14th century

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As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was the century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. Political and natural disasters ravaged both Europe and the four khanates of the Mongol Empire. Consequently, the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed in Persia, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts and the Golden Horde lost its position as great power in Eastern Europe.

In Europe, the Black Death claimed between 75 and 200 million lives, while England and France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France.

Events[]

Filippo Brunelleschi, the Italian architect who by many is regarded as the most inventive and gifted designer in history.[1]
This 14th-century statue from Tamil Nadu, present day India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C..

1300s[]

1310s[]

1320s[]

1330s[]

1340s[]

The Hundred Years' War, Battle of Crécy between the English and French in 1346.

1350s[]

1360s[]

1370s[]

1380s[]

1390s[]

Significant people[]

Guillaume de Machaut (at right) receiving Nature and three of her children, from an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s.

Artists[]

Architects[]

Literary figures[]

Statue of Dante Alighieri at the Uffizi, Florence

Monarchs[]

Temür Khan (r. 1294-1307), known in Chinese as Emperor Chengzong of Yuan, ruler of the Chinese Yuan dynasty, a grandson of Kublai Khan and considered the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Africa
Asia
Europe and Near East
14th-century monarchs
14th century manuscript initial depicting Edward III of England (seated) and his son the Black Prince (kneeling)
Edward III and the Black Prince 
Official court painting of the Hongwu Emperor (reigned 1368-1398 AD), Ming Dynasty, China
The Hongwu Emperor, the founder and first emperor of the Ming dynasty of China 
Ottoman miniature painting of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. Located at Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul.
Osman I, first Sultan of the Ottoman Empire 
Portrait of Louis I of Hungary by Jan Matejko
Louis the Great of Hungary, one of the strongest kings of Hungary, c. 1342-1382 

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[]

References[]

  1. ^ Filippo Brunelleschi, Totally History
  2. ^ Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
  3. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  4. ^ Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
  5. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72. 
  6. ^ Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7
  7. ^ Pound lock