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1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1832nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 832nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1832, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- July 2 – André-Michel Guerry presents his Essay on moral statistics of France to the French Academy of Sciences, a significant step in the founding of empirical social science.
- July 4 – Durham University is founded in the north of England, by an act of Parliament given royal assent by King William IV.
- July 9 – The Commissioner of Indian Affairs post is created, within the United States Department of War.
- July 10 – The United States Survey of the Coast is revived, within the Department of the Treasury.
- August 2 – The Bad Axe Massacre ends the last major Native American rebellion east of the Mississippi, in the United States.
- August 7 – William Howley, Archbishop of Canterbury, has his coach attacked by an angry mob on his first official visit to Canterbury, because of his opposition to the Reform Act in the United Kingdom.
- August 17 – China ceases production of iron shuriken.
- August 27 – Black Hawk (Sauk leader) surrenders to the United States authorities, ending the Black Hawk War.
- September 22 – Qasim al-Ahmad is appointed as the new Ottoman Governor (mutasallim) of Jerusalem (Kudüs), after Sultan Mahmud II dismisses Muhammad Said Agha. 
- October 4 – Prince Otto of Bavaria, the second oldest son of King Ludwig I, is selected by Europe's major powers to become Othon, the first King of Greece, after the Hellenic nation's reacquisition of independence. 
- October 20 – Principal Chief Levi Colbert (Itawamba Mingo) and other leaders of the Chickasaw Nation of American Indians sign the Pontotoc Creek Treaty with the United States, ceding their remaining 9,400 square miles of land to the U.S., in return for a promise that they will receive all proceeds of sales of the land by the federal government to private owners, along with expenses for relocation and food and supplies for one year. The area ceded includes the entire northern one-sixth of the state of Mississippi. 
- November 14 – Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence dies at his home in Maryland at age 95.
- November 21 – Wabash College, a small, private, liberal arts college for men, is founded.
- November 24 – Nullification Crisis: The U.S. state of South Carolina passes the Ordinance of Nullification, challenging the power of the U.S. federal government, by declaring that it will not enforce national tariffs signed into law in 1828 and 1832.
- December 3 – U.S. presidential election, 1832: Andrew Jackson is re-elected president.
- December 4 – Battle of Antwerp: The last remaining Dutch stronghold, Antwerp Citadel, comes under French attack.
- December 10: U.S. President Andrew Jackson responds to the Nullification Crisis, by threatening to send the U.S. Army and Navy into South Carolina if it does not comply. 
- December 21 – Battle of Konya: The Egyptians defeat the main Ottoman army in central Anatolia.
- December 23 – The Siege of Antwerp ends, with the Dutch garrison losing the citadel.
- December 28 - John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President of the United States to resign.
- January 4 – George Tryon, British admiral (d. 1893)
- January 6 – Gustave Doré, French painter, sculptor (d. 1883)
- January 13 – Horatio Alger, Jr., American Unitarian minister, author (d. 1899)
- January 23 – Édouard Manet, French painter (d. 1883)
- January 26 – George Shiras Jr., Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1924)
- January 27 – Lewis Carroll, English author (d. 1898)
- January 28 – Charles John Stanley Gough, British general, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1912)
- February 18 – Octave Chanute, French-American engineer, aviation pioneer (d. 1910)
- March 12 – Charles Friedel, French chemist, mineralogist (d. 1889)
- April 3 – James Sewall Reed, American soldier (d. 1864)
- April 5 – Jules Ferry, French premier (d. 1893)
- April 8 – Howell Edmunds Jackson, American politician, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1895)
- April 15
- April 19
- May 14 – Charles Peace, English criminal (d. 1879)
- May 21 – Hudson Taylor, English founder of the China Inland Mission (d. 1905)
- May 22 – Laura Gundersen, Norwegian actor (d. 1898)
- May 27 – Alexandr Aksakov, Russian writer (d. 1903)
- June 10
- June 17 – Sir William Crookes, English chemist, physicist (d. 1919)
- June 18 – Jonathan, Saint Helena tortoise (still alive as of 2015)
- July 6 – Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico (d. 1867)
- July 11 – Charilaos Trikoupis, 7-time Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1896)
- July 26 – Joseph P. Fyffe, American admiral (d. 1896)
- August 2 – Henry Steel Olcott, American officer (d. 1907)
- August 20 – Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, American aeronaut, scientist and inventor (d. 1913)
- September 26 – Joanna P. Moore, American Baptist missionary and educator (d. 1916)
- September 26 – Zsófia Torma, Hungarian archaeologist, anthropologist and paleontologist (d. 1899)
- September 29 – Joachim Oppenheim, Austrian (Czech) rabbi, author (d. 1891)
- October 1 – Caroline Harrison, First Lady of the United States (d. 1892)
- October 2 – Edward Burnett Tylor, English anthropologist (d. 1917)
- October 4 – Thorborg Rappe, Swedish social reformer (d. 1902)
- October 10 – Joe Cain, American parade organizer for Mardi Gras in Mobile, Alabama (d. 1904)
- October 23 – Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, fourth son and seventh child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia (d. 1909)
- October 29 – Narcisa de Jesús, Ecuadorian-born philanthropist, lay hermit, sainted (d. 1869)
- August 8 – George, King of Saxony (d. 1904)
- November 1 – Gyula Szapáry, 10th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1905)
- November 7 – Andrew Dickson White, American historian, diplomat and co-founder of Cornell University (d. 1918)
- November 12 – Nancy Edberg, Swedish pioneer of women's swimming (d. 1892)
- November 26 – Mary Edwards Walker, American physician (d. 1919)
- November 28 – Leslie Stephen, English writer, critic (d. 1904)
- November 29 – Louisa May Alcott, American author (d. 1888)
- December 8 – Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Norwegian author, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1910)
- December 13 – Alexander Milton Ross, Canadian abolitionist (d. 1897)
- December 14 – Ana Betancourt, Cuban national heroine (d. 1901)
- December 15 – Gustave Eiffel, French engineer (d. 1923)
- December 21 – John H. Ketcham, American politician (d. 1906)
- January 26 – Alexander Cochrane, British admiral (b. 1758)
- January 27 – Andrew Bell, Scottish educationalist, founder of Madras College, India (b. 1753)
- February 3 – George Crabbe, poet and naturalist (b. 1754)
- March 4 – Jean-François Champollion, French Egyptologist (b. 1790)
- March 10 – Muzio Clementi, Italian composer and pianist (b. 1752)
- March 15 – Otto Wilhelm Masing, Estonian linguist (b. 1763)
- March 22 – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer (b. 1749)
- March 29 – Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Sardinia (b. 1773)
- April 3 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, Prime Minister of France (b. 1778)
- April 18 – Jeanne-Elisabeth Chaudet, French painter (b. 1761)
- May 13 – Georges Cuvier, French zoologist (b. 1769)
- May 28 – Nicolas Bergasse, French lawyer (b. 1750)
- May 31 – Évariste Galois, French mathematician (b. 1811)
- June 1 – Jean Maximilien Lamarque, French general and politician (b. 1770)
- June 5 – Kaʻahumanu, queen consort of Hawaii (b. 1768)
- June 6 – Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher (b. 1748)
- June 10 – Joseph Hiester, American politician (b. 1752)
- June 21 – Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (b. 1754)
- June 23 – James Hall, Scottish geologist (b. 1761)
- July 22 – Napoleon II of France (b. 1811)
- August 24 – Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, French military engineer and physicist (b. 1796)
- September 2 – Franz Xaver von Zach, Austrian scientific or and astronomer (b. 1754)
- September 21 – Sir Walter Scott, Scottish writer (b. 1771)
- September 27 – Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, German philosopher (b. 1781)
- November 8 – Marie-Jeanne de Lalande, French astronomer and mathematician (b. 1768)
- November 12 – Henry Eckford, Scottish-born American shipbuilder, naval architect, industrial engineer, and entrepreneur (b. 1775)
- November 14 – Charles Carroll of Carrollton, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and U.S. Senator (b. 1737)
- November 15 – Jean-Baptiste Say, French economist, originator of Say's law (b. 1767)
- December 18 – Philip Morin Freneau, poet and journalist (b. 1752)
- undated – Birgithe Kühle, Norwegian journalist (b. 1762)
- ^ Andre C. Drainville, A History of World Order and Resistance: The Making and Unmaking of Global Subjects (Routledge, 2013)
- ^ Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin: The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist (W. W. Norton & Company, 1994) p119
- ^ Recks, Robert. "Who's Who of Ballooning". Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ Judith Mendelsohn Rood, Sacred Law In The Holy City: The Khedival Challenge To The Ottomans As Seen From Jerusalem, 1829-1841 (BRILL, 2004) p92
- ^ Carl Schmitt, Constitutional Theory (Duke University Press, 2008) p396
- ^ Westley F. Busbee, Jr., Mississippi: A History (John Wiley & Sons, 2014) p84
- ^ Courtney Smith, ed., American History through its Greatest Speeches: A Documentary History of the United States (ABC-CLIO, 2016) p32
- ^ Ward, Ernest E. (1967). My First Sixty Years in Harrison, Maine. Cardinal Printing. p. 7.