The Polish government gives the Czech government an ultimatum, stating that Zaolzie region must be handed over within twenty-four hours. The Czechs have little choice but to comply; Polish forces occupy Zaolzie.
October 3 – Production of the Jefferson nickel begins in the United States, replacing the buffalo nickel (last struck in April). The new nickel is released on November 15. 
October 4 – The Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War begin withdrawing their foreign volunteers from combat, as agreed on July 5.
Edvard Beneš, president of Czechoslovakia, resigns. Nuremberg Laws: In Nazi Germany, Jews' passports are invalidated, and those who need a passport for emigration purposes are given one marked with the letter J ("Jude" – "Jew"). 
October 10 – The Blue Water Bridge opens, connecting Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.
October 16 – Winston Churchill, in a broadcast address to the United States, condemns the Munich Agreement as a defeat, and calls upon America and western Europe to prepare for armed resistance against Hitler.
October 18 – The German government expels 12,000 Polish Jews living in Germany; the Polish government accepts 4,000 and refuses admittance to the remaining 8,000, who are forced to live in the no-man's land on the German-Polish frontier.
October 21 – In direct contravention of the recently signed Munich Agreement, Adolf Hitler circulates among his high command a secret memorandum stating that they should prepare for the "liquidation of the rest of Czechoslovakia" and the occupation of Memel.
DuPont announces a name for its new synthetic yarn: " nylon". Jews with Polish citizenship are evicted from Nazi Germany. 
October 30 – Orson Welles' radio adaptation of is broadcast, causing panic in various parts of the United States. The War of the Worlds October 31 – Great Depression: In an effort to try restore investor confidence, the New York Stock Exchange unveils a 15-point program aimed to upgrade protection for the investing public.
November [ ]
November 1 – Horse racing: Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral by four lengths, in their famous match race at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore.
November 2 – Arising from The Munich Agreement, Hungary is " awarded" the Felvidek region of South Slovakia and Ruthenia.
November 4 – At a public meeting in Epping, Winston Churchill narrowly survives an attempt by fellow Conservative and constituent Sir Colin Thornton-Kemsley to remove him from Parliament.
November 7 – Ernst vom Rath, the Third Secretary at the German Embassy in Paris, is assassinated by Herschel Grynszpan.
November 9 – Holocaust – Kristallnacht: In Germany, the "night of broken glass" begins as Nazi activists and sympathizers loot and burn Jewish businesses (the all night affair sees 7,500 Jewish businesses destroyed, 267 synagogues burned, 91 Jews killed and at least 25,000 Jewish men arrested). 
November 11 – Celâl Bayar forms the new government of Turkey (10th government; Celal Bayar had served twice as a prime minister).
November 12 – French Finance Minister Paul Reynaud brings into effect a series of laws aiming at improving French productivity (thus aiming to undo the economic weaknesses which led to Munich), and undoes most of the economic and social laws of the Popular Front.
November 18 – Trade union members elect John L. Lewis, as the first president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations in the United States.
November 25 – French Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet informs Léon Noël, the French Ambassador to Poland, that France should find an excuse for terminating the 1921 Franco-Polish alliance. November 30
The Czechoslovak parliament elects
Emil Hácha as the new president of Czechoslovakia.
Benito Mussolini and his Foreign Minister Count Galeazzo Ciano order "spontaneous" demonstrations in the Italian Chamber of Deputies, demanding that France cede Tunisia, Nice, Corsica and French Somaliland to Italy. This begins an acute crisis in Franco-Italian relations, that lasts until March 1939.
Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, leader of the Romanian fascist Iron Guard, is murdered on the orders of King Carol II of Romania. Officially, Codreanu and the 13 other Iron Guard leaders are "shot while trying to escape". A general strike is called in France by the French Communist Party, to protest the laws of November 12.
December [ ]
December – President Roosevelt agrees to loan $25 million to Chiang Kai-shek, cementing the Sino-American relationship and angering the Japanese government.
December 1 – Slovakia is granted the status of an autonomous state, under Catholic priest Fr. Joseph Tiso.
December 6 – German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop visits Paris, where he is allegedly informed by French Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet that France now recognizes all of Eastern Europe as being in Germany's exclusive sphere of influence. Bonnet's alleged statement (he subsequently always denies making the remark) to Ribbentrop is a major factor in German policy in 1939.
December 13 – The Neuengamme concentration camp opens near Hamburg.
December 15 – The Netherlands closes its border to refugees.
December 17 – Otto Hahn discovers the nuclear fission of uranium, the scientific and technological basis of nuclear power, which marks the beginning of the Atomic Age.
December 23 – A coelacanth, a fish thought to have been extinct, is caught off the coast of South Africa, near the Chalumna River.
December 27 – A massive avalanche of snow hits a construction worker dormitory site in Kurobe, Japan, killing 87. December 30 – The ballet (with music by Romeo and Juliet Prokofiev) receives its first full performance, at the Mahen Theatre in Brno, Czechoslovakia.
Date unknown [ ]
Births [ ]
January [ ]
January 4 – Mohamed Rahmat, Malaysian politician (d. 2010)
January 6 – Mario Rodríguez Cobos (aka "Silo"), Argentine author, spiritualist (d. 2010)
January 7 – Roland Topor, French illustrator (d. 1997)
January 8 – Bob Eubanks, American game show host
January 9 – Gary Starkweather, American inventor
January 17 – John Bellairs, American writer (d. 1991)
January 16 – Michael Pataki, American character, voice actor (d. 2010)
January 20 – Derek Dougan, Northern Irish footballer (d. 2007)
January 23 – Georg Baselitz, German painter, sculptor
January 24 – Gyula Torok, Hungarian Olympic boxer (d. 2014)
January 27 – Raul Gil, Brazilian television presenter, singer
January 28 – Tomas Lindahl, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
January 29 – Shuji Tsurumi, Japanese men's artistic gymnast
January 30 – Islam Karimov, President of Uzbekistan (d. 2016) January 31
February [ ]
February 1 – Sherman Hemsley, African-American comedian, actor (d. 2012)
February 2 – Max Alvis, American baseball player
February 3 – Geoff Clayton, English cricketer (d. 2018)
February 4 – Frank J. Dodd, American businessman, politician and president of the New Jersey Senate (d. 2010)
February 10 – Judith Rich Harris, American psychology researcher, and author (d. 2018)
February 12 – Judy Blume, American author
February 13 – Oliver Reed, English actor (d. 1999)
February 14 – Lee Chamberlin, African-American actress (d. 2014)
February 17 – Yvonne Romain, English actress
February 18 – István Szabó, Hungarian film director
February 19 – René Muñoz, Cuba-born actor, Mexico-based telenovela/film screenwriter (d. 2000)
February 20 – Paul Archibald Vianney Ansah, Ghanaian politician
February 23 – Sylvia Chase, American broadcast journalist (d. 2019)
February 25 – Herb Elliott, Australian runner February 27
March [ ]
March 1 – Tufuga Efi, Samoa political figure, 3rd Prime Minister of Samoa and O le Ao o le Malo of Samoa
March 2 – Ricardo Lagos Escobar, President of Chile
March 8 – Bruno Pizzul, Italian sports journalist
March 9 – Charles Siebert, American actor, director
March 12 – Dumitru Fărcaș, Romanian tárogató player (d. 2018)
March 13 – Erma Franklin, American singer (d. 2002)
March 14 – Eleanor Bron, English actress
March 19 – Joe Kapp, American football player, coach
March 23 – Maynard Jackson, African-American mayor of Atlanta, Georgia (d. 2003)
March 24 – David Irving, English historian, author
March 25 – Hoyt Axton, American country music singer, songwriter and actor (d. 1999)
March 26 – Anthony James Leggett, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
March 30 – Klaus Schwab, German economist, founder of the World Economic Forum March 31
April [ ]
April 1 – John Quade, American actor (d. 2009)
April 2 – John Larsson, 17th General of The Salvation Army
April 3 – Jeff Barry, American record producer, songwriter
April 8 – Kofi Annan, Ghanaian Secretary-General of the United Nations, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2018)
April 12 – Roger Caron, Canadian author
April 13 – Frederic Rzewski, American composer, pianist
April 16 – Kasdi Merbah, Algerian politician, 4th Prime Minister of Algeria (d. 1993)
April 17 – Kerry Wendell Thornley, American counterculture figure, writer and co-founder of Discordianism (d. 1998)
April 29 – Bernard Madoff, American financial fraudster April 30 – Larry Niven, American author
May [ ]
May 2 – King Moshoeshoe II (d. 1996)
May 4 – Tyrone Davis, American singer (d. 2005)
May 8 – Alice Stewart Trillin, American educator, author and film producer (d. 2001)
May 10 – Henry Fambrough, African-American singer ( ) The Spinners
May 11 – Fritz-Albert Popp, German biophysicist
May 12 – Luana Anders, American actress (d. 1996)
May 15 – Diane Nash, American civil rights activist
May 16 – Marco Aurelio Denegri, Peruvian linguist, intellectual and sexologist (d. 2018)
May 17 – Jason Bernard, American actor (d. 1996)
May 18 – Edwin Erickson, American politician (d. 2019)
May 24 – Prince Buster, Jamaican singer-songwriter (d. 2016)
May 30 – Eugene Belliveau, Canadian football defensive lineman May 31
June [ ]
June 1 – Khawar Rizvi, Pakistani poet, scholar (d. 1981)
June 2 – Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld, Princess of Sweden
June 5 – Karin Balzer, German athlete
June 6 – Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, pretender to the Brazilian throne
June 7 – Goose Gonsoulin, American football player
June 8 – Mack Vickery, American musician (d. 2004)
June 11 – Leif Axmyr, Swedish criminal, murderer (d. 2018)
June 12 – Tom Oliver, Australian actor
June 14 – Shelby Stephenson, American poet
June 15 – Billy Williams, American baseball player
June 16 – James Bolam, British actor
June 22 – Octavian Vintilă, Romanian fencer
Cecilia Kadzamira, First Lady of Malawi
Paul Dijoud, ex-minister of state for Monaco
Giampiero Littera, Italian actor
Enver Yulgushov, Russian professional football player, coach
Augusto Barbera, Italian judge, former constitutional law professor
James Feast, British chemical scientist, academic Mick Allen, Australian rower
July [ ]
Manny Mashouf, Iranian-American businessman, philanthropist
Tony Lewis, English cricketer
Uli Maslo, German football player, manager
Oleh Bazylevych, Ukrainian footballer, football (soccer) coach, and sport administrator
Stuart Young, English cricketer Luana Patten, American film actress (d. 1996)
July 13 – Thomas Savundaranayagam, Sri Lanka Tamil priest, former Roman Catholic Bishop of Jaffna
July 17 – Salah Omar al-Ali, Iraqi politician
July 22 – Mark Rakita, Soviet-era Russian sabreur, coach
July 24 – Eugene J. Martin, American painter, artist (d. 2005)
July 27 – Gary Gygax, American author, game designer (d. 2008)
July 30 – Michael Bell, American actor, voice actor, director and animal-rights activist
August [ ]
August 4 – Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond, Zairian politician (d. 2003)
August 6 – Paul Bartel, American actor, writer and director (d. 2000)
August 10 – Grit Boettcher, German actress
August 12 – Paul Craft, American singer, songwriter (d. 2014)
August 13 – Bill Masterton, Canadian–American ice hockey player (d. 1968)
August 18 – Orestes Quércia, Brazilian politician (d. 2010)
August 20 – Alain Vivien, French politician
August 21 – Kenny Rogers, American country singer
August 22 – Paul Maguire, American football player
August 26 – Susan Harrison, American actress
August 25 – Iris Falcam, American-Micronesian librarian, researcher and public servant (d. 2010)
August 31 – Martin Bell, British journalist and politician
September [ ]
September 1 – Per Kirkeby, Danish artist
September 3 – Ryōji Noyori, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
September 6 – Dennis Oppenheim, American artist (d. 2011)
September 8 – Kenichi Horie, Japanese adventurer
September 18 – Poornachandra Tejaswi, Kannada writer (d. 2007)
September 22 – Gene Mingo, American football player
September 28 – Ben E. King, African-American singer, songwriter (d. 2015) September 29 – Wim Kok, Dutch politician, 48th Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1994 until 2002 (d. 2018)
October [ ]
October 1 – Stella Stevens, American actress, model
October 4 – Kurt Wüthrich, Swiss chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
October 5 – Johnny Duncan, American country music singer (d. 2006)
October 8 – Bronislovas Lubys, 5th Prime Minister of Lithuania (d. 2011)
October 13 – Christiane Hörbiger, Austrian television, film actress
October 15 – Fela Kuti, Nigerian musician, activist (d. 1997)
October 17 – Evel Knievel, American motorcycle daredevil (d. 2007)
October 18 – Dawn Wells, American actress ( ) Gilligan's Island
October 20 – Iain Macmillan, British photographer (d. Abbey Road 2006)
October 22 – Christopher Lloyd, American actor
October 23 – John Heinz, U.S. Senator (d. 1991)
October 25 – Claude Minière, French essayist, poet
October 28 – Anne Perry, English-born novelist
October 30 – Ed Lauter, American actor (d. 2013)
November [ ]
November 4 – LeRoy Fjordbotten, Canadian politician (d. 2017)
November 10 – Michael Schultz, American film director, producer
November 11 – Ants Antson, Estonian speed skater (d. 2015)
November 12 – Benjamin Mkapa, 3rd President of Tanzania
November 13 – Jean Seberg, American actress (d. 1979)
November 16 – Robert Nozick, American philosopher (d. 2002)
November 17 – Gordon Lightfoot, Canadian folk singer
November 19 – Ted Turner, American entrepreneur
November 22 – Maynard Troyer, American race car driver, race chassis engineer (d. 2018)
November 26 – Porter J. Goss, American politician, Central Intelligence Agency director
December [ ]
Date unknown [ ]
Deaths [ ]
January [ ]
January 1 – George H. Collin, American politician (b. 1856)
January 2 – Henry Victor Deligny, French general (b. 1855)
January 3 – Arturo Berutti, Argentinian composer (b. 1862)
January 4 – Paola Drigo, Italian novelist, writer (b. 1876)
January 5 – Karel Baxa, Czechoslovakian politician (b. 1863)
January 10 – William McCall, American actor (b. 1870)
January 17 – Vladimir Beneshevich, Soviet scholar, martyr (b. 1874)
January 20 – Émile Cohl, French caricaturist, animator (b. 1857)
January 21 – Georges Méliès, French film director (b. 1861)
January 22 – Sergei Buturlin, Soviet ornithologist (b. 1872)
January 23 – J. P. Dahlen, Swedish worker, politician (b. 1881)
January 24 – Rosamond Pinchot, American socialite, actress (b. 1904)
January 28 – Bernd Rosemeyer, German racing driver (b. 1909)
January 29 – Armando Palacio Valdés, Spanish writer (b. 1853) January 31 – Marcella Cosgrave, Irish nationalist leader (b. 1873)
February [ ]
February 6 – George Auriol, French poet (b. 1863)
February 7 – Harvey Firestone, American tire manufacturer (b. 1868)
February 9 – Arturo Caprotti, Italian engineer, architect (b. 1881)
February 10 – Richard A. Whiting, American composer (b. 1890)
February 11 – Kazimierz Twardowski, Polish philosopher, logician (b. 1866)
February 16 – Hal De Forrest, Portuguese-born American actor (b. 1862)
February 17 – T. D. Crittenden, American actor (b. 1878)
February 19 – Edmund Landau, German mathematician (b. 1877) February 21 – Matvei Petrovich Bronstein, Soviet physicist (b. 1906)
March [ ]
March 1 – Gabriele D'Annunzio, Italian writer, war hero, and politician (b. 1863)
March 7 – Andreas Michalakopoulos, Greek politician, 47th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1876)
March 10 – Ahn Changho, Korean independence activist (b. 1878)
March 12 – Lyda Roberti, Polish actress (b. 1906)
March 18 – Lidia Charskaya, Soviet actress, writer (b. 1875)
March 19 – Magzhan Zhumabayev, Soviet writer, pedagogue (b. 1893)
March 21 – Oscar Apfel, American actor, director (b. 1878)
March 26 – Lakshminath Bezbaroa, Indian writer, dramatist, novelist, poet and or (b. 1864)
March 27 – William Stern, German psychologist, philosopher (b. 1871) March 29 – Marcel Bloch, Swiss aviator (b. 1890)
April [ ]
April 1 – Louis-Henri Foreau, French painter (b. 1866)
April 5 – Reine Davies, American actress (b. 1886)
April 6 – Khoren I of Armenia, Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church and patriarch (b. 1873)
April 8 – Joe "King" Oliver, American jazz musician (b. 1885)
April 9 – Manuel Carrasco Formiguera, Spanish lawyer, politician (b. 1890)
April 12 – Feodor Chaliapin, Soviet bass (b. 1873)
April 14 – Gillis Grafström, Swedish figure skater (b. 1893)
April 15 – César Vallejo, Peruvian poet (b. 1892)
April 16 – Steve Bloomer, English footballer (b. 1874)
April 24 – George Grey Barnard, American sculptor (b. 1863)
April 25 – Aleksander Świętochowski, Polish writer (b. 1849) April 26 – Edmund Husserl, Austrian philosopher (b. 1859)
May [ ]
May 4 – Carl von Ossietzky, German pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1889)
May 6 – Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire, British politician and Governor General of Canada (b. 1868)
May 7 – Octavian Goga, 37th Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1881)
May 9 – Thomas B. Thrige, Danish industrialist (b. 1866)
May 10 – Benjamin Abrahão Botto, Brazilian photographer (b. 1890)
May 13 – Charles Édouard Guillaume, French physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1861)
May 15 – Cao Kun, 6th President of the Republic of China (b. 1862)
May 18 – Mikhail Babushkin, Soviet polar aviator (b. 1893)
May 22 – William Glackens, American painter (b. 1870)
May 23 – Frederick Ruple, American painter (b. 1871)
May 25 – Rafael Colliander, Finnish journalist, politician (b. 1870)
May 26 – John Jacob Abel, American pharmacologist (b. 1857) May 29 – Miguel Fleta, Spanish tenor (b. 1897)
June [ ]
June 3 – Carrie Langston Hughes, African-American writer and actress (b. 1873)
June 3 – Tulio Febres Cordero, Venezuelan writer, journalist (b. 1860)
June 4 – Oscar Bystrom, Swedish actor (b. 1857)
June 7 – Jenő Dsida, Hungarian poet, translator (b. 1907)
June 9 – John Broadbent, British army officer, politician (b. 1872)
June 15 – Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, German painter (b. 1880)
June 17 – George E. Barnett, American economist (b. 1873)
June 19 – María Obligado de Soto y Calvo, Argentinian painter (b. 1857)
June 21 – Mathilde Comont, French-born American actress (b. 1886)
June 24 – C. Yarnall Abbott, American photographer, painter (b. 1870)
June 25 – Edith Anne Stoney, Irish physicist (b. 1869)
June 26 – James Weldon Johnson, American author, politician, and diplomat (b. 1871) June 29
July [ ]
July 1 – Carrie Daumery, Dutch-born American actress (b. 1863)
July 2 – John James Burnet, British architect (b. 1857)
July 9 – Benjamin N. Cardozo, United States Supreme Court Justice (b. 1870)
July 14 – Abel Adams, Finnish producer (b. 1879)
July 17 – Robert Wiene, German director (b. 1873)
July 19 – Harvey Clark, American actor (b. 1885)
July 20 – George Martley Davis, Australian politician (b. 1860)
July 24 – Pedro Figari, Uruguay, painter, writer and politician (b. 1861)
July 27 – Tom Crean, Irish seaman, Antarctic explorer (b. 1877) July 28
August [ ]
August 1 – Edmund Charles Tarbell, American artist (b. 1862)
August 2 – Edmund Dunggan, Irish-born Australian actor (b. 1862)
August 4 – Pearl White, American actress (b. 1889)
August 6 – Warner Oland, Swedish actor (b. 1879)
August 7 – Konstantin Stanislavsky, Soviet theatre practitioner (b. 1863)
August 12 – Peter David Edstrom, American sculptor (b. 1873)
August 14 – Hugh Trumble, Australian test cricketer (b. 1876)
August 21 – Tomasz Dąbal, Polish activist (b. 1890)
August 22 – Eduard Lepin, Latvian-born Soviet general (b. 1889)
August 26 – Teodor Axentowicz, Polish-born Soviet painter (b. 1859) August 29 – Béla Kun, Hungarian Communist leader (b. 1886)
September [ ]
September 1 – Nikolai Bryukhanov, Soviet statesman, political figure and People's Commissar of Finances (b. 1878)
September 3 – Gustav Adolf Closs, German illustrator, painter (b. 1864)
September 6 – Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg, Prince of Asturias, former heir apparent to the throne of Spain (b. 1907)
September 8 – Cecilio Apostol, Filipino poet, laurate (b. 1877)
September 10 – Andrew Breen, American Roman Catholic priest and reverend (b. 1863)
September 17 – Bruno Jasieński, Polish poet (b. 1901)
September 19 – Pauline Frederick, American actress (b. 1883)
September 20 – Maria Teresa of St. Joseph, German Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1855)
September 24 – Silouan the Athonite, Soviet Orthodox priest and saint (b. 1866)
September 28 – Con Conrad, American composer (b. 1891)
October [ ]
November [ ]
November 1 – Charles Weeghman, American restaurateur, owner of Chicago Cubs (b. 1874)
November 4 – Samuel W. Bryant, American admiral (b. 1877)
November 7 – Prince Georgy Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1903)
November 10 – Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st Prime Minister of Turkey, 1st President of Turkey (b. 1881)
November 14 – William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp, British politician and colonial governor (b. 1872)
November 16 – James Barr, American physician (b. 1849)
November 17 – Kaarlo Castren, Finnish politician, 4th Prime Minister of Finland (b. 1860)
November 22 – Sahachiro Hata, Japanese bacteriologist (b. 1873)
November 25 – Otto von Lossow, Bavarian, German general (b. 1868) November 30 – Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, Romanian fascist, leader of the Iron Guard (executed along other Guard activists) (b. 1899)
December [ ]
December 2 – Thomas Octavius Callender, British engineer, businessman (b. 1855)
December 3 – Félix Córdova Dávila, Puerto Rican political figure (b. 1878)
December 4 – Gonzalo Bilbao, Spanish painter (b. 1860)
December 7 – Anna Marie Hahn, German-born American serial killer (b. 1907)
December 10 – Paul Morgan, Austrian actor (b. 1886)
December 11 – Christian Lous Lange, Norwegian pacifist, Nobel Peace Prize recipient (b. 1869)
December 14 – Maurice Emmanuel, French composer (b. 1862)
December 16 – Ed Davis, American criminal (b. 1900)
December 20 – Annie Armstrong, American missionary leader (b. 1850)
December 24 – Bruno Taut, German architect, urban planner (b. 1880)
December 28 – Florence Lawrence, Canadian actress (b. 1886)
December 29 – Eugenia de Reuss Ianculescu, Romanian teacher, writer and activist (b. 1866) December 31 – Lucien Grant Berry, American general (b. 1863)
Date unknown [ ]
Nobel Prizes [ ]
References [ ]
"Nederlandse Spoorwegen". 2011-06-12 . Retrieved . 2011-12-27
"Daily Pilot - Serving Newport Beach & Costa Mesa, California". Archived from the original on May 20, 2009 . Retrieved . 2009-05-18
^ Bowers, Q. David (2007).
A Guide Book of Buffalo and Jefferson Nickels. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7948-2008-4.
^ a b
Nazi Germany and the Jews: 1938 – “The Fateful Year” on the Yad Vashem website
It Came From Within... 71 Years Since Kristallnacht - Online exhibition from Yad Vashem, including survivor testimonies, archival footage, photos and stories.
Albert Hofmann; translated from the original German (LSD Ganz Persönlich) by J. Ott. MAPS-Volume 6, Number 69, Summer 1969.
Ives, Herbert E.; Stilwell, G. R. (1938). "An Experimental Study of the Rate of a Moving Atomic Clock". . Journal of the Optical Society of America 28 (7): 215–19. Bibcode: 1938JOSA...28..215I. doi: 10.1364/JOSA.28.000215 . Retrieved . 2011-09-23
External links [ ]