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1775 ( MDCCLXXV)
was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1775th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 775th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 75th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1770s decade. As of the start of 1775, the Gregorian calendar was
11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Events [ ]
Summary [ ]
American Revolution begins this year, with the first military engagement being the April 19 Battles of Lexington and Concord on the day after Paul Revere's now-epic ride. The Second Continental Congress takes various steps toward organizing an American government, appointing George Washington commander-in-chief (June 14), Benjamin Franklin postmaster general (July 26) and creating a Continental Navy (October 13) and a Marine force (November 10) as landing troops for it, but as yet the 13 colonies have not declared independence, and both the British (June 12) and American (July 15) governments make laws. On July 6, Congress issues the , and on August 23, King Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms George III of England declares the American colonies in rebellion, announcing it to Parliament on October 27. On June 17, two months into the colonial siege of Boston, at the Battle of Bunker Hill, just north of Boston, British forces are victorious, but only after suffering severe casualties and after Colonial forces run out of ammunition, Fort Ticonderoga is taken by American forces in New York Colony's northern frontier, and American forces unsuccessfully invade Canada, with an attack on Montreal defeated by British forces on November 13 and an attack on Quebec repulsed December 31.
Human knowledge and technology advances when
James Watt builds a successful prototype of a steam engine, and a scientific expion continues as Captain James Cook claims the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands in the south Atlantic Ocean for Britain. Nature's power over humanity is dramatically demonstrated when the Independence Hurricane (August 29 – September 13) devastates the east coast of North America, killing 4,173, and when a smallpox epidemic begins in New England.
January–March [ ]
January – The Habsburg Monarchy forces the Ottoman Empire to cede Bukovina to its rule.
January 5 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart finishes a Sonata for Keyboard in C.
January 11 – Francis Salvador is elected to the Provincial Congress of South Carolina, becoming the first Jewish public officeholder in North America. 
January 16– 20 – Second voyage of James Cook: Captain James Cook circumnavigates, makes the first landing on and (on January 17) takes possession of South Georgia in the southern Atlantic Ocean, for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The following month he discovers the South Sandwich Islands.
February 9 – American Revolution – The Parliament of Great Britain declares the Province of Massachusetts Bay to be in rebellion.
February 15 – Pope Pius VI succeeds Pope Clement XIV, as the 250th pope.
March 6 – Raghunathrao, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, signs the Treaty of Surat with British Governor-General Warren Hastings in Bombay, ceding the territories of Salsette and Bassein to the British East India Company, along with part of the revenues from Surat and Bharuch districts, in return for military assistance. This leads to the First Anglo-Maratha War, fought between the British and the Marathas, ending with the Treaty of Salbai in 1782.
March 10 – Daniel Boone begins blazing the widely-used Wilderness Road used by white settlers to reach Kentucky and Tennessee. 
March 17 – Catherine the Great of Russia issues a manifesto, prohibiting freed serfs from being returned to serfdom.  March 23 – American Revolution: Patrick Henry, a delegate to the Second Virginia Convention after the Virginia House of Burgesses was disbanded by the Royal Governor, delivers his speech at Give me liberty, or give me death! St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia. 
April–June [ ]
April 14 – The first anti-slavery society in the United States is formed by a group of Quakers in Philadelphia.  
April 18 – American Revolution – Paul Revere and William Dawes, instructed by Dr. Joseph Warren, ride from Boston to Lexington, to warn John Hancock and Sam Adams that British forces are coming to take them prisoner, and to seize colonial weapons and ammunition in Concord.
April 19 – American Revolutionary War – Battles of Lexington and Concord: Hostility between Britain and its American colonies explodes into bloodshed, igniting the  American Revolution.
May 9 – American Revolutionary War – Brunswick militiamen commanded by Samuel Thompson capture Henry Mowat, captain of HMS . Canceaux 
May 14 – American Revolutionary War – Battle off Fairhaven: In the first naval engagement of the American Revolutionary War, Patriots recover two Patriot vessels, and capture 13 Royal Navy sailors as prisoners of war.
May 17 – American Revolution – The Continental Congress bans trade with Canada.
American Revolutionary War – Battle of Lexington: American militiamen drive British troops back to Boston. The Committee of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina ratifies the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, dissolving allegiance to the Royal Crown of England, becoming the first collective to declare sovereignty in the Royal Colonies.
May 24 – John Hancock is selected as the President of the Second Continental Congress. 
May 29 – The Congress adopts its "Address to the Inhabitants of Canada". 
June 11 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Machias: In the second naval engagement of the war, American forces capture the schooner HMS Margaretta.
June 12 – American Revolutionary War:
June 14 – American Revolutionary War: The Continental Congress names George Washington as commander of the Continental Army.
June 16 – The post of Chief Engineer of the Continental Army is created.
June 17 – American Revolutionary War: Two months into the colonial siege of Boston, British open fire on Breed's Hill on Charles Town Peninsula. After three charges, the British take the hill, in the misnamed Battle of Bunker Hill.
June 19 – American Revolution: The post of Commanding General is created by the Continental Congress. June 25 – The Great Fire of Tartu, Governorate of Livonia, destroys most of the town.
July–September [ ]
July 3 – American Revolutionary War – George Washington takes command of the 17,000-man Continental Army at Cambridge.
July 5 – American Revolution – The Continental Congress sends the Olive Branch Petition, hoping for a reconciliation.
July 6 – American Revolution – The Continental Congress issues the , which contains the words: "Our cause is just. Our union is perfect... being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves...". Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
July 8 – Congress adopts its second petition to King George III. 
July 25 – Dr. Benjamin Church becomes the first Surgeon General of the Contineal Army. 
July 26 – The Second Continental Congress appoints Benjamin Franklin to be the first Postmaster General, of what later becomes the United States Post Office Department. Franklin establishes posts from Falmouth, Maine to Savannah, Georgia. 
July 28 – The Congress adopts its "Address to the People of Ireland". 
July 29 – Michael Hillegas and George Clymer are hired by the Congress to be the "joint treasurers of the United Colonies." 
July 30 – Second voyage of James Cook: HMS anchors off the south coast of England, Resolution Captain Cook having completed the first eastabout global circumnavigation.
August 18 – Tucson is founded.
August 21 – American Revolutionary War – Siege of Fort St. Jean: American rebels launch an invasion of Canada.
August 23 – American Revolution: Refusing to even look at the Olive Branch Petition, King George III issues a Proclamation of Rebellion against the American colonies.
August 29– September 12 – The Independence Hurricane from South Carolina to Nova Scotia kills 4,170, mostly fishermen and sailors.
September 8 – The unsuccessful Rising of the Priests takes place in Malta. September 25 – American Revolutionary War – Siege of Fort St. Jean – Battle of Longue-Pointe: Thirteen Colonies revolutionary forces under Maj. Ethan Allen attack Montreal, Quebec, commanded by British General Guy Carleton. Allen's forces are defeated, and Allen himself is captured and held on British ships, until he is later released.
October—December [ ]
October – The Sayre Plotters attempt to kidnap George III of Great Britain.
October 13 – American Revolutionary War – The Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later the United States Navy).
October 18 – American Revolutionary War – Burning of Falmouth by ships of the Royal Navy commanded by Henry Mowat, who had been humiliated by local militiamen on May 9.
October 26 – American Revolution – George III announces to Parliament that the American colonies are in an uprising, and must be dealt with accordingly.
November – American Revolutionary War – Colonel Richard Richardson's South Carolina revolutionaries march through Ninety-Six District, in what becomes known as the Snow Campaign, effectively ending all major support for the Loyalist cause in the backcountry of South Carolina.
November 7 – Dunmore's Proclamation – Lord Dunmore, colonial governor of Virginia, signs a proclamation promising freedom for slaves of Patriots if they join Loyalist forces, thus losing the support of slaveowning planters.
November 10 – American Revolution – The Continental Congress passes a resolution creating the Continental Marines, to serve as landing troops for the recently created Continental Navy (the Marines are disbanded at end of the war in April 1783 but reformed on July 11, 1798 as the United States Marine Corps).
November 13 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Montreal: American forces under Brigadier General Richard Montgomery capture Montreal. British General Guy Carleton escapes to Quebec.
December 5 – American Revolutionary War – Henry Knox begins his journey to Cambridge, Massachusetts with the artillery that has been captured from Fort Ticonderoga.
December 9 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Great Bridge: Victory by the Continental Army and militia leads to withdrawal of the British from the Colony of Virginia. December 31 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Quebec: British forces repulse an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold, at Quebec.
Date unknown [ ]
Births [ ]
January [ ]
January 20 – André-Marie Ampère, French physicist, mathematician (d. 1836)
January 21 – Manuel García, Spanish singer, teacher, composer (d. 1832)
January 22 – Abraham H. Schenck, American politician (d. 1831)
January 27 – Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, German philosopher (d. 1854)
January 28 – Lady Charlotte Bury, English novelist (d. 1861)
January 30 – Walter Savage Landor, English writer, poet (d. 1864) January 31 – John Richard Farre, English physician (d. 1862)
February [ ]
March [ ]
March 14 – Samuel Street, Jr., Upper Canada businessman (d. 1844)
March 15 – Juan Bautista Arismendi, general in the Venezuelan War of Independence (d. 1841)
March 17 – Ninian Edwards, Governor of and Senator from Illinois (d. 1833)
March 19 – Ramsay Richard Reinagle, English painter (d. 1862)
March 23 – William Haseldine Pepys, English scientist (d. 1856)
March 25 – John Johnston, United States Indian agent (d. 1861)
March 26 – Thomas Monteagle Bayly, American politician (d. 1834)
March 28 – Johann Heinrich Gossler, Hamburg banker, grand burgher (d. 1842) March 30 – Hieronymus Karl Graf von Colloredo-Mansfeld, Austrian corps commander during the Napoleonic Wars (d. 1822)
April [ ]
May [ ]
May 8 – George Gwilt the younger, English architect (d. 1856)
May 12 – George Whitmore, British Army general (d. 1862)
May 14 – Micah Brooks, United States general (d. 1857)
May 19 – Antonín Jan Jungmann, Czech physician (d. 1854)
May 21 – Lucien Bonaparte, French statesman (d. 1840)
May 25 – Pelagio Palagi, Italian painter (d. 1860)
May 28 – Thomas Graves, 2nd Baron Graves, British politician (d. 1830) May 31 – Charles Jackson, United States lawyer, jurist (d. 1855)
June [ ]
June 9 – Georg Friedrich Grotefend, German epigraphist, philologist (d. 1853)
June 10 – James Barbour, American politician (d. 1842)
June 13 – Antoni Radziwiłł, Polish politician (d. 1833)
June 14 – André Bruno de Frévol de Lacoste, French general of the First Empire (d. 1809)
June 16 – Judah Touro, American businessman (d. 1854)
June 18 – Orsamus Cook Merrill, American politician (d. 1865)
June 19 – Friedrich August Peter von Colomb, German general (d. 1854)
June 22 – Johannes Flüggé, German botanist and physician (d. 1816)
June 24 – John Kempthorne, English clergyman and hymnwriter (d. 1838)
June 29 – Thomas Boyle, Sailing Master, United States Navy (War of 1812) (d. 1825) June 30 – William Thompson, Irish philosopher (d. 1833)
July [ ]
August [ ]
September [ ]
September 11 – Narciso Fernández de Heredia, 2nd Count of Heredia-Spínola, Prime Minister of Spain (d. 1847)
September 15 – William A. Griswold, American politician (d. 1846)
September 16 – Hermano José Braamcamp de Almeida Castelo Branco, Portuguese nobleman and politician (d. 1846)
September 19 – José Félix Ribas, hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence (d. 1815)
September 22 – Philip Milledoler, American minister, fifth President of Rutgers College (d. 1852)
September 23 – Jens Christian Berg, Norwegian lawyer and historian (d. 1852)
September 24 – Nathan Heald, officer in the United States Army during the War of 1812 (d. 1832)
September 25 – Pierre Flor, Norwegian politician (d. 1848)
September 26 – James Grimston, 1st Earl of Verulam, British peer and Member of Parliament (d. 1845)
September 30 – Robert Adrain, Irish-born American mathematician, scientist (d. 1843)
October [ ]
November [ ]
December [ ]
Deaths [ ]
January 6 – Khawaja Muhammad Zaman of Luari, Sindhi Sufi poet (b. 1713)
January 8 – John Baskerville, English printer (b. 1706)
January 13 – Johann Georg Walch, German theologian (b. 1693)
February 2 – Sir John Rushout, 4th Baronet, England (b. 1685)
February 5 – Eusebius Amort, German Catholic theologian (b. 1692)
February 6 – William Dowdeswell, English politician (b. 1721)
February 15 – Peter Dens, Belgian Catholic theologian (b. 1690)
March 6 – Job Baster, Dutch naturalist (b. 1711)
March 21 – Thomas Penn, son of American colonial leader William Penn (b. 1702)
May 2 – Fredericka of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, German noblewoman (b. 1715)
May 3 – George Boscawen, British general (b. 1712)
May 10 – Marie Magdalene Charlotte Ackermann, German actress (b. 1757) June 21 – Charles, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, Prince of Nassau-Usingen (1718-1775) and Nassau-Saarbrücken (1728-1735) (b. 1712)
June 23 – Karl Ludwig von Pöllnitz, German adventurer, writer (b. 1692)
July 11 – Simon Boerum, American Continental Congressman (b. 1724)
August 27 – James Burgh, British Whig politician, writer (b. 1714)
September 6 – Jean-Baptiste Bullet, French writer (b. 1669)
September 16 – Allen Bathurst, 1st Earl Bathurst, English privy councillor (b. 1684)
October 2 – Fukuda Chiyo-ni, Japanese poet (b. 1703)
October 18 – Christian August Crusius, German philosopher, theologian (b. 1715)
October 21 – Peyton Randolph, American President of the Continental Congress (b. 1721)
November 9 – Francisco Ximenes de Texada, Spanish-born 69th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1703)
November 21 – John Hill, English writer
November 24 – Lorenzo Ricci, Italian Jesuit leader (b. 1703)
December 7 – Charles Saunders, British admiral
December 15 – Marie-Angélique Memmie Le Blanc, French feral child (b. 1712) December 28 – Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Dutch colonial governor (b. 1714)
References [ ]
^ a b c d Gordon Carruth, ed.,
The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates 3rd Edition (Thomas Y. Crowell, 1962) pp82-86
^ a b
de Madriaga, Isabel (January 1974). "Catherine II and the Serfs: A Reconsideration of Some Problems". . The Slavonic and East European Review 52 (126): 34–62. JSTOR 4206834.
"US History Timeline: 1700 - 1800". faculty.washington.edu.
^ a b c d e f g
Harper's Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A. D. to 1909, ed. by Benson John Lossing and, Woodrow Wilson (Harper & Brothers, 1910) pp165-166
"Battles of Lexington and Concord", Britannica Student Encyclopedia, p. 454, 2006, The American Revolution began on April 19, 1775, with the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
^ Leamon, James S.
Revolution Downeast: The War for American Independence in Maine (1995) University of Massachusetts Press pp.62-67
Scherer, F. M. (1965). "Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam-Engine Venture". . Technology and Culture 6: 165–87. JSTOR 3101072.
"The Invention of the Steam Engine: The Life of James Watt. Part 4: The Steam Engine Gains Popularity". About.com Inventors . Retrieved . 2011-02-25
Further reading [ ]