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1783 (MDCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1783rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 783rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1783, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 20 – At Versailles, Great Britain signs preliminary peace treaties with the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Spain.
- January 23 – The Confederation Congress ratifies two October 8, 1782, treaties signed by the United States with the United Netherlands.
- February 3 – American Revolutionary War: Great Britain acknowledges the independence of the United States of America. At this time, the Spanish government does not grant diplomatic recognition.
- February 4 – American Revolutionary War: Great Britain formally declares that it will cease hostilities with the United States.
- February 5 – 1783 Calabrian earthquakes: The first of a sequence of five earthquakes strikes Calabria, Italy (February 5–7, March 1 & 28), leaving 50,000 dead.
- February 26 – The United States Continental Army's Corps of Engineers is disbanded.
- March 5 – The last celebration of Massacre Day is held in Boston, Massachusetts.
- March 15 – Newburgh Conspiracy: A potential uprising in the Continental Army stationed at Newburgh, New York is defused, when George Washington asks the officers to support the supremacy of the United States Congress.
- April 8 – The Crimean Khanate, which had existed since 1441 and was the last remnant of the Mongol Golden Horde, is annexed by the Russian Empire of Catherine the Great.
- April 15 – Preliminary articles of peace ending the American Revolutionary War are ratified.
- May 13 – The Society of the Cincinnati, a fraternal organization for American veterans of the American Revolution, is formed in Newburgh, New York.
- May 18 – The first United Empire Loyalists, fleeing the new United States, reach Parrtown in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada.
- May 26 – A Great Jubilee Day, celebrating the end of the American Revolution, is held in Trumbull, Connecticut.
- June 4 or June 5 – The Montgolfier brothers publicly demonstrate their montgolfière hot air balloon at Annonay, France.
- June 8 – The volcano Laki in Iceland begins an 8-month eruption, starting the chain of natural disasters known as the Móðuharðindin, killing tens of thousands throughout Europe, including up to 33% of Iceland's population, and causing widespread famine. It has been described as one of "the greatest environmental catastrophes in European history".
- General George Washington sends a letter to the 13 governors of the confederation of United States regarding the needs of the nation.
- July 16 – Grants of land in Canada to American Loyalists are announced.
- July 24 – The Treaty of Georgievsk is signed between Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, making Georgia a protectorate of Russia.
- August 4 – Mount Asama, the most active volcano in Japan, begins a climactic eruption, killing roughly 1,400 people directly and exacerbating a famine, resulting in another 20,000 deaths (Edo period, Tenmei 3).
- August 10 – The British East India Company packet ship Antelope (1781) is wrecked off Ulong Island in the Palau (Pelew) group, resulting in the first sustained European contact with those islands.
- August 18 – The 1783 Great Meteor passes on a 1,000-mile track across the North Sea, Great Britain and France, prompting scientific discussion.
- August 27 – Jacques Charles and Les Frères Robert launch the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon, Le Globe, in Paris.
- September 3 – Peace of Paris: A treaty between the United States and Great Britain is signed in Paris, formally ending the American Revolutionary War; and treaties are signed between Britain, France and Spain at Versailles, ending hostilities with the Franco-Spanish Alliance. This is also the beginning of the Old West.
- September 9 – Dickinson College is chartered in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
- October 3 – The first Waterford Crystal glassmaking business begins production in Waterford, Ireland.
- November 2 – In Rocky Hill, New Jersey, United States General George Washington gives his Farewell Address to the Army.
- November 3 - The American Continental Army is disbanded as the first act of business by the Confederation Congress, after Thomas Mifflin is elected the new President to succeed Elias Boudinot.
- November 21 – In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent, marquis d'Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight (flight time: 25 minutes, Maximum height: 900 m).
- November 24 – In Spain, the Cedula of Population is signed, stating that anyone who will swear fealty to Spain and is of the Roman Catholic faith is welcome to populate Trinidad and Tobago.
- November 25 – American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City and George Washington triumphantly returns, three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
- November 27 – English rector John Michell concludes that some stars might have enough gravity force to prevent light escaping from them, so he calls them "dark stars".
- November 29 – 1783 New Jersey earthquake: An earthquake of 5.3 magnitude strikes New Jersey.
- December 1 – Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert make the first manned flight in a hydrogen-filled balloon, La Charlière, in Paris.
- December 4 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, U.S. General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.
- ^ The Parliamentary History of England: From the Earliest Period to Year 1803, Vol. XXIII: "The Parliamentary Debates, 10 May 1782 to 1 December 1783", ed. by William Cobbett (T. C. Hansard, 1814) pp346-354
- ^ Laws of the United States of America ; from the 4th of March, 1789, to the 4th of March, 1815, Volume 1 (Weightman, 1815) p708
- ^ a b c Harper's Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A. D. to 1909, ed. by Benson John Lossing and, Woodrow Wilson (Harper & Brothers, 1910) p167
- ^ Bressan, David. "8, June 1783: The Laki eruptions". Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ "Palau". Archived from the original on 2007-12-26. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
- ^ Fleming, Thomas. "The Most Important Moment in American History". History News Network. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- ^ Brookhiser (1996, p. 103)
- ^ "Washington Irving - American author". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- ^ "Samuel Prout (1783-1852)". artuk.org. Retrieved 3 January 2017.