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1814 ( MDCCCXIV)
was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1814th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 814th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 14th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1814, the Gregorian calendar was
12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Events [ ]
January [ ]
February [ ]
March [ ]
April–June [ ]
April 6 – Napoleonic Wars – Bourbon Restoration: Louis XVIII is invited to occupy the restored French throne.
April 11 – Napoleonic Wars – Treaty of Fontainebleau: The War of the Sixth Coalition ends, and Napoleon is forced to abdicate unconditionally, as Emperor of the French.
April 14 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Bayonne: The Allies defeat a French sortie from Bayonne.
April 18/ 19 – Genoa surrenders to the British Royal Navy.
April 24 – Convention of Mantua: The Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy is returned to provisional Austrian rule.
May 2 – Napoleonic Wars – Declaration of Saint-Ouen: Louis XVIII of France declares his support for representative government while claiming unlimited monarchical sovereignty.
May 6 – British-American War (War of 1812) – Battle of Fort Oswego (1814): British forces attack Fort Ontario at Oswego, New York.
May 14 – May 16 – War of 1812 – American Raid on Port Dover and destruction of property.
May 16 – William Brown, Irish-born rebel leader and future Admiral of the Navy of Argentina, begins a blockade of Montevideo, the colonial capital of Rio de la Plata. 
May 27 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Hamburg ends in a French capitulation.
May 29 – May 30 – War of 1812 – Battle of Big Sandy Creek: US forces capture British marines and sailors.
May 30 – Napoleonic Wars: The First Treaty of Paris is signed, returning France's borders to their 1792 extent. Napoleon is exiled to Elba on the same day.
June 4 – Charter of 1814: Louis XVIII issues the Charter of 1814, a written constitution that retains royal supremacy and will remain in force from 1814 to 1815 and again from 1815 to 1830.
June 6 – Beginning of the Allied sovereigns' visit to England: Tsar Alexander I of Russia and King Frederick William III of Prussia sail from Boulogne-Sur-Mer to Dover, on board the Royal Navy ship HMS , as guests of Impregnable George, Prince of Wales, the regent during the incapacity of King George III. 
June 17 – At London, Alexander, Frederick William and George exchange their ratifications of the Peace Treaty ending the war with France. 
June 20 – Gaspar de Vigodet, Spain's last colonial administrator of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (covering nearly all of modern-day Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay), surrenders the city of Montevideo to independence fighters, led by General Carlos María de Alvear. 
June 21 – The secret Eight Articles of London are signed between the Great Powers, uniting the Low Countries under William I of the Netherlands. June 28 – War of 1812 – Sinking of HMS Reindeer by the USS Wasp.
July–September [ ]
July 3 – War of 1812 – Capture of Fort Erie by the Americans under Major General Jacob Brown.
July 5 – War of 1812 – Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
July 7 – Walter Scott's , his first prose fiction and one of the first significant Waverley historical novels in English, is published anonymously by Archibald Constable in Edinburgh, selling out in two days. 
July 13 – The Carabinieri (the national military police of Italy) is established by Victor Emmanuel, as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
July 19 – July 20 – War of 1812 – Siege of Prairie du Chien: British troops and Native Americans besiege and capture the frontier settlement.
July 19 – War of 1812 – Battle of Rock Island Rapids: British-allied tribes ambush and defeat an American expion in Illinois.
July 22 – War of 1812 – The Treaty of Greenville (1814) is signed between the U.S. government and Native American tribes.
July 26 – The Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) begins with a Swedish attack.
July 28 – The revived Ligurian Republic is dissolved.
July 29 – Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Invasion of Hvaler ends in a Swedish victory.
July 30 – The Great fire of Tirschenreuth in Bavaria destroys the town and 907 buildings.
August 2 – Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Battle of Lier ends in a Norwegian victory.
August 5 – Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Battle of Matrand ends in a Norwegian victory.
August 7 – Pope Pius VII decrees the bull , reestablishing the Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum Society of Jesus (Jesuits) all over the world, after having approved their survival and existence in Russia.
August 12 – In England, the last hanging under the Black Act is carried out, of William Potter for cutting down an orchard (although the judge petitions for reprieve).
August 13 – The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 is signed in London, returning most possessions of the Dutch Empire acquired by the United Kingdom since 1803 to the Netherlands, although Britain retains the Cape of Good Hope and the South American settlements of Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice (later consolidated as British Guiana). In addition, the British cede the island of Banca off the island of Sumatra, in exchange for the settlement of Cochin, India.
August 13 – September 6 – War of 1812 – Engagements on Lake Huron result in British victory.
August 24 – War of 1812 – Burning of Washington: British troops, after defeating American forces at the Battle of Bladensburg, occupy Washington, D.C., setting numerous buildings on fire, including the Capitol and Presidential Mansion.
August 26 – Chilean War of Independence – Battle of Las Tres Acequias ends in victory for the forces of Jose Miguel Carrera. August 31 – War of 1812 – Battle of Caulk's Field: American militia defeats British landing.
October–December [ ]
October 17 – London Beer Flood: A large vat full of porter (beer) owned by Meux's Brewery of London bursts, demolishing buildings and killing 8.
October 19 – War of 1812: – Battle of Cook's Mills: U.S. forces defeat the British in Upper Canada.
November 1 – The Congress of Vienna formally opens in Austria to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, with the European powers agreeing upon the redrawing of national borders following the victory over France; it will last until June 9, 1815. 
November 4 – King Charles XIII of Sweden becomes King of Norway, as Charles II .
November 7 – War of 1812: Andrew Jackson seizes Pensacola, Florida.
December 15 – War of 1812: The Hartford Convention is convened, by members of the American Federalist Party.
December 24 – War of 1812: The Treaty of Ghent is signed, formally ending the war. December 25 – Samuel Marsden of the Church Missionary Society preaches the first sermon in New Zealand, at Oihi.
Date unknown [ ]
Births [ ]
January–June [ ]
January 27 – Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French architect (d. 1879)
February 9 – Samuel J. Tilden, 25th Governor of New York, 1876 Democratic Party Presidential Nominee (d. 1886)
February 18 – Samuel Fenton Cary, American politician, temperance activist (d. 1900)
March 9 – Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian poet (d. 1861)
March 17 – Kamehameha III, King of the Hawaiian Islands (d. 1854)
April 3 – Lorenzo Snow, 5th president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1901)
April 21 – Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts, English philanthropist (d. 1906)
May 7 – Henriette Hansen, Norwegian ballerina, singer and actor (d. 1892)
May 12 – Adolf von Henselt, German composer (d. 1889)
May 30 – Mikhail Bakunin, Russian anarchist (d. 1876)
July–December [ ]
July 3 – Ferdinand Didrichsen, Danish botanist, physicist (d. 1887)
July 19 – Samuel Colt, American gun maker (d. 1862)
August 8 – Esther Morris, American suffragist, judge (d. 1902)
August 10 – Henri Nestlé, German-born Swiss chocolate magnate (d. 1890)
August 13 – Anders Jonas Ångström, Swedish physicist (d. 1874)
August 23 – James Roosevelt Bayley, American bishop (d. 1877)
August 28 – Sheridan Le Fanu, Irish writer (d. 1873)
September 2 – Ernst Curtius, German archaeologist, historian (d. 1896)
September 3 – James Joseph Sylvester, English mathematician (d. 1897)
September 6 – George-Étienne Cartier, Canadian lawyer, politician (d. 1873)
September 7 – William Butterfield, British architect (d. 1900)
September 8 – Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, French writer, historian (d. 1874)
September 27 – Daniel Kirkwood, American astronomer (d. 1895)
October 1 – Josefina Deland, Swedish women's rights activist (d. 1890)
October 4 – Jean-François Millet, French painter (d. 1875)
October 7 – Susanna Dickinson, survivor of the Alamo (d. 1883)
October 15 – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian writer (d. 1841)
November 6 – Adolphe Sax, Belgian musical instrument maker, inventor (d. 1894)
November 13 – Joseph Hooker, American general (d. 1879)
November 22 – Serranus Clinton Hastings, American politician (d. 1893)
November 25 – Julius von Mayer, German physician, physicist, one of the founders of thermodynamics (d. 1878)
November 26 – Luise Aston, German author, feminist (d. 1871)
December 12 – Juan Prim, 1st Marquis of los Castillejos, Prime Minister of Spain (d. 1870)
December 13 – Ana Néri, Brazilian nurse, matron of nursing in that country (d. 1880) December 18 – Sarah T. Bolton, née Sarah Tittle Barrett, American poet (d. 1893)
Date Unknown [ ]
Deaths [ ]
January–June [ ]
January 7 – Ira Allen, founder of Vermont, leader of the Green Mountain Boys (b. 1751)
January 16 – Friedrich Karl Wilhelm, Fürst zu Hohenlohe, Austrian general (b. 1752)
February 26 – John Cleves Symmes, American statesman (b. 1742)
February 27 – Margaret Bingham British countess, painter and writer (b. 1740) 
March 6 – Angelica Schuyler Church, daughter of Genl. Philip Schuyler, sister to Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (b. 1756)
March 26 – Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician (b. 1738)
April 1 – Joseph de Ferraris, Austrian cartographer of the Austrian Netherlands (b. 1726)
April 12 – Charles Burney, English music historian (b. 1726)
April 19 – Thomas Brudenell-Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury, England (b. 1729)
May 5 – Abdullah I Al-Sabah, Kuwaiti ruler (b. 1740)
May 27 – Ivan Akimov, Russian painter (b. 1754)
May 29 – Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress of France (b. 1763)
June 14 – Antin Angelovych, Greek-Catholic metropolitan (b. 1756) June 27 – Johann Friedrich Reichardt, German composer (b. 1752)
July–December [ ]
July 12 – William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, British general (b. 1729)
July 18 – Miles Peter Andrews, English playwright, legislator (b. 1742)
July 19 – Captain Matthew Flinders, English explorer of the coasts of Australia (b. 1774)
July 25 – Charles Dibdin, English composer (b. 1745)
August 28 – Erik Must Angell, Norwegian jurist, politician (b. 1744)
August 31 – Arthur Phillip, British admiral, first governor of New South Wales (b. 1738)
September 8 – Maria Carolina of Austria, queen of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, and de facto ruler (b. 1752)
September 22 – August Wilhelm Iffland, German actor (b. 1759)
October 1 – Guillaume-Antoine Olivier, French entomologist (b. 1756)
October 4 – Samuel Jackson Pratt, British writer, poet and actor (b. 1749)
October 19 – Mercy Otis Warren, American playwright (b. 1728)
November 18 – Aleijadinho, Colonial Brazil-born sculptor and architect (b. 1730 or 1738)
November 23 – Elbridge Gerry, 5th Vice President of the United States (b. 1744)
December 2 – Marquis de Sade, French writer for whom sadism is named (b. 1740)
December 13 – Charles-Joseph, 7th Prince of Ligne, Austrian field marshal (b. 1735)
December 19 – Joseph Bramah, English inventor of the hydraulic press (b. 1748) December 26 – Nicolas-François Guillard, French librettist (b. 1752)
References [ ]
Jones, Neal T., ed. (1984). . London; New York: Thames and Hudson. A Book of Days for the Literary Year ISBN . 0-500-01332-2
^ a b "Montevideo", in
Dictionary of Battles and Sieges, Tony Jaques, ed. (Greenwood Publishing, 2007) p682
^ James Mudie,
An Historical and Critical Account of a Grand Series of National Medals (Colburn, 1820) p123
Report from the Committee upon Expired and Expiring Laws (House of Commons, 1816) p6
"Waverley". Walter Scott. Edinburgh University Library. December 19, 2011. Archived from the original on April 30, 2013 . Retrieved . June 29, 2013
^ "Vienna, Congress of", in
The Americana: A Universal Reference Library (Scientific American, 1912)
Muir, Diana. "Chapter 10". . Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. Reflections in Bullough's Pond: Economy and Ecosystem in New England ISBN . 978-0-87451-909-9
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1886). " Bingham, Margaret". . Dictionary of National Biography 5. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
Further reading [ ]