The 1380s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1380, and ended on December 31, 1389.
- February – Olaf II of Denmark also becomes Olaf IV of Norway, with his mother Margrete (Margaret) as regent. Iceland and the Faroe Islands, as parts of Norway, pass under the Danish crown.
- May 31 – Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila signs the secret Treaty of Dovydiškės, with the Teutonic Knights. This sparks a civil war with his uncle Kęstutis.
- June 21 – Battle of Chioggia: the Venetian fleet defeats the Genoese.
- July 27 – Henry Bolingbroke marries Mary de Bohun at Arundel Castle.
- September 8 – Battle of Kulikovo: Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance.
- September 16 – Charles V of France is succeeded by his twelve-year-old son, Charles VI.
- October 2 – Caterina Visconti marries her first cousin, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, later Duke of Milan, at the Church of San Giovanni in Conca.
- November 3 – Charles VI of France, who succeeded his father (Charles V of France) in September, is crowned.
- March 14 – Chioggia concludes an alliance with Zadar and Trogir against Venice, which becomes changed in 1412 in Šibenik.
- June 12 – Peasants' Revolt: In England, rebels from Kent and Essex, led by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, meet at Blackheath. There the rebels are encouraged by a sermon, by renegade priest John Ball.
- June 14 – Peasants' Revolt: Rebels destroy John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace and storm the Tower of London, killing the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Chancellor. King Richard II of England meets the leaders of the revolt, and agrees to reforms such as fair rents, and the abolition of serfdom.
- June 15 – Peasants' Revolt: During further negotiations, Wat Tyler is murdered by the King's entourage. Noble forces subsequently overpower the rebel army. The rebel leaders are eventually captured and executed and Richard II revokes his concessions. The revolt is discussed in John Gower's Vox Clamantis and Froissart's Chronicles.
- August – Kęstutis overthrows his nephew, Jogaila, as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Jogaila is allowed to remain as governor of eastern Lithuania. This marks the beginning of the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84).
- Due to Joanna I of Naples' support for Antipope Clement VII, Pope Urban VI bestows Naples upon Charles of Durazzo. With the help of the Hungarians, Charles advances on Naples and captures Joanna.
- The Ming Dynasty of China annexes the areas of the old Kingdom of Dali, in what is now Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, inhabited by the Miao and Yao peoples. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese (including military colonists) will migrate there from the rest of China.
- James of Baux, the ruler of Taranto and the Latin Empire, claims the Principality of Achaea, after the imprisonment of Joanna I of Naples.
- Sonam Drakpa deposes Drakpa Changchub, as ruler of Tibet.
- Hajji I succeeds Alah-ad-Din Ali, as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. The Egyptian government continues to be controlled by rebel leader Barquq.
- After a naval battle, Venice wins the three-year War of Chioggia against Genoa. The Genoans are permanently weakened by the conflict.
- Timur conquers east Persia, ending the rule of the Sarbadar dynasty.
- In Ming Dynasty China, the lijia census registration system begun in 1371 is now universally imposed, during the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. The census counts 59,873,305 people living in China in this year. This depicts a drastic drop in population since the Song Dynasty, which counted 100 million people at its height in the early 12th century. The historian Timothy Brook, in his The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China, states that the Ming census was inaccurate, as China in the late 14th century had at least 65,000,000 inhabitants, if not 75,000,000.
- May 12 – Charles of Durazzo executes the imprisoned Joanna I of Naples, and succeeds her as Charles III of Naples.
- May 21 – John Wycliffe's teachings are condemned by the Synod of London, which becomes known as the "Earthquake Synod", after its meetings are disrupted by a minor earthquake.
- August – The iconic painting the Black Madonna of Częstochowa is brought from Jerusalem, to the Jasna Góra Monastery in Poland.
- September – Following the death of Louis I of Hungary and Poland:
- Louis' daughter Mary becomes Queen of Hungary.
- The Poles, who do not wish to be ruled by Mary's fiancee, the future Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, choose Mary's younger sister, Jadwiga, to become ruler of Poland. After two years of negotiations, Jadwiga is eventually crowned "King" in 1384.
- September 30 – The inhabitants of Trieste (now in northern Italy) donate their city to Duke Leopold III of Austria.
- October – James I succeeds his nephew, Peter II, as King of Cyprus.
- November 27 – Battle of Roosebeke: A French army under Louis II, Count of Flanders defeats the Flemings, led by Philip van Artevelde.
- Khan Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde overruns Muscovy, as punishment for Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy's resistance to Khan Mamai of the Blue Horde in the 1370s. Dmitry Donskoy pledges his loyalty to Tokhtamysh, and is allowed to remain as ruler of Moscow and Vladimir.
- The Ottomans take Sofia from the Bulgarians.
- After a five-year revolt, Barquq deposes Hajji II as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, marking the end of the Bahri Dynasty, and the start of the Burji Dynasty.
- Ibrahim I is selected to succeed Husheng, as Shah of Shirvan (now Azerbaijan).
- Kęstutis, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, is taken prisoner by former Grand Duke Jogaila, whilst meeting him to hold negotiations. Kęstutis is subsequently murdered, and Jogaila regains the rule of Lithuania.
- Ahmed deposes his brother, Hussain, as ruler of the Jalayirid Dynasty in western Persia.
- Rana Lakha succeeds Rana Kshetra Singh, as ruler of Mewar (now part of western India).
- Conrad Zöllner von Rothenstein succeeds Winrich von Kniprode, as Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
- Balša II of Zeta conquers Albania.
- Dawit I succeeds his brother Newaya Maryam, as Emperor of Ethiopia.
- Winchester College is founded in England.
- The Hongwu Emperor of China reinstates the Imperial examination system for drafting scholar-officials to the civil service, after suspending the system since 1373, in favor of a recommendation system to office.
- The Nasrid princes of Al-Andalus replace Abu al-Abbas with Abu Faris Musa ibn Faris, as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in modern-day Morocco.
- Zain Al-Abidin succeeds his father, Shah Shuja, as ruler of the Muzaffarids in central Persia.
- Shortly before his death, John Wycliffe sends out tracts against Pope Urban VI, who has not turned out to be the reformist Wycliffe had hoped.
- Qara Muhammad succeeds Bairam Khawaja, as ruler of the Kara Koyunlu ("Black Sheep Turkomans"), in modern-day Armenia and northern Iraq.
- Timur conquers the northern territories of the Jalayirid Empire, in western Persia.
- Katharine Lady Berkeley's School is founded in Gloucestershire, England.
- February 24 – Elizabeth of Bosnia, the mother of the overthrown Queen Mary of Hungary and Croatia, arranges the assassination of Charles III of Naples, the ruler of Hungary, Naples, Achaea and Croatia, with the result that:
- Mary is reinstated as Queen of Hungary and Croatia.
- Charles' son, Ladislaus, becomes King of Naples.
- A period of interregnum begins in Achaea, lasting until 1396. The rule of Achaea is sought by numerous pretenders, none of whom can be considered to have reigned.
- March 4 – Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila (having been baptised on February 15 in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, and on February 18 married Jadwiga, 12-year-old queen regnant of Poland) is crowned Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland, beginning the Jagiellonian dynasty.
- May 9 – King John I of Portugal and King Richard II of England ratify the Treaty of Windsor.
- May 20 – Earliest recorded mention of the city of Pitești, in modern-day Romania.
- July 9 – Battle of Sempach: The Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule.
- July – John of Gaunt leaves England to make good his claim to the throne of Castile by right of his second marriage to Constanza of Castile in 1371.
- September 23 – Dan I of Wallachia (modern-day southern Romania) is killed in battle against the Bulgarians and is succeeded by Mircea the Elder, one of the greatest rulers of Wallachia.
- October 18 – Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, the oldest university in Germany, is founded.
- November 21 – Timur's invasions of Georgia: Timurid dynasty Turco-Mongol leader Timur captures and sacks the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, taking King Bagrat V prisoner.
- January – Sigismund, the future Holy Roman Emperor and husband of Mary, Queen of Hungary, orders the murder of his mother-in-law, Elizabeta Kotromanic, and declares himself joint ruler of Hungary.
- January 1 – Charles III ascends to the throne of Navarre, after the death of his father, Charles II.
- January 5 – John I succeeds his father, Peter IV, as King of Aragon and Valencia, and forms an alliance with France and Castile.
- March 11 – Battle of Castagnaro: Padua, led by John Hawkwood, is victorious over Giovanni Ordelaffi of Verona.
- June 2 – John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon.
- August 22 – Olaf, King of Norway and Denmark and claimant to the throne of Sweden, dies. The vacant thrones come under the regency of his mother Margaret I of Denmark, who will soon become queen in her own right.
- September 27 – Petru of Moldavia pays homage to Władysław II Jagiełło, making Moldavia a Polish fief (which it will remain until 1497).
- December 19 – Battle of Radcot Bridge: Forces loyal to Richard II of England are defeated by a group of rebellious barons known as the Lords Appellant. Richard II is imprisoned until he agrees to replace all the councillors in his court.
- February – The entire court of Richard II of England are convicted of treason by the Merciless Parliament, under the influence of the Lords Appellant, and are all either executed or exiled. Richard II effectively becomes a puppet of the Lords Appellant.
- April 9 – Battle of Näfels: Glarus, in alliance with the Old Swiss Confederacy, decisively defeat the Habsburgs, despite being outnumbered sixteen to one.
- May 18 – Battle of Buyur Lake: A Chinese Ming invasion force under General Lan Yu defeats a large Mongolian army under Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür, and captures 100 members of the Northern Yuan Dynasty. Uskhal Khan is killed whilst trying to escape, and is succeeded as Khan of Mongolia by his rival, Jorightu. The invading Chinese army destroys Karakorum, the capital of the Mongolian Empire.
- August 5 – Battle of Otterburn: A Scottish army, led by James Douglas, defeats an English army, capturing their leader, Harry Hotspur. Douglas is killed during the battle.
- August 27 – Battle of Bileća: The Bosnians check the Ottoman advance.
- December 12 – Maria of Enghien sells the Lordship of Argos and Nauplia to the Republic of Venice.
- Mircea I of Wallachia takes control of Dobruja, thus preventing its occupation by the Ottomans.
- Petru of Moldavia receives Pokuttya, as a pawn for a loan to the Polish king.
- The revision of Wycliffe's Bible is completed by John Purvey, and Wyclif's followers, known as the Lollards, begin to be persecuted in England.
- John of Gaunt, the uncle of Richard II of England, makes peace with Castile and gives up his claim to the Castilian throne, by allowing his daughter Catherine of Lancaster to marry Prince Henry, the eldest son of John I of Castile.
- The title of Prince of Asturias is created.
- Ramesuan is reinstated as King of Ayutthaya (modern-day southern Thailand), after dethroning and executing 17-year-old King Thong Chan.
- Goryeo Revolution: General Yi Seong-gye begins a four year revolution in Goryeo (modern-day Korea), after being ordered by King U of Goryeo to attack the superior Chinese army. King U is forced from power, and replaced by his son Chang.
- Tran Ngung overthrows Tran Hien as King of Vietnam.
- Omar I is succeeded by Sa'id, as King of the Kanem-Bornu Empire (modern-day east Chad and Nigeria). Sa'id is succeeded in the same year by Kade Alunu. Omar and Sa'id are both killed by Bilala invaders from the west.
- Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II succeeds Firuz Shah Tughlaq as Sultan of Delhi.
- Charles VI of France takes full control of the government, ending the regency of his uncle, Philip the Bold.
- The University of Cologne is established; by the 21st century it will be the largest university in Germany.
- Cozia Monastery is built in Wallachia.
- Ljubostinja Monastery is built in Serbia.
- Mircea I of Wallachia and Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło sign their first treaty, to protect their countries against Ottoman expansion.
- Goryeo Revolution in Korea (1388–1392): King Chang of Goryeo is forced from power and replaced by King Gongyang. The ten-year-old Chang and his predecessor, U, are both assassinated later in the year.
- Hadji II is restored as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, after overthrowing Sultan Barquq.
- With the backing of Antipope John XXIII, supporters of Louis II overthrow the underage King Ladislaus as King of Naples. The new Pope Boniface IX recognises Ladislaus's claim to the throne.
- Wikramawardhana succeeds Hayam Wuruk, as ruler of the Majapahit Empire (now Indonesia).
- The unpopular Sultan Tughluq Khan of Delhi is murdered and succeeded by his brother, Abu Bakr Shah.
- Biri II succeeds Kade Alunu as King of the Kanem-Bornu Empire (now eastern Chad and Nigeria), and the Empire loses its land in present-day Chad to the Bilala.
- Sandaki overthrows Magha II, as Mansa of the Mali Empire.
- Abd ar-Rahmân II succeeds Musa II as ruler of the Ziyanid Dynasty, in present-day western Algeria.
- Abu Tashufin II succeeds his nephew, Abu Hammu II, as ruler of the Abdalwadid Dynasty in present-day eastern Algeria.
- Carmo Convent is built in Lisbon, Portugal.
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