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was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1784th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 784th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1784, the Gregorian calendar was
11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- The India Act requires that the governor general be chosen from outside the British East India Company, and it makes company directors subject to parliamentary supervision.
- Britain receives its first bales of imported American cotton.
- King Carlos III of the Spanish Empire authorizes land grants in Alta California.
- Princess Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova is named first president, of the newly created Russian Academy.
- The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the town of Morgansborough, named for Daniel Morgan. The town is designated as the county seat for Burke County, North Carolina and is subsequently renamed Morgantown, and later shortened to become Morganton.
- The North Carolina General Assembly changes the name of Kingston, North Carolina, originally named for King George III of Great Britain, to Kinston.
- The Japanese famine continues as 300,000 die of starvation.
- A huge locust swarm hits South Africa.
- Benjamin Franklin invents bifocal spectacles.
- Benjamin Franklin tries in vain to persuade the French to alter their clocks, in winter to take advantage of the daylight.
- Antoine Lavoisier pioneers quantitative chemistry.
- Cholesterol is isolated.
- Carl Friedrich Gauss pioneers the field of summation with the formula summing at the age of 7.
- Madame du Coudray, pioneer of modern midwifery, retires.
- January 28 – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1860)
- February 5 – Nancy Hanks, mother of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1818)
- February 29 – Leo von Klenze, German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer (d. 1864)
- March 12 – William Buckland, English geologist, paleontologist (d. 1856)
- March 22 – Samuel Hunter Christie, English physicist, mathematician (d. 1865)
- April 5 – Louis Spohr, German violinist, composer (d. 1859)
- April 13 – Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, Prussian field marshal (d. 1877)
- April 24 – Peter Vivian Daniel, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1860)
- June 24 – Juan Antonio Lavalleja, Uruguayan military, political figure (d. 1853)
- July 21 – Charles Baudin, French admiral (d. 1854)
- July 22 – Friedrich Bessel, German mathematician, astronomer (d. 1846)
- July 27 – Denis Davydov, Russian general, poet (d. 1839)
- August 18 – Robert Taylor, British Radical writer, freethought advocate (d. 1844)
- September 4 – William Pope Duval, first civilian governor of the Florida Territory (d. 1854)
- October 13 – King Ferdinand VII of Spain (d. 1833)
- October 15 – Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France and duke of Isly (d. 1849)
- October 19
- February 27 – Count of St. Germain, French philosopher, adventurer (b. 1710)
- April 26 – Nano Nagle, Irish convent founder (b. 1718)
- May 10 – Antoine Court de Gébelin, French pastor (b. 1725)
- May 12 – Abraham Trembley, Swiss naturalist (b. 1710)
- June 8 – Lukrecija Bogašinović Budmani, Croatian poet (b. 1710)
- June 13 – Henry Middleton, American president of the Continental Congress (b. 1717)
- June 26 – Caesar Rodney, American lawyer, signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1728)
- July 1 – Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, German composer (b. 1710)
- ^ Koch, Christophe; Schoell, Maximillian Samson Friedrich (1839). The Revolutions of Europe: Being an Historical View of the European Nations from the Subversion of the Roman Empire in the West to the Abdication of Napoleon. Whittaker and Company.
- ^ a b c d Harper's Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A. D. to 1909, ed. by Benson John Lossing and, Woodrow Wilson (Harper & Brothers, 1910) p167
- ^ Cavendish, Henry (1784). "Experiments on Air". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 75: 372–384. doi:10.1098/rstl.1785.0023. JSTOR 106582.
- ^ Charles Kettleborough, Ph.D., Constitution Making in Indiana: A Source Book of Constitutional Documents, with Historical Introduction and Critical Notes (Indiana Historical Commission, 1916) p3
Denis Hollier and R. Howard Bloch, A New History of French Literature (Harvard University Press, 1994) p549
- ^ "Commercial banks", by Benjamin J. Klebaner, in The Encyclopedia of New York City, 2nd ion (Yale University Press, 2010)
- ^ American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States (Gales and Seaton, 1833) p89
- ^ John Keay, The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company (Macmillan Publishing, 1991), p390
- ^ Michell, John (1784). "On the Means of Discovering the Distance, Magnitude, &c. of the Fixed Stars, in Consequence of the Diminution of the Velocity of Their Light, in Case Such a Diminution Should be Found to Take Place in any of Them, and Such Other Data Should be Procured from Observations, as Would be Farther Necessary for That Purpose. By the Rev. John Michell, B.D.F.R.S. In a Letter to Henry Cavendish, Esq. F.R.S. and A.S.". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 75: 35–57. Bibcode:1784RSPT...74...35M. doi:10.1098/rstl.1784.0008. JSTOR 106576.