The 1600s decade ran from January 1, 1600, to December 31, 1609.
- January 3 – Battle of Kinsale: The battle happens on Thursday, 3 January, 1602 (according to the Gregorian calendar used by the Irish and Spanish forces in the battle), although, for the English who are still using the old Julian calendar, the date of the battle is Thursday, 24 December, 1601.
- February 2 (Candlemas night) – First known production of William Shakespeare's comedy Twelfth Night, in London.
- March 20 – The United East India Company is established by the United Provinces States-General in Amsterdam, with the stated intention of capturing the spice trade from the Portuguese.
- May 15 – English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold becomes the first European at Cape Cod.
- June – James Lancaster's East India Company fleet arrives at Achin (now Aceh), Sumatra to deal with the local ruler. Having defeated Portugal's ally, the ruler is happy to do business, and Lancaster seizes a large Portuguese galleon and loots it.
- July 17 or July 19 – Sir Walter Raleigh is arrested for treason.
- July 25 – James I is crowned as King of England in Westminster Abbey. Ceremonies are limited because of plague.
- August 17 – The Accademia dei Lincei, the oldest scientific academy in the world, is founded in Rome by Federico Cesi.
- September 20 – Samuel Champlain arrives back in France.
- October – The Sangley Rebellion takes place, ending in the massacre of 20,000 Sangley Chinese in Manila.
- November – Rokugō rebellion: More than 1,000 rōnin rebel in support of their exiled lord, Onodera Yoshimichi, in Japan.
- November 17 – Sir Walter Raleigh goes on trial for treason, in the converted Great Hall of Winchester Castle. He is found guilty, but his life is spared by King James I at this time, and he is returned to imprisonment in the Tower of London.
- December 22 – Ottoman dynasty: Sultan Mehmed III of the Ottoman Empire dies, and is succeeded by his son Ahmed I.
- September 1 – Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the religious text of Sikhism, compiled and ed by Guru Arjan, is installed at Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar.
- September 20 – Ostend is captured by Spanish forces under Ambrogio Spinola after a 3-year siege.
- October 4 – Za Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia, is killed in battle with the forces of Za Sellase, who restores his cousin Yaqob to the throne.
- October 9 – The supernova which becomes known as Kepler's Supernova (SN 1604) is first observed from the northern parts of the Italian Peninsula. From October 17, Johannes Kepler begins a year's observation of it from Prague. There won't be another "naked-eye" supernova to be seen until 1987. As of 2017 , this is the last supernova to be observed in the Milky Way.
- November 1 – First recorded performance of William Shakespeare's tragedy Othello, at the Palace of Whitehall in London.
- December 26 (St. Stephen's night) – First recorded performance of Shakespeare's tragedy King Lear, before King James I of England in the banqueting hall of Whitehall Palace.
- January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, Don Quixote (El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha, "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha"), is published in Madrid. One of the first significant novels in the western literary tradition, it becomes a global bestseller almost at once.
- March 11 – A proclamation declares all people of Ireland to be the direct subjects of the British Crown and not of any local lord or chief.
- April 1 – Pope Leo XI succeeds Pope Clement VIII as the 232nd pope as a result of the heated Papal conclave of March 1605.
- April 13 – Tsar Boris Godunov dies; Feodor II accedes to the Russian throne.
- April 16 – In England, John Winthrop, later governor of the future Massachusetts Bay Colony, marries his first wife (of 4), Mary Forth, daughter of John Forth, of Great Stambridge, Essex.
- May 16 – Pope Paul V succeeds Pope Leo XI as the 233rd pope, making this the last Year of Three Popes until 1978. He is elected as a compromise candidate after the Papal conclave of May 1605 leads to physical assault.
- June 1 – Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother, later executing them.
- June 20 – Pretender Dmitriy and his supporters, including troops of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, march to Moscow.
- Tokugawa Ieyasu abdicates as shōgun of Japan, becoming Ogosho (retired shōgun). His son Tokugawa Hidetada succeeds him to the office.
- Habitation at Port-Royal established by France under Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, the first European colonization of Nova Scotia in North America (at this time part of Acadia); the Gregorian calendar is adopted.
- Crew of the Olive become the first English visitors to Barbados.
- Refugee French Huguenot merchants begin to settle in Dublin and Waterford.
- The Priory of St. Gregory's is founded at Douai, Flanders, at this time in the Spanish Netherlands, by its first prior, John Roberts, and other exiles, thus becoming the first English Benedictine house to renew conventual life after the English Reformation. More than two centuries later the community will establish Downside Abbey back in England.
- The Irish College in Paris is co-founded by John Lee, an Irish priest, and John de l'Escalopier, President of the Parlement.
- Central Mexico's Amerindian population reaches one million.
- January 29 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the Pitcairn Islands.
- January 24 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators, for plotting against Parliament and James I of England, begins.
- January 31 – Guy Fawkes is executed.
- February 9 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Mehetia.
- February 12 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Tauere atoll.
- February 26 – Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon makes the first confirmed sighting of Australia by a European.
- March – The Duke of York's ship Duyfken, under Captain Willem Janszoon, explores the western coast of Cape York Peninsula.
- March 19 – Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Saint Francesco, elevates Livorno to the rank of city.
- April 10 – Charter of 1606: The First Charter of Virginia is adopted, by which King James I of England grants rights to the Virginia Company (comprising the London Company and Plymouth Company) to settle parts of the east coast of North America.
- April 12 – The first version of the Union Flag is created, to be worn as a national flag by English and Scottish ships.
- May – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the islands of Vanuatu; believing them to be Australia, he names them La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
- May 17 – Supporters of Vasili Shuisky invade the Kremlin, and kill Tsar Dmitry I of Russia.
- January 13 – The Bank of Genoa fails, after the announcement of national bankruptcy in Spain.
- January 19 – San Agustin Church, Manila, is officially completed; by the 21st century it will be the oldest church in the Philippines.
- January 30 – A massive wave sweeps along the Bristol Channel, possibly a tsunami, killing 2,000 people.
- February 24 – Première of Claudio Monteverdi's L'Orfeo, the earliest fully developed opera in the modern-day repertoire, at the Ducal Palace of Mantua.
- March 10 – Battle of Gol in Gojjam: Susenyos defeats the combined armies of Yaqob and Abuna Petros II, which makes him Emperor of Ethiopia.
- April 25 – Battle of Gibraltar: A Dutch fleet destroys a Spanish fleet anchored in the Bay of Gibraltar.
- April 26 – English colonists make landfall at Cape Henry, Virginia, later moving up the James River.
- May 14 – Jamestown, Virginia, is established as the first permanent English settlement in North America (the modern-day United States), beginning the American frontier.
- May 15 – Jamestown: Christopher Newport, George Percy, Gabriel Archer, and others travel 6 days exploring along the James River up to the falls and Powhatan's village.
- May 26
- Jamestown: The president directs the fort to be strengthened and armed against the many attacks of the natives: "Hereupon the President was contented the Fort should be pallisadoed, the ordinance mounted, his men armed and exercised, for many were the assaults and Ambuscadoes of the Savages ..." [John Smith, Proceedings (Barbour 1964)]
- 200 armed Indians attack the Jamestown settlement, killing 2 and wounding 10.
- May 28 – Jamestown: The Fort is pallisadoed: "we laboured, pallozadoing our fort" [Gabriel Archer (Arber)].
- June 5 – John Hall marries Susanna, daughter of William Shakespeare.
- June 8 – Newton rebellion: The Tresham landowners family kills 40–50 peasants, during protests against the enclosure of common land in Newton, Northamptonshire, England, at the culmination of the Midland Revolt.
- June 10 – Jamestown: Captain John Smith is released from arrest and sworn in as a member of the colony Council.
- June 15 – Jamestown: The triangular fort is completed and armed: "The fifteenth of June we had built and finished our Fort, which was triangle wise, having three Bulwarkes, at every corner, like a halfe Moone, and foure or five pieces of Artillerie mounted in them. We had made our selves sufficiently strong for these Savages. We had also sowne most of our Corne on two Mountaines." [George Percy (Tyler 1952:19)]
- June 22 – Christopher Newport sails back to England.
- June 27 – Jamestown: The colony bears extreme toil in strengthening the fort [from John Smith, Proceedings (Barbour 1964:210)].
- August 13 – The ship Gift of God of the Plymouth Company arrives at the mouth of the modern-day Kennebec River in Maine. English colonists establish Fort St. George, also known as the Popham Colony. The settlement lasts little more than a year, before residents return to England in the first oceangoing ship built in the New World, a 30-ton pinnace called The Virginia.
- September 5 – Hamlet is performed aboard the East India Company ship Red Dragon, under the command of Capt. William Keeling, anchored off the coast of Sierra Leone, the first known performance of a Shakespeare play outside England in English, and the first by amateurs.
- September 10 – Jamestown President Edward Maria Wingfield is deposed, and John Ratcliffe elected.
- September 14 – Flight of the Earls: Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, and Rudhraighe Ó Domhnail, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, flee Ireland for Spain with 90 followers, to avoid capture by the English crown, never to return.
- December (early) – Captain John Smith of the Jamestown Colony is captured by Opchancanough, and then sent to Chief Powhatan for execution; Pocahontas rescues him.
- July 3 – Quebec City is founded by Samuel de Champlain.
- July – The English ship Mary and Margaret, captained by Christopher Newport, leaves England, bound for Jamestown, Virginia.
- August 24 – The first official English representative to India, Captain William Hawkins, lands at Surat.
- September 10 – John Smith is elected council president of Jamestown, and begins expanding the fort.
- September 21 – The University of Oviedo, Spain is founded.
- October 1 – At Jamestown, a second supply ship, the Mary and Margaret, arrives with Christopher Newport, including 70 settlers, bringing the population back up to 120; the passengers include 8 glassmen.
- October 2 – Dutch lens maker Hans Lippershey demonstrates the first telescope in the Dutch Parliament.
- December – Jamestown: Christopher Newport returns to England carrying cargo with "tryals of Pitch, Tarre, Glasse, Frankincense, Sope Ashes ..."
- July – Samuel de Champlain claims the Lake Champlain area of Vermont, for the Kingdom of France.
- July 6 – Bohemia is granted freedom of religion (Letter of Majesty).
- July 10 – The German Catholic League is formed to counteract the Protestant Union.
- July 23 – A hurricane at sea separates the 9 London Company's ships (600 more settlers) en route to relieve the Jamestown settlement; one ship sinks, and the Sea Venture is driven ashore at Bermuda on July 25, thus effectively first settling the colony.
- July 30 – At what is now Crown Point, New York, Samuel de Champlain participates in a battle between the Huron and Iroquois, shooting and killing two Iroquois chiefs; this helps set the tone for French–Iroquois relations for the next 100 years.
- August 25 – Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian officials.
- August 28 – Henry Hudson is the first European to see Delaware Bay.
- August – Seven ships arrive at the colony of Jamestown, Virginia, with 200–300 men, women, and children, reporting the Sea Venture wrecked near Bermuda.
- September 2 – Henry Hudson enters New York Bay, aboard the Halve Maen.
- September 10 – Jamestown: Capt. George Percy replaces Captain John Smith as president of the Council, and Smith returns to England.
- September 11 – Valencia expels all the Moriscos (see April 4).
- September 11–12 – Henry Hudson in the Halve Maen sails into Upper New York Bay, and begins a journey up the Hudson River.
- October 12 – A version of the rhyme "Three Blind Mice" is published in London. The or, and possible author of the verse, is the teenage Thomas Ravenscroft.
- ^ a b c Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 238–243. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- ^ "Historical Events for Year 1600 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
- ^ a b c d Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 166–168. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ^ Edwards, Phillip, ed. (1985). Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. New Cambridge Shakespeare. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-29366-9.
Any dating of Hamlet must be tentative. Scholars date its writing as between 1599 and 1601.
- ^ Shakespeare, William (2001). Smith, Bruce R., ed. Twelfth Night: Texts and Contexts. Boston, Mass: Bedford/St Martin's. p. 2. ISBN 0-312-20219-9.
- ^ a b c d Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ^ "Historical Events for Year 1603 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
- ^ Des Sauvages: ou voyage de Samuel Champlain, de Brouages, faite en la France nouvelle l'an 1603.
- ^ Jose Eugenio Borae. "The massacre of 1603: Chinese perception of the Spaniards in the Philippines" (PDF). Homepage.ntu.edu.tw. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
- ^ Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (2nd ed.).
- ^ "SN 1604, Kepler's Supernova". Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- ^ "Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant". NASA. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- ^ a b Scholars date completion as between 1603 and 1606. Boyce, Charles (1990). Encyclopaedia of Shakespeare. New York: Roundtable Press.
- ^ The exact date is unknown, but a surviving account book for the year ended September 30 1604 proves it was built within the preceding 12 months.
- ^ a b Moody, T. W.; et al., eds. (1989). A New History of Ireland. 8: A Chronology of Irish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.
- ^ Timeline of History. DK Publishing. 2011. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-7566-8681-9.
- ^ "Huguenot Timeline". Genealogy Forum. Armada, Michigan. January 2006. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- ^ McHugh, Evan (2006). 1606: An Epic Adventure. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-86840-866-8.
- ^ Richardson, William A. R. (2008). Was Australia Charted Before 1606: the Jave la Grande Inscriptions. Australia: Everbest. p. 20.
- ^ "First Germans at Jamestown 1" (history), Davitt Publications, 2000, webpage: GHfirst.
- ^ a b Hunter, Douglas (2009). Half Moon: Henry Hudson and the voyage that redrew the map of the New World. London: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 1-59691-680-X.
- ^ Nevius, Michelle; James (2008-09-08). "New York's many 9/11 anniversaries: the Staten Island Peace Conference". Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
- ^ Juet, Robert (1625). "Juet's Journal of Hudson's 1609 Voyage". In Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes. 4.
- ^ In Deuteromelia or The Seconde part of Musicks melodie.
- ^ Opie, Iona; Peter (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 306. ISBN 0-19-860088-7.