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1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1807th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 807th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1807, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 7 – The United Kingdom issues an Order in Council, prohibiting British ships from trading with France or its allies. 
- January 20 – The Sierra Leone Company, faced with bankruptcy because of the outlawing of the slave trade in British colonies, petitions the British government for purchase and transfer of its property to the Crown; Parliament approves the transfer on July 29, and it takes effect on January 1, 1808. 
- January 22 – The United Kingdom abolishes the slave trade in all of its colonies, effective March 1, 1808. 
- February 3 – Napoleonic Wars and Anglo-Spanish War – Battle of Montevideo: The British Army captures Montevideo from the Spanish Empire, as part of the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
- February 7 – Napoleon leads the forces of the French Empire in an invasion of the Russian Empire, and begins fighting at the Battle of Eylau against Russian and Prussian forces. 
- February 8 – Battle of Eylau: Napoleon fights a hard, but inconclusive battle against the Russians under Bennigsen.
- February 10 – The United States Coast Survey is established; work begins on August 3, 1816.
- February 17 – Henry Christopher is elected first President of the State of Haiti, ruling the northern part of the country.
- February 19 – In Alabama, former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is tried for conspiracy, but acquitted.
- March 2 – The U.S. Congress passes an act to "prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States ... from any foreign kingdom, place, or country" (to take effect 1 January 1808).
- March 25
- March 29 – H. W. Olbers discovers the asteroid Vesta.
- July 5 – A disastrous British attack is mounted against Buenos Aires, during the second failed invasion of the Río de la Plata.
- July 7–July 9 – The Peace of Tilsit is signed between France, Prussia and Russia. Napoleon and Russian Emperor Alexander I ally together against the British. The Prussians are forced to cede more than half their territory, which is formed into the Duchy of Warsaw in their former Polish lands, and the Kingdom of Westphalia in western Germany.
- July 13 – With the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the last Stuart claimant to the throne of the United Kingdom, Jacobitism comes to an effective end.
- July 20 – Nicéphore Niépce is awarded a patent by Napoleon Bonaparte for the Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, after it successfully powers a boat upstream on the river Saône in France.
- August 17 – The North River Steamboat, Robert Fulton's first American steamboat, leaves New York City for Albany on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world.
- September 1 – Former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr is acquitted of treason. He had been accused of plotting to annex parts of Louisiana and Mexico, to become part of an independent republic.
- September 2–7 – Battle of Copenhagen: The British Royal Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets, to prevent the Dano-Norwegian navy from surrendering to Napoleon; 30% of the city is destroyed, and 2,000 citizens are killed.
- September 7 – Robert Morrison, the first Protestant missionary to China, arrives in Guangzhou (Canton). 
- September 27 – Napoleon purchases the Borghese art collection, including the Antinous Mondragone, and brings it to Paris. 
- January 13 – Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, American general, railroad executive (d. 1883)
- January 19 – Robert E. Lee, American Confederate general (d. 1870)
- February 10 – Lajos Batthyány, 1st Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1849)
- February 27 – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American poet (d. 1882)
- March 1 – Wilford Woodruff, American religious leader (d. 1898)
- March 14 – Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Queen of Sweden and Norway (d. 1876)
- April 2 – William F. Packer, American politician (d. 1870)
- April 3 – Jane Digby, English adventurer (d. 1881)
- April 8 – Ann Pouder, supercentenarian (d. 1917)
- April 20 – John Milton, Governor of Florida (d. 1865)
- May 14 – Charlotta Djurström, Swedish actress and theater manager (d. 1877)
- May 28 – Louis Agassiz, French zoologist, geologist (d. 1873)
- June 6 – Adrien-François Servais, Belgian musician (d. 1866)
- July 4 – Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian patriot (d. 1882)
- August 8 – Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Swedish author (d. 1892)
- August 11 – David Rice Atchison, American politician (d. 1886)
- August 15 – Jules Grévy, 4th President of France (d. 1891)
- August 18 – Charles Francis Adams Sr., American historical or, politician and diplomat (d. 1886)
- September 2 – Fredrika Runeberg, Finnish writer (d. 1879)
- September 7 – Henry Sewell, 1st Premier of New Zealand (d. 1879)
- September 16 – John Lenthall, American naval architect and shipbuilder (d. 1882)
- October 8 – Harriet Taylor, English philosophical writer (d. 1858)
- October 26 – Barbu Catargiu, 1st Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1862)
- October 19 – Edward Bigge, English cleric, 1st Archdeacon of Lindisfarne (d. 1844.
- November 15 – William McKinley, Sr., father of William McKinley
- December 8 – Friedrich Traugott Kützing, German pharmacist, botanist and phycologist (d. 1893)
- December 17 – John Greenleaf Whittier, Quaker poet, abolitionist (d. 1892)
- February 1 – Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1st Baronet, British admiral (b. ca. 1758)
- February 5 – Pasquale Paoli, Corsican patriot, military leader (b. 1725)
- February 27 – Louise du Pierry, French astronomer (b. 1746)
- March 10 – Jean Thurel, French soldier (b. 1698)
- April 4 – Jérôme Lalande, French astronomer (b. 1732)
- April 10 – Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, regent of Weimar and Eisenach (b. 1739)
- May 10 – Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, French soldier (b. 1725)
- May 13 – Eliphalet Dyer, American statesman, judge (b. 1721)
- May 17 – John Gunby, Maryland soldier in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1745)
- May 18 – John Douglas, Scottish Anglican bishop, man of letters (b. 1721)
- June 9 – Andrew Sterett, American naval officer (b. 1778)
- ^ William S. Dudley, ed. The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History (Naval Historical Center, 1985) p34
- ^ Stephen Tomkins, The Clapham Sect: How Wilberforce's Circle Transformed Britain (Lion Books, 2012) p200
- ^ Antigua and the Antiguans: A Full Account of the Colony and Its Inhabitants (1844, reprinted by Cambridge University Press, 2011) p136
- ^ William Hodgson, The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Once Emperor of the French, who Died in Exile, at St. Helena, After a Captivity of Six Years' Duration (Orlando Hodgson, 1841) p384
- ^ Farndale, W. E. (1950). The Secret of Mow Cop: a new appraisal of the origins of Primitive Methodism. London: Epworth Press.
- ^ "Sketch of the Canton Protestant Mission", by Rev. John Chalmers, in The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, Volume 7 (American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1876) p174
- ^ Francis Haskell and Nicholas Penny, Taste and the Antique: The Lure of Classical Sculpture, 1500-1900 (Yale University Press, 1982) p281