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1749 (MDCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1749th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 749th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1749, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 3
- January 21 - The Teatro Filarmonico, the main opera theater in Verona, Italy, is destroyed by fire. It is rebuilt in 1754.
- February – The second part of John Cleland's erotic novel Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure) is published in London. The author is released from debtors' prison in March.
- February 28 – Henry Fielding's comic novel The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling is published in London. Also this year, Fielding becomes magistrate at Bow Street, and first enlists the help of the Bow Street Runners, an early police force (8 men at first).
- April 27 – The first official performance of Handel's Music for the Royal Fireworks in London finishes early, due to the outbreak of fire. The piece has been composed by Handel to commemorate the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748.
- May 19 – King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company a charter of land, around the forks of the Ohio River.
- August 28 – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer and politician (d. 1832)
- September 25 – Abraham Gottlob Werner, German geologist (d. 1817)
- September 30 – Comte Siméon Joseph Jérôme, French jurist and politician (d. 1842)
- October 25 – Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, Swedish ambassador (d. 1802)
- November 3 – Daniel Rutherford, Scottish physician, chemist and botanist (d. 1819)
- November 17 – Nicolas Appert French inventor (d. 1841)
- November 23 – Edward Rutledge, American statesman (d. 1800)
- December 2 – Elisabeth Berenberg, German banker (d. 1809)
- December 17 – Domenico Cimarosa, Italian composer (d. 1801)
- December 24 – Karl Gottfried Hagen, German chemist (d. 1829)
- December 25 – Samuel Jackson Pratt (known as Courtney Melmoth), British writer, poet and actor (d. 1814)
- date unknown – Charlotte Melmoth, British & American actress (d. 1823)
- February 1 – Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, youngest daughter of Louis XIV (b. 1677)
- February 8 – Jan van Huysum, Dutch painter (b. 1682)
- February 11 – Philip Livingston, American politician (b. 1686)
- April 14 – Balthasar Denner, German artist (b. 1685)
- May 11 – Catharine Trotter Cockburn, English novelist, dramatist, and philosopher (b. 1674)
- May 28 – Pierre Subleyras, French painter (b. 1699)
- June 18 – Ambrose Philips, English poet (b. 1675)
- July 3 – William Jones, Welsh mathematician (b. 1675)
- July 12 – Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois, Governor of New France (b. c.1671)
- July 23 – Ingeborg i Mjärhult, Swedish soothsayer (b. 1665)
- August 13 – Johann Elias Schlegel, German critic, poet (b. 1719)
- August 29 – Matthias Bel, Hungarian pastor, polymath (b. 1684)
- September 10 – Émilie du Châtelet, French mathematician, physicist (b. 1706)
- September 14 – Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, English soldier, politician (b. 1675)
- October 4 – Baron Franz von der Trenck, Austrian soldier (b. 1711)
- October 9 – Luís da Cunha, Ambassador of Portugal (b. 1662)
- November 19 – Carl Heinrich Biber, German violinist and composer (b. 1681)
- December 4 – Claudine Guérin de Tencin, French salon holder (b. 1682)
- December 5 – Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, French-Canadian explorer and trader (b. 1685)
- December 19 – Francesco Antonio Bonporti, Italian priest and composer (b. 1672)
- date unknown – Maria Oriana Galli-Bibiena, Italian painter (b. 1656)
- ^ a b Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 313. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 219–220. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.